Top 10 Muscle Anatomy Models Uploaded to embodi3D®
Muscles of the human anatomy form an amazingly quilted patchwork that allow us to do, well whatever is we do. There are muscles that allow us to perform intricate tasks, such as finagling with a screw to fix eyeglasses, or paint a highly detailed portrait. Then there are those muscles that allow us to run, swing a bat, and don't forget the cardiac muscle, which helps supply the blood necessary to complete all these tasks. Long before the days of Da Vinci, the human musculature has long fascinated medically minded individuals. Through 3D printing, medical students are discovering a new way to create muscle anatomy models and gain more hands-on knowledge of the human musculoskeletal system.
From Da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man" to 3D-printable muscles, we continue to expand our understanding of the human anatomy.
Although learning of complex geometries in human anatomy has been facilitated with 3D three-dimensional visualization methods and novel educational applications, there is little dispute that physical models provide an optimal method of learning human anatomy. While 3D printing is quickly becoming the new norm, it's amazing to think that just a few short years ago ScienceDaily was heralding the arrival of 3D-printed anatomical parts for the purpose of medical training. On the embodi3D® website, we now have a number of subcategories exploring human musculature in 3D-printable STL files.
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This week, we want to share the most amazing 3D-printed muscle models. But, before you begin uploading, converting, and printing muscle models from your own CT scans (and others), you need to become a registered member of the embodi3D® community. It is absolutely free to join and you will have access to many of the most popular tools and algorithms.
1. An Excellent Muscle 3D Model of the Human Foot
Dr. Mike uploaded this amazing CT scan-converted STL file in the Extremity, Lower (Leg) Muscles form. This is an incredible 3D model of the foot showing with exquisite detail the following structures excellent for education purposes: Interosseous muscles: extensor digiti II muscle
(tendon), flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon), Adductor hallucis muscle (transverse head), lumbrical muscle, dorsal tarsal ligaments, adductor hallucis muscle, peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon), flexor digitorum brevis muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendon), tibia, abductor digiti minimi muscle, flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon), calcaneus and Achilles’ tendon (calcaneal tendon).
2. Left Thigh Muscle with Myxoid Fibrosarcoma Shown in a 3D Model
This model is the right foot and ankle muscle rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively.
3. A 3D Model Showing the Musculature of the Human Femur and Tibia
The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The smaller bone that runs alongside the tibia (fibula) and the kneecap (patella) are the other bones that make the knee joint. Is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI.
4. An Amazing CT Scan-Converted 3D-Printable Model of the Legs
A detailed 3D printable model of the musculature of the legs was derived from the CT scan of a 22 year old female. It shows all major muscle groups: Sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, medius, gemellus muscles, quadratus femoris, obturator internus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, peroneus group: peroneus brevis (fibularis brevis), peroneus longus (fibularis longus), quadriceps: rectus femoris
Vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius.
5. Hand and Wrist Muscles in a 3D-Printable Format
An excellent 3D model of the hand and wrist showing the following muscles extensor pollicis longus and brevis, extensor indicis, muscles of Hand: dorsal and palmar interosseous, lumbrical, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus and abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi
6. 3D-Printable Model of a Woman's Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis
A 3D model of the muscles of a woman's whole body: chest, abdomen and pelvis with exquisite detail of latissimus dorsi muscle, subscapularis muscle, pectoralis minor muscle, pectoralis major muscle, sternum, intercostal muscles, teres major muscle, infraspinatus muscle, scapula, rhomboid major muscle, ribs, trapezius muscle, erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus, medius, thoracolumbar fascia, rectus abdominis muscle, external oblique muscle and breasts.
7. A 3D-Printable Model of a Human Torso (Converted from a Real Medical CT Scan)
This is a 3D printable model of the torso, neck, and arms derived from a real medical CT scan and shows anatomic structures in great detail. Similar uploads can also be found in an embodi3D® forum showcasing the muscles of the abdomen and pelvis.
8. Using a 3D Model to Show the Muscles of the Hip Joint
The muscles of the hip joint are those muscles that cause movement in the hip. Most modern anatomists define 17 of these muscles, although some additional muscles may sometimes be considered. These are often divided into four groups according to their orientation around the hip joint: the gluteal group, the lateral rotator group, the adductor group, and the iliopsoas group. For example the gluteal muscles include the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae. They cover the lateral surface of the ilium. The gluteus maximus, which forms most of the muscle of the buttocks, originates primarily on the ilium and sacrum and inserts on the gluteal tuberosity of the femur as well as the iliotibial tract, a tract of strong fibrous tissue that runs along the lateral thigh to the tibia and fibula. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus originate anterior to the gluteus maximus on the ilium and both insert on the greater trochanter of the femur. The tensor fasciae latae shares its origin with the gluteus maximus at the ilium and also shares the insertion at the iliotibial tract.
9. 3D-Printable STL File of Left Pelvic Region, as Converted from a CT Scan
This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 68-year old male presented by a swelling at the posterior aspect of the left pelvic region (notice the contour bulge at the posterior aspect of the left side). Histopathological examination revealed the swelling to be leiomyosarcoma of intermediate grade of malignancy.
Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that begins in the tissues that connect, support and surround other body structures. This includes muscle, fat, blood vessels, nerves, tendons and the lining of your joints. More than 50 subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma exist. Some types are more likely to affect children, while others affect mostly adults. These tumors can be difficult to diagnose because they may be mistaken for many other types of growths.
A soft tissue sarcoma may not cause any signs and symptoms in its early stages. As the tumor grows, it may cause: A noticeable lump or swelling
Pain, if a tumor presses on nerves or muscles
10. Using 3D-Printed Muscle Models for Oncological Purposes
This 3D model represents a case of undifferentiated pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma implicating the right parascapular region of a 61 years old male. The patient represented with lung metastasis and was treated by surgical excision follower by chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy.
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), formerly referred to as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is a type of soft tissue cancer. The word "undifferentiated" in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma means that the cells don't resemble the body tissues in which they develop. The cancer is called pleomorphic (plee-o-MOR-fik) because the cells grow in multiple shapes and sizes. While sarcomas are not common tumors, they do represent one of the most common soft tissue malignancies in adults. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in blood vessels and in deep skin, fat, muscle, fibrous or nerve tissues.
1. Smith, M. L., & Jones, J. F. (2018). Dual‐extrusion 3D printing of anatomical models for education. Anatomical sciences education, 11(1), 65-72.