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Angel Sosa

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  1. 3D printing enhances veterinary care by allowing more hands-on study, research, and assessment. In providing advanced diagnoses, is being used as an extension of treatment planning for oncologic masses, vascular ring anomalies, and other malformations. Check this top 10! http://ow.ly/IyYk50wQICn
  2. Creating a Dog Skeleton Model with 3D Printing and Other Veterinary Uploads Like all things in the early 21st century, change moves fast and this technology is quickly displacing outdated modalities and changing that face of veterinary care. 3D printing has a range of clinical applications, including pre-surgical planning, as well as in interventional radiology approaches, such as portosystemic shunts. Benefits are also experienced by researchers and students, who may use a dog skeleton model to understand gait and complex skeletal features, or even study the anatomy of rare and exotic animals. 3D printing enhances veterinary care by allowing more hands-on study, research, and assessment. In providing advanced diagnoses, 3D printing is being used as an extension of treatment planning for oncologic masses, vascular ring anomalies, and other malformations. 3D-printed veterinary models improve communication with the client in the treatment of complex fractures and corrective osteotomies. Currently, there are at least eight Colleges of Veterinary Medicine that are incorporating this technology into their programs: Auburn University, Cornell University, Mississippi State University, North Carolina State University, Ohio State University, University of California-Davis, University of Missouri, and the University of Pennsylvania. Private practices, such as South Paws Specialty Surgery for Animals and the Equine Podiatry and Lameness Centre (both in Australia) are also utilizing 3D scanning and printing as well. This week we bring you the best 3d models in veterinary medicine. If you want to have access to these amazing 3D models you just have to register in the following link: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/. Those in the veterinary profession may find interest in the canine and feline uploads created by the embodi3D® community. 1. Using a Converted CT Scan to Create this Awesome Polar Bear Skull An excellent 3D printable polar bear skull was generated from CT scan data. This 3D model shows bony anatomy of the skull in exquisite detail, including the maxilla, mandible, teeth and other structures of the skull. The veterinarians also use 3D printing technology to explore different ways of treating animals. 2. A Highly Detailed 3D Model of a Canine Skull A 3D model of a canine's skull. To start, a CT and MRI scans of the canine head is used to create highly accurate 3D models of the skull and brain, respectively. Slices of each type of scan were first segmented to construct basic models, and the creators tagged important anatomic landmarks (such as brain sulci and gyri) in each segment. Next, various software tools are used to assemble the sliced skull and brain images, smooth out image irregularities, and give the finished models a seamless appearance. 3. Another Take on the 3D Model of a Polar Bear Skull in Sections This is a great 3D model shows bony anatomy of the skull in exquisite detail, including the maxilla, mandible, teeth and other structures of the skull. The skull has been sectioned in half so that the inner bony anatomy is clearly visible. 4. An Example of How 3D Modeling Helps with Tumor Removals in Dogs This awesome 3D model is of the thorax and rib cage of a dog. There is a tumor at the thoracic outlet at the base of the cervical spine. Before the animal comes in for surgery and gets on the operating table, the veterinary surgeons have had the chance to plan out, and even rehearse, complicated procedures and operations. 5. A 3D-Printable Model of a Dog Skeleton (Femur, Fibula, Tibia, Patella, etc.) A 3D model of the skeleton of a dog showing thigh, femur, fibula, tibia, patella, coccygeal vertebrae, tail, talus, calcaneus 6. An Excellent 3D-Printable Model of a Dog's Foreleg and Carpal A 3D model of a dog's forearm/foreleg. The ulna, radius, humerus, carpal, metacarpal and phalanges bones are shown. 7. Using a 3D-Printable Model of a Luxated Canine Elbow for Pre-Surgical Planning A luxated elbow of a dog excellent for surgical planning. The spine is also shown. 8. CT Scan-Converted 3D Model of a Feline Spine Member Gustavo uploaded this excellent CT-derived scan showing a cat's spine. The ribs and joints can be seen in high detail, making this a 3D model well-suited for veterinary purposes. 9. STL File of a Dog's Pelvis Bones This STL file, uploaded by embodi3D® member allaxis3d, details the canine pelvis lumbar vertebrae, discs, caudal vertebrae, and sacrum. 10. Imaging the Skeletal Deformities of a Canine Using STL 3D Modeling Veterinary clinical applications have been reported. Angular limb deformities of both the forelimb and hindlimb were treated using rapid prototyping technology. This is a 3D model of a dog showing the important anatomical structures of the skull, forearm and spine. References 1. Hespel, A. M., Wilhite, R., & Hudson, J. (2014). INVITED REVIEW‐APPLICATIONS FOR 3D PRINTERS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 55(4), 347-358. 2. Quinn-Gorham, D. M., & Khan, J. M. (2016). Thinking Outside of the Box: The Potential of 3D Printing in Veterinary Medicine. J Vet Sci Technol, 7(360),
  3. From Da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man" to 3D-printable muscles, we continue to expand our understanding of the human anatomy. Through 3D printing, medical students are discovering a new way to create muscle anatomy models and gain more hands-on knowledge. http://ow.ly/M0cE50wL8CI/
  4. Top 10 Muscle Anatomy Models Uploaded to embodi3D® Muscles of the human anatomy form an amazingly quilted patchwork that allow us to do, well whatever is we do. There are muscles that allow us to perform intricate tasks, such as finagling with a screw to fix eyeglasses, or paint a highly detailed portrait. Then there are those muscles that allow us to run, swing a bat, and don't forget the cardiac muscle, which helps supply the blood necessary to complete all these tasks. Long before the days of Da Vinci, the human musculature has long fascinated medically minded individuals. Through 3D printing, medical students are discovering a new way to create muscle anatomy models and gain more hands-on knowledge of the human musculoskeletal system. From Da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man" to 3D-printable muscles, we continue to expand our understanding of the human anatomy. Although learning of complex geometries in human anatomy has been facilitated with 3D three-dimensional visualization methods and novel educational applications, there is little dispute that physical models provide an optimal method of learning human anatomy. While 3D printing is quickly becoming the new norm, it's amazing to think that just a few short years ago ScienceDaily was heralding the arrival of 3D-printed anatomical parts for the purpose of medical training. On the embodi3D® website, we now have a number of subcategories exploring human musculature in 3D-printable STL files. Become a Registered embodi3D® Member — It's Absolutely Free to Join! This week, we want to share the most amazing 3D-printed muscle models. But, before you begin uploading, converting, and printing muscle models from your own CT scans (and others), you need to become a registered member of the embodi3D® community. It is absolutely free to join and you will have access to many of the most popular tools and algorithms. 1. An Excellent Muscle 3D Model of the Human Foot Dr. Mike uploaded this amazing CT scan-converted STL file in the Extremity, Lower (Leg) Muscles form. This is an incredible 3D model of the foot showing with exquisite detail the following structures excellent for education purposes: Interosseous muscles: extensor digiti II muscle (tendon), flexor digitorum longus muscle (tendon), Adductor hallucis muscle (transverse head), lumbrical muscle, dorsal tarsal ligaments, adductor hallucis muscle, peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle (tendon), flexor digitorum brevis muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle (tendon), tibia, abductor digiti minimi muscle, flexor hallucis longus muscle (tendon), calcaneus and Achilles’ tendon (calcaneal tendon). 2. Left Thigh Muscle with Myxoid Fibrosarcoma Shown in a 3D Model This model is the right foot and ankle muscle rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively. 3. A 3D Model Showing the Musculature of the Human Femur and Tibia The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The smaller bone that runs alongside the tibia (fibula) and the kneecap (patella) are the other bones that make the knee joint. Is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI. 4. An Amazing CT Scan-Converted 3D-Printable Model of the Legs A detailed 3D printable model of the musculature of the legs was derived from the CT scan of a 22 year old female. It shows all major muscle groups: Sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus maximus, medius, gemellus muscles, quadratus femoris, obturator internus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, peroneus group: peroneus brevis (fibularis brevis), peroneus longus (fibularis longus), quadriceps: rectus femoris Vastus lateralis, medialis, and intermedius. 5. Hand and Wrist Muscles in a 3D-Printable Format An excellent 3D model of the hand and wrist showing the following muscles extensor pollicis longus and brevis, extensor indicis, muscles of Hand: dorsal and palmar interosseous, lumbrical, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus and abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, opponens digiti minimi 6. 3D-Printable Model of a Woman's Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis A 3D model of the muscles of a woman's whole body: chest, abdomen and pelvis with exquisite detail of latissimus dorsi muscle, subscapularis muscle, pectoralis minor muscle, pectoralis major muscle, sternum, intercostal muscles, teres major muscle, infraspinatus muscle, scapula, rhomboid major muscle, ribs, trapezius muscle, erector spinae muscle, gluteus maximus, medius, thoracolumbar fascia, rectus abdominis muscle, external oblique muscle and breasts. 7. A 3D-Printable Model of a Human Torso (Converted from a Real Medical CT Scan) This is a 3D printable model of the torso, neck, and arms derived from a real medical CT scan and shows anatomic structures in great detail. Similar uploads can also be found in an embodi3D® forum showcasing the muscles of the abdomen and pelvis. 8. Using a 3D Model to Show the Muscles of the Hip Joint The muscles of the hip joint are those muscles that cause movement in the hip. Most modern anatomists define 17 of these muscles, although some additional muscles may sometimes be considered. These are often divided into four groups according to their orientation around the hip joint: the gluteal group, the lateral rotator group, the adductor group, and the iliopsoas group. For example the gluteal muscles include the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae. They cover the lateral surface of the ilium. The gluteus maximus, which forms most of the muscle of the buttocks, originates primarily on the ilium and sacrum and inserts on the gluteal tuberosity of the femur as well as the iliotibial tract, a tract of strong fibrous tissue that runs along the lateral thigh to the tibia and fibula. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus originate anterior to the gluteus maximus on the ilium and both insert on the greater trochanter of the femur. The tensor fasciae latae shares its origin with the gluteus maximus at the ilium and also shares the insertion at the iliotibial tract. 9. 3D-Printable STL File of Left Pelvic Region, as Converted from a CT Scan This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 68-year old male presented by a swelling at the posterior aspect of the left pelvic region (notice the contour bulge at the posterior aspect of the left side). Histopathological examination revealed the swelling to be leiomyosarcoma of intermediate grade of malignancy. Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that begins in the tissues that connect, support and surround other body structures. This includes muscle, fat, blood vessels, nerves, tendons and the lining of your joints. More than 50 subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma exist. Some types are more likely to affect children, while others affect mostly adults. These tumors can be difficult to diagnose because they may be mistaken for many other types of growths. A soft tissue sarcoma may not cause any signs and symptoms in its early stages. As the tumor grows, it may cause: A noticeable lump or swelling Pain, if a tumor presses on nerves or muscles 10. Using 3D-Printed Muscle Models for Oncological Purposes This 3D model represents a case of undifferentiated pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma implicating the right parascapular region of a 61 years old male. The patient represented with lung metastasis and was treated by surgical excision follower by chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. A cross sectional CT image is attached showing the lesion in axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), formerly referred to as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is a type of soft tissue cancer. The word "undifferentiated" in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma means that the cells don't resemble the body tissues in which they develop. The cancer is called pleomorphic (plee-o-MOR-fik) because the cells grow in multiple shapes and sizes. While sarcomas are not common tumors, they do represent one of the most common soft tissue malignancies in adults. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in blood vessels and in deep skin, fat, muscle, fibrous or nerve tissues. References 1. Smith, M. L., & Jones, J. F. (2018). Dual‐extrusion 3D printing of anatomical models for education. Anatomical sciences education, 11(1), 65-72.
  5. Today we want to share some of the best representations of how embodi3D® members are using democratiz3D® conversions to create a foot 3D model and other skin, tissue, and skeletal features of the lower extremities. http://ow.ly/4W3B50wL3iA
  6. Create a 3D Hand Model and Other Models with STL Files Anatomically speaking, the bones found within the upper limbs help us to perform incredible feats, such as holding and grasping objects. While we may not see these types of tasks as anything extraordinary, it does take five bone and muscle regions (shoulder, axilla, arm, forearm, and hand) to help us complete all the things we do with our hands and arms, such as swing a bat, write a letter, create a painting, and others too numerous to list. For all the reasons we've just mentioned, embodi3D® is proud to introduce some of our favorite uploads, including a 3D hand model, upper limbs, wrists, shoulders, and other 3D printer-ready models that have been shared with the embodi3D® community. While these CT-converted STL files have been used in pre-operative planning and for purposes of education, these uploads will appeal to anyone with an interest in the human form. An article in the International Journal of the Care of the Injured (Injury) revealed how 3D-printed models give orthopedic surgeons tactile and visual experience. As a sensory and reference tool, these models helped them to better understand a patient's unique anatomy and pathology prior to orthopedic surgery. 3D-printed models converted from 2D and 3D CT scans have made fracture line comminution diagnoses more accurate. Patients that can experience a scan on a three-dimensional scale are better equipped mentally to understand the pathology and the surgical procedure necessary to its correction. To download and create 3D-printed models from STL files and CT scans, be sure to register with embodi3D® today! 1. A Highly Detailed Hand 3D Model in STL Format User Phil H uploaded this incredibly detailed anatomically correct hand 3D model to help visualize the hand bones, including the carpus, and metatarsal. The human hand has 27 distinct bones, which allow us to complete a range of tasks. Amazingly, the number of bones in the hand can vary from person to person due to the presence of sesamoid bones, which are essentially bones that are embedded within a muscle or tendon, as is the case with hands. Download this model and create your anatomical hand model! 2. A 3D-Printed Model of an Elbow Joint (Converted from CT Scan) The elbow is one of the largest joints in the body. In conjunction with the shoulder joint and wrist, the elbow gives the arm much of its versatility, as well as structure and durability. This elbow joint was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the distal humerus, the olecranon as it sits in the olecranon fossa, the two humeral epicondyles, and the distal radius and radial head. There are full size and double size files available. The enlarged double size file shows anatomy in terrific detail. 3. Detailed 3D Model of Hand and Wrist Bones in STL An embodi3D® user going by "than" uploaded this detailed 3D model featuring the hand and wrist bones. Even the joint surfaces are shown in remarkable detail. 4. 3D Rendering from CT Scan of a Shoulder Joint with Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia This 3D model created on embodi3D® features a shoulder with epiphysis dysplasia. The imaging findings include the following : Minor epiphyseal involvement, severe involvement (hatchet head group) ,malformed humeral head; broad metaphysis; bowing of the proximal shaft; hypoplasia of the glenoid. If this topic interests you, you may find Matt Johnson's write-up on how 3D printing is being used in cancer screens highly interesting. 3D printing has also been called the "new frontier in oncology research" by The World Journal of Clinic Oncology. 5. 3D Model of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Spindle Cell Sarcoma This 3D model represents a case of undifferentiated pleomorphic spindle cell sarcoma implicating the right parascapular region of a 61 years old male. The patient represented with lung metastasis and was treated by surgical excision follower by chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. A cross sectional CT image is attached showing the lesion in axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Unfortunately pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma has an aggressive biological behaviour and a poor prognosis. Pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, they have a predilection for the retroperitoneum and proximal extremities. They are usually confined to the soft tissues, but occasionally may arise in or from bone. 6. An Amazing 3D-Printable Model of a Hand An awesome 3D model of the hand´s bones with carpus and metatarsal detailed. 7. Shoulder and Humerus 3D Model Converted from CT Scan This shoulder and humerus was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the left scapula, humerus, proximal radius and ulna bones, and the shoulder and elbow joints. The humerus has been joined to the scapula at the glenohumeral joint to form one solid piece. 8. A Wrist Fracture Shown in Stunning 3D Detail A great 3D model showing a wrist´s fracture. 9. STL File Showing a Three-Dimensional Model of a Hand and Fingers In this terrific 3D model, the skin surfaces of the hand, fingers, and nails are shown. This is a great demonstration of how the different tissue filters on embodi3D® can creating stunningly realistic renderings. 10. 3D Imaging Tendons of the Hands and Wrists Tendons are fibrous cords, similar to a rope, and are made of collagen. They have blood vessels and cells to maintain tendon health and repair injured tendon. Tendons are attached to muscles and to bone. As the muscle contracts it pulls on the tendon and the tendon moves the bone to which it is attached as well as any joints it crosses. Our growing library of 3D anatomical models also features muscles and tendons of the lower extremities. FCR TENDON The flexor carpi radialis tendon is one of two tendons that bend the wrist. Its muscle belly is in the forearm and then travels along the inside of the forearm and crosses the wrist. It attaches to the base of the second and third hand bones. It also attaches to the one of the wrist bones, the trapezium. FCU TENDON The flexor carpi ulnaris tendon is one of two tendons that bend the wrist. Its muscle belly is in the forearm. The tendon travels along the inside of the forearm on the side of the small finger and crosses the wrist. It attaches to the wrist bone, the pisiform, and as well as the 5th hand bone. ECRB TENDON The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon is one of 3 tendons, including ECRL and ECU, which act together to bend back the wrist. Its muscle belly is in the forearm and then travels to the thumb side of the wrist on the back part of the forearm. Along with the ECRL, it attaches to the base of the hand bones. It is shorter and thicker than the ECRL ECRL TENDON The extensor carpi radialis longus tendon acts along with the ECRB and ECU to bend back the wrist. ECRL and ECRB also help bend the wrist in the direction of the thumb. Its muscle belly is in the forearm. It is thinner and longer than ECRB. It travels along the back aspect of the forearm and attaches to the base of the hand bones. ECU TENDON The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon works along with the ECRL and ECRB to straighten the wrist. It differs from these other two tendons in that it moves the wrist in the direction of the pinky. Its muscle belly is in the forearm. The tendon travels along the back forearm, through a groove in the ulna, and attaches to the base of the hand bones. References 1. Osagie, L., Shaunak, S., Murtaza, A., Cerovac, S., & Umarji, S. (2017). Advances in 3D Modeling: Preoperative Templating for Revision Wrist Surgery. HAND, 12(5), NP68-NP72. 2. Handcare.org > Anatomy > Tendons . (2018). Assh.org. Retrieved 3 June 2018, from http://www.assh.org/handcare/Anatomy/Tendons#Wrist
  7. New embodi3d users have uploaded great 3d models with excellent details! Here are the best from this week, we invite you join our community and discover this cutting edge technology of today and the future in the medical field. Sign up it´s easy! 1. A stl file showing the normal kidney location AABERNETHY uploaded this excellent 3D model. The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal structures that are normally located between the transverse processes of T12-L3 vertebrae. 2. Lumbar spine with scoliosis from a stl file In complex spinal disorders as scoliosis, the correction procedure is often very challenging as unexpected pedicle absence and vertebral rotations can be discovered intraoperatively, posing great risk of neurovascular lesions during the operation. Apparently, current visualization modalities as planar radiographic image and CT scans are not qualified to provide necessary anatomic overview of the affected spinal segments, even the CT with 3D reconstruction can only provide the image without tactile feedback. Therefore, 3D printing is very promising in the personalized treatment of complex spinal disorders. 1 747Larry@gmail.com 3. A CT abdomen and pelvis showing muscle tissue The role of 3D-printed models from DICOM images continues to expand and is fueled by the growing realization that intraoperative utilization of 3D images is not as efficient as having a physical model identical to patient structures, particularly for highly complex interventions. Further reductions in morbidity, mortality, and operating room time are inevitable. Uploaded by Azeem 4. Maxillofacial CT scan Shin uploaded this maxillofacial ct scan with good detail. It shows the paranasal sinuses and teeth. 5. Head/Skull 3d model from a STL file processed Dr. Gutierrez uploaded this excellent skull 3D model with exquisite detail. 6. A CT scan of the skull Thank you ngadhoke for upload this skull CT scan in high quality. 7. A 3d model of a central giant cell granuloma of mandible This loculated and expansile mass with wavy septations located on anterior mandible. Presentation • Most common signs/symptoms: pain, swelling of mandible > maxilla Demographics • Age ○ Adolescence to 3rd decade; mean: 25 years • Gender ○ F:M = 2:1 TOP DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES • Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) ~ 15% of central giant cell granulomas contain intralesional ABC • Cherubism • Ameloblastoma • Ossifying fibroma • Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism References 1. Wang, Y. T., Yang, X. J., Yan, B., Zeng, T. H., Qiu, Y. Y., & Chen, S. J. (2016). Clinical application of three-dimensional printing in the personalized treatment of complex spinal disorders. Chinese Journal of Traumatology, 19(1), 31-34. 2. Mitsouras, D., Liacouras, P., Imanzadeh, A., Giannopoulos, A. A., Cai, T., Kumamaru, K. K., ... & Ho, V. B. (2015). Medical 3D printing for the radiologist. Radiographics, 35(7), 1965-1988. 3.Koch, B. L., Hamilton, B. E., Hudgins, P. A., & Harnsberger, H. R. (2016). Diagnostic Imaging: Head and Neck E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  8. In this week's post, we feature some exceptional 3D-printable orthodontic, maxillofacial, and dental scans, including the orbits of the skull, lower teeth, as well as a severe case o jaw bone cavitation. Those practicing in dentistry or orthodontia have likely read about 3D printing's use as an educational tool among colleagues, students, and patients — but, this is just the beginning. A recent article in The Angle Orthodontist highlighted a study by Indiana University School of Dentistry in which it was found that "Dental models reconstructed by FDM (fused deposition modeling) technology had the fewest dimensional measurement differences compared to plaster models." Dental 3D printing will continue to advance, and a future where high-speed digital X-rays and stereolithography-generated 3D dental models seems all but certain. We may even see prosthodontists use a 3D printing process for dentures or implant-supported crowns. Become a Registered Member Registered members can upload, download, and share their medical 3D printing files with the embodi3D® community. Registering is absolutely free, so become a registered embodi3D® member today! #1. A 3D Model of a Woman's Mandible in STL Format Memer lillux earns a top spot on this week's list with this highly detailed, 3D-printable lower jaw. To date, this STL file has been downloaded over a hundred times. As this upload demonstrates, dentist-patient communication could be enhanced through 3D digital dental models with color simulation effects. #2. Detailed CT-Generated Mandible Ready for 3D Printing Member ebombmx uploaded a 3D printer-ready file of a mandible created from a conebeam CT scan. As the second-highest downloaded file in the Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum, we can only assume embodi3D® members were equally impressed with the high resolution of this upload. #3. Maxilla, Mandible, and Maxillofacial 3D Model In this highly detailed dental scan, the bony anatomy of the maxilla, mandible, and facial structures are shown in great detail. Dr. Mike created this model by using the democratiz3D® service. #4. Lower Jaw and Teeth 3D Model Member mjgillis uploaded this 3D-printable model of a human mandible. This is one example of how a three-dimensional view can illuminate the seriousness of a maxillofacial issue, such as the heavy cavitation (bone loss) in the mandible. #5. Using 3D Models for Dental Implant Patient Eligibility Titanium root implants require a strong jawbone. Using 3D models of tooth-supporting bone matter can help select ideal candidates for dental implants. A special thank you to embodi3D® user mjgillis for sharing this under a Creative Commons (CC) license! #6. Is it a 3D Model of a Mandible or a Plaster Cast? This STL file was uploaded to the Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum by embodi3D® member JAWSDOC and serves as a great demonstration of how 3D-printed mandible/maxilla models may someday replace traditional plaster casts. #7. A 3D Model of the Zygomatic, Maxilla, and Orbital Rims of a Human Skull Member Hisham uploaded this file to our Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum. This is a detailed, 3D-printable representation of the cavities, curvature, and structure of the orbital, maxilla, zygomatic, and nasal bones. #8. Mandible Fractures Highlighted in a 3D-Printable Model Sometimes, scientific inquiries create more questions in lieu of solutions. This 3D-printable model has us wondering if augmented reality-assisted devices may someday replace endoscopes in the treatment of parasymphyseal and subondylar mandibular fractures. Beyond the possibilities, this 3D-printable fractured mandible combines both art and science; truly a great contribution to the embodi3D® community. Thank you, skullman! References 1. Dawood, A., Marti, B. M., Sauret-Jackson, V., & Darwood, A. (2015). 3D printing in dentistry. British dental journal, 219(11), 521.
  9. In this week's blog entry, we'd like to share some of the best medical 3D printing models, as well as a few detailed examples that garnered the attention of embodi3D® users over the past month. 3D-printable STL files like these are helping physicians and medical students to further their understanding of complex diagnoses and treatments — and your contributions are a big part of embodi3D's continued success. If you are not yet an embodi3D member, we invite you to register and take advantage of all the wonderful resources available to you. Registering is free and allows you to upload, download, and share 3D-printable medical models with our diverse community. While Gray's Atlas of Anatomy and other classic reference pieces remain beneficial, there is nothing like seeing a true-to-life, full-scale 3D model that can be held and studied. Become a registered member of embodi3D so you can access the many free resources available. 1. Cerebrum Scan in 3D-Printable STL Format Dr. Mike uploaded an excellent 3D model of the cerebrum. Just look at the details of those gyri! This model was created from a high-resolution MRI scan and uploaded for use by the embodi3D community. 2. 3D-Printable Stable Slices of a Human Heart in STL Format Dr. Mike has uploaded several 3D-printable stable slices of a human heart. This STL file was created using contrast-enhanced CT scans, and this upload wins our hearts for its detailed anatomy and exquisite details. 3. STL File of Anterior Muscles of a Human Torso A big "thank you" to Infinity Print for uploading this STL file featuring the sternocleidomastoid, deltoid, pectoralis major, brachioradialis, abductor longus, and other highly detailed anterior muscles of the torso. 4. A 3D-Printable Model of a Dilated Biliary System In this upload from an MRCP image, user nevitdilmen uploaded a detailed file of a dilated biliary system (tree). This patient has a benign biliary stricture, and this 3D-printable rendering will serve as a great tool in the surgical process of correction the obstruction and fixing the hydropic gallbladder. 5. Scoliosis Example as a 3D-Printable STL File User hewtech uploaded a 3D-printable STL file to the Spine and Pelvis forum depicting a severe case of scoliosis, a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve in the spine seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side of the body, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a "C" or an "S" shape in the spine. You may also want to check out the upload by user markchui, showing another highly detailed rendering of a patient with scoliosis. 6. Full-Size, 3D-Printable Human Left Foot in STL Format GMorein uploaded full-size, human left foot 3D rendering to the Extremity, Lower (Leg) forum. This 3D-printable STL file was created from MRI images. 7. 3D-Printable Mandible and Teeth Scan Featuring Deep Third Molar Inclusions Uploaded to the forum Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial by user Nicola, this well-defined 3D rendering of a human mandible with teeth. This 3D-printable scan features deep inclusions of the third molars ("wisdom teeth"), as well as a supernumerary tooth. Great upload, Nicola! 8. A CT Scan Illustrating a Right Maxilla Fracture Dr. Raghavendra Byakodi uploaded a CT scan showing a right maxilla fracture to the Skull, Head, and Neck CTs section of the Medical CT Scan Files portion of the Downloads page. 9. Cervical Spine 3D Model with Great Details This upload by FroOkk to the Spine and Pelvis forum shows a 3D-printable model of a cervical spine in exquisite detail. 10. Highly Detailed 3D-Printable Human Skull Last but certainly not least, James Greatrex uploaded a highly detailed human skull to the embodi3D Skull and Head forum. References: 1. Pujol, S., Baldwin, M., Nassiri, J., Kikinis, R., & Shaffer, K. (2016). Using 3D modeling techniques to enhance teaching of difficult anatomical concepts. Academic radiology, 23(4), 507-516.
  10. Welcome to this week's Top Ten, featuring some exciting STL files and medical models, many of which you can download and print using your own 3D printing machine. When you upload your organ STL files to embodi3d®, you are helping researchers, students, and inquisitive minds everywhere to develop innovative diagnostic, interventional, and surgical techniques. Medical 3D printing can be used to create centimeter- to sub-millimeter-accurate models. These include the hearts, lungs, kidney, and colon featured in this week's Top Ten, but can be used to create just about any type of 3D organ or tissue model. The democratiz3D® conversion algorithms used on the embodi3D® website are sophisticated enough to recreate the cellular arrangements of various tissues and organs, but are straightforward enough to be used by just about everyone. Even the complex anatomy of the heart can be successfully replicated using various pliable 3D printing materials. These models could serve a future role in preoperative planning, medical education, and enhanced communication between radiologists and others involved in patient care. The prospect of 3D medical models being used to advance research and educational knowledge is truly exciting. We're glad to have you along to share in the experience of this rapidly developing science and art form. But, to receive much of what embodi3D® has to offer you have to register on the website. But, signing up is absolutely free. Become a Registered Member (it's Free) Remember to register on embodi3D.com so you can upload, download, share, and create stunningly realistic 3D models of hearts, lungs, mandibles, and just about anything having to do with the human anatomy. Plus, it is absolutely free to become a registered member. #1. 3D-Printable Model of Human Heart in Tissue Slices Dr. Mike created and submitted this 3D-printable human heart, separated into stackable slices for educational purposes. This STL file originated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan. The embodi3D® community was very excited about this model; it demonstrates the complex anatomy of the heart in a way that can be held, studied, taken apart, and put back together — all activities real-life patients would rather you not try with their own hearts. Representing some of the best uses of medical 3D printing on the embodi3D.com website, this downloadable STL file has earned a rightful place on this week's Top 10 downloads list. #2. Create a 3D Model of a Heart and Pulmonary Artery Tree This anatomically accurate heart and pulmonary artery tree was extracted from a CT angiogram DICOM dataset (0.4 mm slice thickness x 300 slices). This model may serve as an excellent, hands-on educational tool for those entering the medical profession. The uploaded STL files shows the aorta, coronary sinus, coronary arteries, pulmonary arteries, as well as the cardiac ventricles and atria. A special "thank you" goes out to Health Physics for contributing this magnificent file! #3. Full-Size Model of a Human Heart Number 3 on our list is a 3D-printable model of a full-size human heart. Using this STL file, you can create a scale model of a heart, complete with all the complex cardiac anatomy. You will achieve the best results by using a flexible medium when completing your 3D print. Please note: This model has yet to be fully optimized for 3D printing. Therefore, some issues related to minimum wall thickness can be expected. #4. Great Example of a 3D-Printable, Anatomically Accurate Human Heart Dr. Marco Vettorello graciously created and shared this highly accurate human heart STL file, ready for use in your 3D printer. Thank you, Dr. Vettorello! #5. 3D-Print and Compare a Healthy Lung to a Lung with COPD Lung tissue inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) makes it difficult to fully expel air and creates an obstruction in breathing in fresh air. To compare the three STL files of a lung with COPD, embodi3D® has also uploaded three files of a healthy lung. Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease chronic lung disease is often caused by long-term exposure to particulates, cigarette smoke, harmful gases, and other irritants. Those with COPD are at a higher risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a number of other life-threatening conditions. #6. Have a Heart... in a Medical 3D Printing-Ready Format! We'd like to say a special "thank you" to the creators of this 3D-printable heart file, Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana, who have graciously shared this 3D-printable human heart in STL format. This file originally appeared in the "Top 10 Killers" list. While it appears in sixth place for this week's chart, the cardiac events we collectively refer to as "heart disease" remain the developed world's top "killer" and these files should serve to remind us why this type of research is so important — not only to the medical community, but the many patients cardiovascular disease affect each day. #7. 3D-Print a Lung with Pneumonia Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in many parts of the world. This inflammatory condition affects the microscopic alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs, which leads to coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. The 3D-printable files uploaded in STL format feature the lung, airways, and detailed imaging of the alveoli. #8. Compare Healthy and Diseased Kidneys by Creating a 3D Model Chronic kidney disease (chronic renal disease) presently affects around 26 million American adults, with many others at risk of developing this devastating disease. The STL files uploaded for your medical 3D printing use allow you to compare a healthy kidney to one with chronic renal disease. These are available in a format that is ready to be 3D-printed to create your three-dimensional model. #9. Create a 3D Model of a Human Colon with this STL File Surgical procedures, such as hemorrhoidectomies, require a surgeon with a solid grasp of three-dimensional human anatomy. By uploading and sharing medical 3D printing-ready files, such as this colon extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.8 mm slice thickness x 467 slices), those entering the profession can acquire this essential knowledge outside the confines of the operating room. Available for educational purposes, this 3D model includes the cecum, appendix, and overall layout of the small and large bowel. #10. A democratiz3D®-Created, 3D-Printable STL File of a Human Right Kidney Dr. Mike uploaded this printable STL file of a human kidney (right side), showing all the nuances of the kidney and renal collecting system in clear, stunning detail. Dr. Mike used the democratiz3D® premium tissue algorithms to bring out all the details of the kidney. Sharing 3D-printable files is just one of the many ways users are creating the future of preoperative planning and surgical performance. References 1. Zheng, B., Wang, X., Zheng, Y., & Feng, J. (2018). 3D-printed model improves clinical assessment of surgeons on anatomy. Journal of robotic surgery, 1-7.
  11. DICOM to STL Files and Other Medical Scans Uploaded to embodi3D® 3D printing is a technology that is constantly evolving, especially among medical professionals who are converting medical CT scans into 3D-printed anatomical models. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. In terms of research and education, 3D-printed anatomical models have proven to be a major benefit in helping students and researchers gain first-hand knowledge of specific conditions and the human anatomy. In a recent University of Pennsylvania research article ("From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models") there merits of DICOM to STL conversions are highlighted and this is a medical technology that will continue to grow in the coming years. As a manufacturing process, 3D printing is well suited for the generation of biomedical phantoms, which is essentially a low-volume process for patient-specific models. The relatively high tooling costs for alternative processes—such as lost-wax investment casting—make 3D printing a cost-effective choice. This week we want to share the top ten downloads of medical scans. 3D prnting technology can be aligned with the predefined educational need, as listed below. Teaching anatomy, patient education: To teach the anatomy and explain pathology, models constructed of hard materials are often sufficient. The low cost and most accessible method FDM is most certainly the best choice if there is no need for fine printing definition and if the size of the model is large, otherwise we would recommend SLA. Models obtained by SLA present more detail thus would be better for small printing models (eg, coronary arteries). However, in the case of the thoracic aortic model with root aneurysm we put the emphasis on the realism of the geometry by representing as much as details as possible which is why we needed to use one of the most accurate 3D printing method: PJ. It also allowed us to change easily the colours of the 3D printed model if desired. Surgical planning and review of procedure: Surgical planning and review of procedure do not necessarily require materials to have the same mechanical properties of the biological tissues. Hard material model can be well representative of the anatomical structure and once again, FDM and SLA might be your best options. Preprocedural planning: preprocedural planning models are more complicated to fabricate since they require materials mechanically representative to the biological tissues. Discussions on the matter are provided in the following section where all printing methods are eventually used. To see more CT scans, check out the embodi3D® Medical CT Scan Files library. Remember: to get the most out of embodi3D® you need to register on the embodi3D® website. It's completely free and will take only a few minutes of your time. Plus, you will gain access to many of our cutting-edge conversion tools and algorithms! 1. A Whole-Body CT Scan in DICOM and NRRD File Formats First place: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes which allows you to follow along with the tutorial. Included is an anonymized chest abdomen pelvis CT in both DICOM and NRRD formats. Take a look to this CT model of whole body. 2. An Incredible CT Scan of an Open Bite CT is indicated for implant site assessment in anatomically difficult cases or when extensive implant treatment is planned. In addition, bone quantity and quality, in the implantation area are evaluated in the CT scans. Classifications are based upon jaw shape (degree of resorption), bone quality (amount of compact bone) and bone density. Information about the location of vital structures, such as mandibular canal, mental foramen, incisive foramen, maxillary sinuses and nasal cavity can be evaluated. 3. Head and Neck CT Scan — Great Addition to our Top 10 Medical CT Scans! A source Head and Neck CT scan in NRRD file format for the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2017 course on Open-Source and Freeware Medical 3D Printing, RCA12 and RCA21, November 26 and 27, 2017. Be sure to view the full tutorial that uses this file here. https://meeting.rsna.org/program/index.cfm Search for "3D Printing Hands-on with Open Source Software: Introduction (Hands-on)" CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after intravenous contrast administration, the vessels become enhanced with contrast allow them to be differentiated from adjacent tissues. Following image acquisition, post-processing techniques are applied for better 3D visualization of the vessels and their abnormalities. 4. A Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan Showing a Chest Wall Tumor Tumors of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumors and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. - Benign: soft tissue , haemangioma: common, lymphangioma: common, lipoma: chest wall lipoma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma paraganglioma, skeletal (ribcage), fibrous dysplasia: common, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC): common, giant cell tumour (GCT), ossifying fibromyxoid tumour, chondromyxoid fibroma, osteochondroma, mesenchymal hamartoma of chest wall: sometimes even considered a developmental anomaly - Malignant: The most common malignant lesions are metastases. Lesions include: rhabdomyosarcoma: common, Ewing sarcoma: including Askin tumour (or pPNET), ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, skeletal (ribcage), chest wall metastases: common, myeloma, chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma, 5. CT Scan of the Brain and Structures (Without Contrast) This upload shows a CT scan of the human brain and related structures. This scan has not been contrast-enhanced. window: W:2800 L:600 Review the bones. This should always be performed, even when a bony algorithm hasn't been provided or where slice thickness is suboptimal. Note that if there is a history of trauma, then dedicated thin bony images are required to detect undisplaced fractures. Review the skull vault for any fractures or destructive lesions. Spend some time checking the base of the skull as the increased complexity of this region can make identification of abnormalities more difficult. Don't forget to ensure that both TMJs are normally aligned. Review the paranasal sinuses for evidence of fluid that may represent acute sinusitis or, in the correct setting, fractures. 6. Whole-Body NRRD File Showing the Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis A whole body NRRD file converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It includes a skin, bone and muscle 3D model. 7. Jawbone Implant as Shown in a 3D Model A 3D model of mandible implant with exquisite detail from a CT scan from planning. Current 3D-printers are easy to use and represent a promising solution for medical prototyping. The 3D printing will quickly become undeniable because of its advantages: information sharing, simulation, surgical guides, pedagogy. They allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 8. The Whole Body of a Female — Available in a 3D Printer-Ready Format A 3D model of female's whole body (with bone, muscle and skin 3D printing) 9. Head and Neck Scan from the Cancer Imaging Archives 62yo male skull from the Head-Neck Cetuximab collection of The Cancer Imaging Archives. 10. Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan of the Skull and Brain A brain CT scan with contrast showing all the structures of the skull and brain. References 1. Lekholm U, Zarb G. Patient selection and preparation. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb G, Albrektsson T, editors. Tissue-integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence; 1985 p. 199 – 209. 2. Wood MR, Vermilyea SG. A review of selected dental literature on evidence-based treatment planning for dental implants: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 92: 447 – 62. 3. Lindh C, Petersson A, Klinge B. Measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal in radiographs. Clin Oral Impl Res 1995; 6: 96 – 103. 4. Garcia, J., Yang, Z., Mongrain, R., Leask, R. L., & Lachapelle, K. (2018). 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(1), 27-40.
  12. 3D Print a Skull and Facial Features from Our Top 10 Face Models Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. We now have the ability to 3D print a skull and 3D-printed face models have been used in the facial reconstruction process. We can also use 3D printing to recreate the muscles of the face. These types of models have been used in advanced procedures that help to restore facial features. One notable example from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is the 2017 full-facial reconstruction that employed 3D-printed models to reconstruct a face. Whether used in reconstructive surgery or rhinoplasty, the ability to convert a CT scan into an STL, then created a highly accurate 3D model is changing the way these medical professionals work. Visualizing Advanced Facial Reconstruction Surgeries 3D modeling is an effective method to demonstrate the spatial relationships of neighboring structures, such as bone, tissue, and muscle. The ability to visualize critical structures before a complex operation allows the surgeon to decrease the rate of complications. While this represents a focused view and primarily addresses the patient perspective, it introduces a technology that has application to many different plastic surgeries as well as rhinoplasty. Models can be created for facial augmentation (genioplasty and malar implants), otoplasty, rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, and combined procedures with exciting promise. If you want to have access to these amazing 3D models you just have to register in the following link: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. Using 3D Facial Models for Forensic, Surgical, and Aesthetic Analysis This is an example of a face 3D model detailed for surgery, forensic, anthropological and aesthetic purposes provided by Dr. Mike. 2. Conversion of a Human Skull into a 3D-Printable Format This 3D printable STL file of a skull was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed bony anatomy of the skull and face. An orogastric tube is present in the mouth. 3. Using 3D Printing to Reconstruct an Orbital Wall 21 year old S/P MVC with Lefort 3 fx. CT scans can be used to create custom implants, but getting the implants manufactured can take a long time. Craniofacial disjunction and transverse fracture line passes through nasofrontal suture, maxillo-frontal suture, orbital wall, and zygomatic arch / zygomaticofrontal suture. 4. An Incredible 3D-Printable Model of a Baby... Taken from an Ultrasound Scan A baby face 3D model. Moms and dads can now hold an accurate representation of their baby in their hands before it is born. 5. Modeling Human Facial Features Using 3D Printing A 3d model of a human face with details of the eyes, nose and mouth. 6. 3D Print a Skull for Maxillofacial Surgery Preparation 3D model of the maxilla with teeth details excellent for preoperative use. 3D printing allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 7. Demonstrating 3D Printing's Use in Reversing Appearance of Facial Cancers We show a 3d model printing of a human face. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries as well as tissue loss associated with significant oncologic resections. In addition to reconstructive procedures, the technology has an achievable potential for breakthroughs in the improvement of facial and limb prosthetic development as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants that will provide more natural tactile qualities and appearance for the patient. 8. Guiding Skin Grafting Procedures with 3D Modeling Skin grafting is traditionally indicated for the treatment of major skin defects, due to trauma, burns, or tumor excision, which cannot be closed primarily. Often times, in the cases of extensive burns, there is not enough healthy skin to harvest to cover the defect, or the size of the donor site may compromise adequate cosmetic or functional results. Despite the numerous synthetic and bioengineered skin substitutes currently available, none have provided equivalent results to that of autologous skin grafts. Optimal skin substitutes must be durable, prevent water loss, lack antigenicity, resist infection, and conform to irregular wound surfaces. 9. 3D Printing Can Help in Facial Reconstruction Where Resources are Limited The 3D printing provides the ability to construct complex individualized implants that not only improve patient outcomes but also increase economic feasibility. The technology offers a potential level of accessibility that is paramount for remote and resource-limited locations where health care is most often limited. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries, facial and limb prosthetic development, as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants. 10. Full-Scale Facial Model Created with 3D Printing 10. A novel technology incorporating 3D photography and printing to produce life-size models for use in patient evaluation and treatment. Early surgeon experience also indicates benefit for intraoperative use. Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. References 1. Bauermeister, A. J., Zuriarrain, A., & Newman, M. I. (2016). Three-dimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review. Annals of plastic surgery, 77(5), 569-576. 2. Radiopaedia.org, the wiki-based collaborative Radiology resource. (2018). Radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 26 May 2018, from https://radiopaedia.org/ 3. Klosterman, T., & Romo III, T. (2018). Three-dimensional printed facial models in rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery, 34(02), 201-204.
  13. Create a 3D-Printed Rib Cage and Thorax from STL Files As the second largest largest hollow cavity (largest space between bones), the thoracic cavity encases the lungs, trachea, pericardium, base and apex of the heart, esophagus, as well as all the vessels transporting blood between the lungs and heart. The ribs enclosing these vital organs also include skeletal features such as the sternum, vertebral column, and breastbone. The feature separating the thoracic cavity from the largest cavity in the body (abdominal cavity) is separated by the diaphragm, a muscular, membranous partition that is used to control respiration. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." As the technology behind medical 3D printing continues to advance, each iteration brings us closer to highly realistic simulations of thoracoscopic surgery, allowing surgeons to practice cutting, suturing, stapling, and a range of other thoracic surgical procedures. To get the most out of your time on the embodi3D® website (and use the many democratiz3D® medical 3D printing tools), you should register with embodi3D®. The process is free, easy, and will take just a few minutes of your time. And, it just might change the way you practice medicine. After you've browsed these STL files, you can also check out our growing CT scan collection showing various conditions of the thorax and ribs. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Chest Cavity Bones JCab uploaded this excellent 3D model of the bones of the rib cage without costochondral cartilage. The thoracic cavity has several functions. The first is to provide protection and support to the body’s vital organs. The thoracic cavity is surrounded by the rib cage and several layers of membranes, which help keep the organs protected from any dangers in the environment. #2. A 3D model of a Chance Fracture of T10 This 3D model created on embodi3D® features a fracture also known as flexion-distraction injury or seat belt fracture. Usually occurs from T11-L3 levels. – 78% occur between T12 and L2 levels * Occasionally at midthoracic spine * May have anterior injury at one level, posterior injury at adjacent one. Staging, Grading, & Classification • Osseous Chance fracture * Vertebral body fracture * Posterior element fractures: Pedicles, transverse processes, laminae, spinous process • Ligamentous Chance injury (uncommon) * Intervertebral disc * Facet dislocation * Ruptured interspinous ligaments • Osteoligamentous Chance injury * Variable combination of fracture and ligament injury #3. A 3D Model of the Sternum in STL Format This 3D model shows us the sternum also called breastbone, in the anatomy of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates), elongated bone in the centre of the chest that articulates with and provides support for the clavicles (collarbones) of the shoulder girdle and for the ribs. In mammals the sternum is divided into three parts, from anterior to posterior: (1) the manubrium, which articulates with the clavicles and first ribs; (2) the mesosternum, often divided into a series of segments, the sternebrae, to which the remaining true ribs are attached; and (3) the posterior segment, called the xiphisternum. In humans the sternum is elongated and flat; it may be felt from the base of the neck to the pit of the abdomen. The manubrium is roughly trapezoidal, with depressions where the clavicles and the first pair of ribs join. The mesosternum, or body, consists of four sternebrae that fuse during childhood or early adulthood. The mesosternum is narrow and long, with articular facets for ribs along its sides. The xiphisternum is reduced to a small, usually cartilaginous xiphoid (“sword-shaped”) process. The sternum ossifies from several centres. The xiphoid process may ossify and fuse to the body in middle age; the joint between manubrium and mesosternum remains open until old age. #4. A 3D Model Showing Rib Cage (Left Side) in STL The human skeleton has 12 pairs of ribs. Working from the top of the torso down, ribs 1 to 7 are considered "true ribs," as they connect directly from the spine to the sternum, Martinez says. Ribs 8 to 10 are called "false ribs" because they don't connect directly, but have cartilage that attaches them to the sternum. Ribs 11 and 12 are called "floating ribs" because they only connect to the spine in back. These, he says, "are much shorter." #5. Right Side of Ribs Shown in Medical 3D Model This incredible created on embodi3D® shows the right sided ribs with exquisite detail. The ribs allow chest expansion for breathing, Martinez explains. "They function similarly to the bucket handle on a bucket and swing upwards as we take a breath, allowing the thoracic cavity to expand." This increase in the thoracic cavity makes it easier to take a breath. #6. An Informative Tutorial on Showing Thoracic Cavity Arteries with STL Files This incredible chest and humerus was generated from a CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person- #7. STL File Showing a Three-Dimensional Model of a Clavicle The clavicle (collarbone) extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula. The clavicle has three main functions: - Attaches the upper limb to the trunk as part of the ‘shoulder girdle’. - Protects the underlying neurovascular structures supplying the upper limb. - Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton. #8. 3D Imaging of the Costal Cartilage Do you know that the sexual difference in pattern of human costal cartilages is statistically significant and thus highly predictive of sex determination? The first rib cartilages were not considered because there are no sex differences. The lower ribs exhibit sexual dimorphism. Mineralization and ossification changes appear at the end of puberty and their occurrence increases with age. #9. 3D Model of the Sternocostoclavicular Joint Many physicians are unfamiliar with the characteristics of the sternocostoclavicular joint (SCCJ). Disorders of the SCCJ, although common, frequently escape recognition. The most common SCCJ disorder is degenerative disease manifesting as osteoarthritis or as periarticular lesions causing antero-medial dislocation of the clavicle. Septic arthritis is the most severe disorder and can lead to mediastinitis. All inflammatory joint diseases, including spondyloarthropathies, can affect the SCCJ. SCCJ involvement is a typical component of the osteoarticular manifestations seen in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. #10. A 3D-Printable STL Medical File (Converted from CT Scan DICOM of Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage (rib cage) is the skeleton of the thoracic cavity. It is formed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum. Its main function is to give support and protection for the vital organs of the thorax. References 1. Rejtarová, O., Slizova, D., Smoranc, P., Rejtar, P., & Bukac, J. (2004). Costal cartilages–a clue for determination of sex. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 148(2), 241-243. 2. Le Loët, X., & Vittecoq, O. (2002). The sternocostoclavicular joint: normal and abnormal features. Joint Bone Spine, 69(2), 161-169. 3. Vertebral column | anatomy. (2018). Encyclopedia Britannica. 4. Giannopoulos, A. A., Steigner, M. L., George, E., Barile, M., Hunsaker, A. R., Rybicki, F. J., & Mitsouras, D. (2016). Cardiothoracic applications of 3D printing. Journal of thoracic imaging, 31(5), 253. 5. Ross, J. S., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Diagnostic Imaging: Spine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  14. Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. We now have the ability to 3D print a skull and 3D-printed face models have been used in the facial reconstruction process. We can also use 3D printing to recreate the muscles of the face. These types of models have been used in advanced procedures that help to restore facial features. One notable example from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is the 2017 full-facial reconstruction that employed 3D-printed models to reconstruct a face. Check this post and learn more!
  15. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." https://www.embodi3d.com/blogs/entry/409-create-a-3d-printed-rib-cage-and-thorax-from-stl-files/
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