The utility of modern three-dimensional printing techniques for bio-medical and clinical use has been demonstrated repeatedly in recent years, with applications ranging from surgical modelling to tissue engineering and beyond.
Despite the promise and potential of three-dimensional printing methods, impediments to their widespread clinical uptake still remain. Many of the printers used for medical applications are highly specialised pieces of equipment that require trained operators and contr
Following the current interest and significant recent advances in three-dimensional printing, the field of tissue engineering is increasingly seeking to adapt this technology for the fabrication of biological tissues, and potentially entire organs, for clinical transplantation.
Despite significant demand for vascular grafts for clinical procedures such as coronary bypass surgery, the manufacture of synthetic blood vessels has proved to be problematic. Due to a tendency to cause thrombosis an