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  1. Welcome to this week's Top Ten, featuring some exciting STL files and medical models, many of which you can download and print using your own 3D printing machine. When you upload your organ STL files to embodi3d®, you are helping researchers, students, and inquisitive minds everywhere to develop innovative diagnostic, interventional, and surgical techniques. Medical 3D printing can be used to create centimeter- to sub-millimeter-accurate models. These include the hearts, lungs, kidney, and colon featured in this week's Top Ten, but can be used to create just about any type of 3D organ or tissue model. The democratiz3D® conversion algorithms used on the embodi3D® website are sophisticated enough to recreate the cellular arrangements of various tissues and organs, but are straightforward enough to be used by just about everyone. Even the complex anatomy of the heart can be successfully replicated using various pliable 3D printing materials. These models could serve a future role in preoperative planning, medical education, and enhanced communication between radiologists and others involved in patient care. The prospect of 3D medical models being used to advance research and educational knowledge is truly exciting. We're glad to have you along to share in the experience of this rapidly developing science and art form. But, to receive much of what embodi3D® has to offer you have to register on the website. But, signing up is absolutely free. Become a Registered Member (it's Free) Remember to register on embodi3D.com so you can upload, download, share, and create stunningly realistic 3D models of hearts, lungs, mandibles, and just about anything having to do with the human anatomy. Plus, it is absolutely free to become a registered member. #1. 3D-Printable Model of Human Heart in Tissue Slices Dr. Mike created and submitted this 3D-printable human heart, separated into stackable slices for educational purposes. This STL file originated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan. The embodi3D® community was very excited about this model; it demonstrates the complex anatomy of the heart in a way that can be held, studied, taken apart, and put back together — all activities real-life patients would rather you not try with their own hearts. Representing some of the best uses of medical 3D printing on the embodi3D.com website, this downloadable STL file has earned a rightful place on this week's Top 10 downloads list. #2. Create a 3D Model of a Heart and Pulmonary Artery Tree This anatomically accurate heart and pulmonary artery tree was extracted from a CT angiogram DICOM dataset (0.4 mm slice thickness x 300 slices). This model may serve as an excellent, hands-on educational tool for those entering the medical profession. The uploaded STL files shows the aorta, coronary sinus, coronary arteries, pulmonary arteries, as well as the cardiac ventricles and atria. A special "thank you" goes out to Health Physics for contributing this magnificent file! #3. Full-Size Model of a Human Heart Number 3 on our list is a 3D-printable model of a full-size human heart. Using this STL file, you can create a scale model of a heart, complete with all the complex cardiac anatomy. You will achieve the best results by using a flexible medium when completing your 3D print. Please note: This model has yet to be fully optimized for 3D printing. Therefore, some issues related to minimum wall thickness can be expected. #4. Great Example of a 3D-Printable, Anatomically Accurate Human Heart Dr. Marco Vettorello graciously created and shared this highly accurate human heart STL file, ready for use in your 3D printer. Thank you, Dr. Vettorello! #5. 3D-Print and Compare a Healthy Lung to a Lung with COPD Lung tissue inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) makes it difficult to fully expel air and creates an obstruction in breathing in fresh air. To compare the three STL files of a lung with COPD, embodi3D® has also uploaded three files of a healthy lung. Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease chronic lung disease is often caused by long-term exposure to particulates, cigarette smoke, harmful gases, and other irritants. Those with COPD are at a higher risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a number of other life-threatening conditions. #6. Have a Heart... in a Medical 3D Printing-Ready Format! We'd like to say a special "thank you" to the creators of this 3D-printable heart file, Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana, who have graciously shared this 3D-printable human heart in STL format. This file originally appeared in the "Top 10 Killers" list. While it appears in sixth place for this week's chart, the cardiac events we collectively refer to as "heart disease" remain the developed world's top "killer" and these files should serve to remind us why this type of research is so important — not only to the medical community, but the many patients cardiovascular disease affect each day. #7. 3D-Print a Lung with Pneumonia Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in many parts of the world. This inflammatory condition affects the microscopic alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs, which leads to coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. The 3D-printable files uploaded in STL format feature the lung, airways, and detailed imaging of the alveoli. #8. Compare Healthy and Diseased Kidneys by Creating a 3D Model Chronic kidney disease (chronic renal disease) presently affects around 26 million American adults, with many others at risk of developing this devastating disease. The STL files uploaded for your medical 3D printing use allow you to compare a healthy kidney to one with chronic renal disease. These are available in a format that is ready to be 3D-printed to create your three-dimensional model. #9. Create a 3D Model of a Human Colon with this STL File Surgical procedures, such as hemorrhoidectomies, require a surgeon with a solid grasp of three-dimensional human anatomy. By uploading and sharing medical 3D printing-ready files, such as this colon extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.8 mm slice thickness x 467 slices), those entering the profession can acquire this essential knowledge outside the confines of the operating room. Available for educational purposes, this 3D model includes the cecum, appendix, and overall layout of the small and large bowel. #10. A democratiz3D®-Created, 3D-Printable STL File of a Human Right Kidney Dr. Mike uploaded this printable STL file of a human kidney (right side), showing all the nuances of the kidney and renal collecting system in clear, stunning detail. Dr. Mike used the democratiz3D® premium tissue algorithms to bring out all the details of the kidney. Sharing 3D-printable files is just one of the many ways users are creating the future of preoperative planning and surgical performance. References 1. Zheng, B., Wang, X., Zheng, Y., & Feng, J. (2018). 3D-printed model improves clinical assessment of surgeons on anatomy. Journal of robotic surgery, 1-7.
  2. The human heart beats an astonishing 115,000 times each day. It's a fascinating (and essential) organ, which is why we are highlighting the heart and its support structures in this week's post, as well as sharing some intriguing STL files so you can create your own heart 3D model by using your own 3D printer. In this week's post, we will introduce you to the top 3D-printable STL files published on the embodi3D® website. Before you get started creating your own heart 3D model, you will need to register through embodi3D® (https://www.embodi3d.com/register/). Registering is absolutely free, so become a member today! We recently reported on how researchers have used a 3D printed heart to treat arrhythmia, yet 3D printing is also be used to combat other types of cardiovascular disease. After all, heart disease is the leading cause of premature death in Western countries. According to the National Institutes of Health, nearly half a million individuals succumb to cardiovascular disease each year. While coronary artery disease leads the pack in terms of cardiovascular diseases, congenital heart conditions and acquired diseases of the heart such as tumors, cardiomyopathy, pericardial processes, and valvular disease unfortunately remain present in the modern era. In the early 2000s, an average 1.5 million patients received some type of invasive heart catheter, a figure brought to our attention through the book "Computed Body Tomography with MRI Correlation, Volume 1" (edited by Joseph K. T. Lee). The answer to reducing the number of invasive heart procedures may be in medical 3D printing, whether CT scans can be converted into STL files in order to create 3D models of the heart and nearly every part of the human anatomy. Medical 3D Printing and STL Files: An Alternative to Invasive Cardiac Catheterization? Echocardiography is widely available, portable, and essentially non-invasive when compared to MDCT and MR scans, while CT and MRI scans give us a clear advantage in terms of creating output files that are ready to be converted into a 3D printing-ready format such as STL (stereolithography) files. STL files and tissue algorithm conversion technologies from companies such as embodi3D® are bringing medical 3D printing within reach of researchers, radiologists, physicians, and medical students. Radiologists have witnessed the evolution of medical imaging, from two-dimensional scans to the three-dimensional scans aided by the latest technologies. 3D-printable files open the door to less invasive diagnostic procedures and have also proven useful in pre-surgical planning. Multiplanar imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave rise to 3D reconstructions, improving the evaluation of complex anatomies. Medical 3D printing takes imaging data from the limited two-dimensional view on a computer screen to a three-dimensional model that can be held, studied, and referenced. The Meteoric Rise of Additive Manufacturing in Medicine The additive manufacturing technique known as 3D printing has seen exponential growth in health care sectors over the last decade, with most of that growth coming in just the last few years. As a tool to improve patient care and lower the costs of care, 3D printing can be used in pre-operative planning, education, and also to replace bone materials, such as knee joints. For these reasons, the McKinsey Global Institute recently called 3D printing a "disruptive technology that will transform life, business and the global economy." This management consulting company also predicated that 3D printing will have impact the global economy by a range of $200 billion to $600 billion in the coming decade. What started out as a technology for garage tinkerers and those looking to replace hard-to-find mechanical parts was only recently introduced into the medical world. The adoption rates of this technology within the health care community have been staggering. In 2000, only six publications made mention of 3D printing's use in medicine. That figure had jumped to nearly 200 publications in the years spanning 2011 and 2015. This brings us to the present, where nearly 2,000 publications have cited the amazing utility of 3D printing across a diverse range of medical applications. The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute was launched in 2012 as a way to grow and encourage the adoption of this life- and industry-changing technology. 3D Printing in Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery The use of 3D printing in cardiology to detect abnormal heart structures and predict heart attacks has followed a similar growth trend in the past decade. In the research article "Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions," Vukicevic, et al. detailed the utility of 3D printing in the area of cardiovascular care, focusing primarily on acquired structural heart disease. 3D-printed heart and aortic models have been used for treatment planning in both percutaneous cardiology applications and cardiothoracic surgery. In cardiothoracic surgery, 3D-printed anatomic models have been used to plan surgical approaches, perform resections, and guide the process of tissue reconstruction. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is frequently performed before catheter-based and surgical treatments in situations of congenital heart disease (CHD). To date, little is known about the accuracy and advantage of different 3D-reconstructions in CT-data. For reference purposes, gaining the exact anatomical information is critical in achieving a successful outcome. According to a review published in JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 3D models may improve outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease by also improving communication among multidisciplinary teams, enhancing shared decision-making, and facilitating greater medical breakthroughs via basic science and translational clinical investigations. Approximately 3 out of 1,000 patients with congenital heart disease require a surgical or catheter-based intervention early in their lifetimes, according to the study's investigators. 3D printing can be a valuable tool to plan extra-cardiac and vascular surgery in patients with CHD. 3D models are helpful for planning high-risk unifocalization surgery. Medical 3D Printing as an Educational Tool in Congenital Heart Disease In terms of education, the use of medical 3D printing technology may lead to an educational shift from an apprenticeship-type model to a simulator-based learning method, which would augment the traditional mentored training. Using 3D printed models in congenital heart disease (CHD) can reduce the learning curve for cardiac trainees in three crucial ways: help trainees understand the complex cardiovascular structures, provide high-fidelity simulation experiences, and enable more exposure to rare CHD cases. 1. A 3D-Printable Model of a Human Heart from Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan A 3D-printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan. An endpoint of many patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is heart failure requiring a ventricular assist device (VAD) or heart transplant. 3D printing can aid in ventricular assist device placement and optimizing function in complex CHD, as recently described by Farooqi et al. and Saeed et al. 2. 3D-Printable STL File of Truncus Arteriosus with Unseparated Aorta and Pulmonary Artery Truncus arteriosus is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The heart begins as a hollow tube, and the chambers, valves, and great arteries develop early in pregnancy. The aorta and pulmonary artery start as a single blood vessel, which eventually divides and becomes two separate arteries. Truncus arteriosus occurs when the single great vessel fails to separate completely, leaving a connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives. 3. STL Files of a Neonatal Heart Defect (Ventricular Septal Defect) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) with pulmonary atresia (PA) can be considered to be the severest form of tetrology of Fallot wherein the right ventricular outflow tract obstruction has progressed to the extent of atresia. This atresia can occur either at the infundibulum or as a plate atresia of the pulmonary valve. An important observation is that the plate-type atresia is more frequently associated with well-developed pulmonary arteries. The other significant abnormality in patients with VSD and pulmonary atresia (PA) is the presence of arborization abnormalities. The blood supply to a particular lung segment can be derived from a systemic artery or a central pulmonary artery or a combination of both. 4. 3D-Printable Heart Model Showing Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot, which is one of the most common congenital heart disorders, comprises right ventricular (RV) outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) (infundibular stenosis), ventricular septal defect (VSD), aorta dextroposition, and RV hypertrophy (see the image below). The mortality rate in untreated patients reaches 50% by age 6 years, but in the present era of cardiac surgery, children with simple forms of tetralogy of Fallot enjoy good long-term survival with an excellent quality of life. This three-part 3D printed heart is from a CT scan of a 4-year-old infant with Tetrology of Fallot, a congentital heart defect and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. 5. 3D-Printable STL of Left Heart Atrium and Ventricle 3D models promise to transform teaching in ways that go beyond the lecture hall, and over the next few years are set to revolutionize medical training, especially in percutaneous interventions. In this 3D model we can observe the anatomical relationship of all the elements of the heart and neighboring structures. 6. Left Main Coronary Artery with Abnormal Origin Rising from Pulmonary Artery Trunk Variations in coronary anatomy are often seen in association with structural forms of congenital heart disease like Fallot's tetralogy, transposition of the great vessels, Taussig-Bing heart (double-outlet right ventricle), or common arterial trunk. Importantly, coronary artery anomalies are a cause of sudden death in young athletes even in the absence of additional heart abnormalities. Prior knowledge of such variants and anomalies is necessary for planning various interventional procedures. 7. Aortic Coarctation in 3D-Printable STL File Coarctation of the aorta — or aortic coarctation — is a narrowing of the aorta, the large blood vessel that branches off your heart and delivers oxygen-rich blood to your body. When this occurs, your heart must pump harder to force blood through the narrowed part of your aorta. Coarctation of the aorta is generally present at birth (congenital). The condition can range from mild to severe, and might not be detected until adulthood, depending on how much the aorta is narrowed. Coarctation of the aorta often occurs along with other heart defects. While treatment is usually successful, the condition requires careful lifelong follow-up. 8. STL File of a Cardiac Myxoma The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a cardiac myxoma as a neoplasm composed of stellate to plump, cytologically bland mesenchymal cells set in a myxoid stroma. Myxomas can recur locally (usually with incomplete resection) and spread to distant sites through embolization. Embolization appears to be much more likely in myxomas that are friable with a broad-based attachment than they are in tumors that are fibrotic or calcified. 9. 3-D Printable Heart Anatomy from High-Spatial Resolution Imaging A heart 3d model with details of anatomy. By combining the technologies of high-spatial resolution cardiac imaging, image processing software, and fused dual-material 3D printing, several hospital centers have recently demonstrated that patient-specific models of various cardiovascular pathologies may offer an important additional perspective on the condition. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and in surgical and catheter-based structural disease – 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions. 10. Human Heart Model in Stable Slices from Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan A 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan References 1 Yoo, S. J., Spray, T., Austin, E. H., Yun, T. J., & van Arsdell, G. S. (2017). Hands-on surgical training of congenital heart surgery using 3-dimensional print models. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 153(6), 1530-1540. 2. Farooqi K.M., Saeed O., Zaidi A., et al. (2016) 3D printing to guide ventricular assist device placement in adults with congenital heart disease and heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol HF 4:301–311. 3. Saeed O., Farooqi K.M., Jorde U.P. (2017) in Rapid Prototyping in Cardiac Disease, Assessment of ventricular assist device placement and function, ed Farooqi K.M. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland), pp 133–141. 4. Lee JKT, Sagel SS, Stanley RJ, Heiken JP. Computed Body Tomography with MRI Correlation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. 5. Ballard, D. H., Trace, A. P., Ali, S., Hodgdon, T., Zygmont, M. E., DeBenedectis, C. M., ... & Lenchik, L. (2018). Clinical applications of 3D printing: primer for radiologists. Academic radiology, 25(1), 52-65. 6. Vukicevic, M., Mosadegh, B., Min, J. K., & Little, S. H. (2017). Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 10(2), 171-184.
  3. 3D Print a Skull and Facial Features from Our Top 10 Face Models Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. We now have the ability to 3D print a skull and 3D-printed face models have been used in the facial reconstruction process. We can also use 3D printing to recreate the muscles of the face. These types of models have been used in advanced procedures that help to restore facial features. One notable example from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is the 2017 full-facial reconstruction that employed 3D-printed models to reconstruct a face. Whether used in reconstructive surgery or rhinoplasty, the ability to convert a CT scan into an STL, then created a highly accurate 3D model is changing the way these medical professionals work. Visualizing Advanced Facial Reconstruction Surgeries 3D modeling is an effective method to demonstrate the spatial relationships of neighboring structures, such as bone, tissue, and muscle. The ability to visualize critical structures before a complex operation allows the surgeon to decrease the rate of complications. While this represents a focused view and primarily addresses the patient perspective, it introduces a technology that has application to many different plastic surgeries as well as rhinoplasty. Models can be created for facial augmentation (genioplasty and malar implants), otoplasty, rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, and combined procedures with exciting promise. If you want to have access to these amazing 3D models you just have to register in the following link: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. Using 3D Facial Models for Forensic, Surgical, and Aesthetic Analysis This is an example of a face 3D model detailed for surgery, forensic, anthropological and aesthetic purposes provided by Dr. Mike. 2. Conversion of a Human Skull into a 3D-Printable Format This 3D printable STL file of a skull was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed bony anatomy of the skull and face. An orogastric tube is present in the mouth. 3. Using 3D Printing to Reconstruct an Orbital Wall 21 year old S/P MVC with Lefort 3 fx. CT scans can be used to create custom implants, but getting the implants manufactured can take a long time. Craniofacial disjunction and transverse fracture line passes through nasofrontal suture, maxillo-frontal suture, orbital wall, and zygomatic arch / zygomaticofrontal suture. 4. An Incredible 3D-Printable Model of a Baby... Taken from an Ultrasound Scan A baby face 3D model. Moms and dads can now hold an accurate representation of their baby in their hands before it is born. 5. Modeling Human Facial Features Using 3D Printing A 3d model of a human face with details of the eyes, nose and mouth. 6. 3D Print a Skull for Maxillofacial Surgery Preparation 3D model of the maxilla with teeth details excellent for preoperative use. 3D printing allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 7. Demonstrating 3D Printing's Use in Reversing Appearance of Facial Cancers We show a 3d model printing of a human face. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries as well as tissue loss associated with significant oncologic resections. In addition to reconstructive procedures, the technology has an achievable potential for breakthroughs in the improvement of facial and limb prosthetic development as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants that will provide more natural tactile qualities and appearance for the patient. 8. Guiding Skin Grafting Procedures with 3D Modeling Skin grafting is traditionally indicated for the treatment of major skin defects, due to trauma, burns, or tumor excision, which cannot be closed primarily. Often times, in the cases of extensive burns, there is not enough healthy skin to harvest to cover the defect, or the size of the donor site may compromise adequate cosmetic or functional results. Despite the numerous synthetic and bioengineered skin substitutes currently available, none have provided equivalent results to that of autologous skin grafts. Optimal skin substitutes must be durable, prevent water loss, lack antigenicity, resist infection, and conform to irregular wound surfaces. 9. 3D Printing Can Help in Facial Reconstruction Where Resources are Limited The 3D printing provides the ability to construct complex individualized implants that not only improve patient outcomes but also increase economic feasibility. The technology offers a potential level of accessibility that is paramount for remote and resource-limited locations where health care is most often limited. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries, facial and limb prosthetic development, as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants. 10. Full-Scale Facial Model Created with 3D Printing 10. A novel technology incorporating 3D photography and printing to produce life-size models for use in patient evaluation and treatment. Early surgeon experience also indicates benefit for intraoperative use. Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. References 1. Bauermeister, A. J., Zuriarrain, A., & Newman, M. I. (2016). Three-dimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review. Annals of plastic surgery, 77(5), 569-576. 2. Radiopaedia.org, the wiki-based collaborative Radiology resource. (2018). Radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 26 May 2018, from https://radiopaedia.org/ 3. Klosterman, T., & Romo III, T. (2018). Three-dimensional printed facial models in rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery, 34(02), 201-204.
  4. Bones The main advantage of the orthopedical presurgical 3d printed models is the possibility to create an accurate model, which can be used for metal osteosynthesis premodelling - the surgeons can prepare (bend, twist, accommodate) the implants prior the operation. After a sterilisation (autoclaving, UV-light, gamma-ray etc etc), those implants can be used in the planned surgery, which will decrease the overall surgery time (in some cases with more than an hour) with all it's advantages, including a dramatic decreasing of the complication rates, the X-ray exposure for the patient and for the surgeons, the cost and the recovery rates etc etc. For this purpose, you need a smooth bone model, with clearly recognizable and realistic landmarks, realistic measurements and physical properties, close to the real bone. Traditionally, the orthopedical surgeons in my institution used polystyrene models, made by hand, now they have access to 3d printed models and they are better in any way. Here are some tips how to print that thing. 1. Method - FDM. The bone models are the easiest and the most forgiving to print. You can make them with literally every printer you can find. FDM is a strong option here and, in my opinion, the best method on choice.2. Matherial - PLA - it's cheap, it's easy to print, it's the bread and butter for the bone printing. Cool extruding temperature (195-200C) decrease the stringing and increases the details in the models.3. Layer heigh - 0,150mm. This is the best compromise between the print time, the quality and the usability of the models.3. Perimeters (shell thickness) - 4 perimeters. One perimeter means one string of 3d printed material. It's width depends on the nozzle diameter and the layer thickness. For Prusa MK3 with 0,4mm nozzle 1 perimeter is ~0,4mm. To achieve a realistic cortical bone, use 4 perimeters (1,7mm). The surgeons loves to cut stuff, including the models, in some cases I have to print several models for training purposes. 4 perimeters PLA feels like a real bone.4. Infill - 15% 3d infill (gyroid, cuboid or 3d honey comb). The gyroid is the best - it looks and feels like a spongy bone. It's important to provide a realistic tactile sensation for the surgeons, especially the trainees. They have to be able to feel the moment, when they pass the cortical bone and rush into the spongiosa.5. Color - different colors for every fracture fragment. If the model is combined with a 3D visualization, which colors corresponds with the colors of the 3d print, this will make the premodelling work much easier for the surgeons. Also, it looks professional and appealing. 6. Postprocessing - a little sanding and a touch of a acrylic varnish will make the model much better.7. Support material - every slicer software can generate support, based on the angle between the building platform and the Z axis of the model. You can control this in details with support blockers and support enforcers, which for the bones is not necessary, but it's crucial for the vessels and the heart.Conclusions - the bone models are easy to make, they look marvelous and can really change the outcome of every orthopedical surgery.
  5. Version 1.0.0

    22 downloads

    This is a preoperative model of thoraco-abdominal aneurysm, Crawford typle I, with rupture above the diaphragm. The subsequent haemorrhagia in the mediastinum closed temporary the rupture, probably saving the life of the patient. This was an impossible operation, which took 7 hours and the team of the best cardio-thoracic surgeons in Bulgaria. I don't know how, but the patient is still alive and kicking. It took me 3 days to make the model and to turn it into a 3d visualization and I'll share my workflow with you. I'm printing the model right now for a cardio-thoracic surgery symposium. The source is Angio CT scan with 1,3 mm slide thickness. 1. I analysed the model in Radiant Dicom viewer (you can activate trial license for unlimited amount of times, if you can't afford 100 euro for it). I selected the best series and exported them in a folder. 2. I loaded the model in 3D Slicer. First, I run two denoising algoritms (Gradient Anisotropic Diffusion and Curvature Anisotropic Diffusion), which improved the quality of the images significantly. Then I selected a ROI, which included the whole aorta. With the Segment Editor Module I segmented the lumen of the aorta. Then, as a separate segmentation, I used the Margin operation to grow the lumen with 2 centimeters and applied a boolean operation, resulting in a hollow shell with precise lumen. I had to segment the rest of the aortic wall manually. I exported the result as STL file. 3. In Meshmixer, I modeled the whole thing, until I was satisfied by the result. 4. My client asked me to remove the aortic arch (it's such a pain, I love aortic arches) and to print the aneurysmal sac with the abdominal aorta and the bifurcation of the iliac arteries. Note the double renal artery. I divided the model into two parts and installed ports for two 8x2mm and two 5x2 mm neodymium magnets with tolerance of 0,250mm. The final preprint version is on picture 3. 5. I'm printing this model with 1,5mm slide thickness, 4 perimeters, 15% gyroid infill, custom support with support enforcers, using red Natural PLA from a local manufacturer. The whole printing will take 45 hours.

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Prova 1 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. screws, barrel, lower, limb, .stl, bone, 3d, model, greater, lesser, trochanter, neck, diaphysis, condyle, implant, orthopedic, fixation, screws, barrel, trauma, surgery, printable,

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    Prova 1 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. screws, barrel, lower, limb, .stl, bone, 3d, model, greater, lesser, trochanter, neck, diaphysis, condyle, implant, orthopedic, fixation, screws, barrel, trauma, surgery,

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    trial2 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. 3d, model, .stl printing, medical, chest, thorax, sternum, ribs, scapula, clavicle, shoulder, dorsal, spine, cartilage, bone, print, acromion, surgery,

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Mastoid - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. orbit, sphenoid, ethmoid, nasal, bone, cells, 3d, model, printable, printing, .stl, petrous, ridge, zygomatic, arch, floor, orbital, surgery, embodi, frontal, temporal,

    Free

  10. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    pns file new one, ct, scan, without, contrast, .stl, axial, dicom, frontal, craniotomy, temporal, parietal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, petrous, ridge, mastoid, cells, clynoid, apophysis, foramen, magnum, orbit, eyeball, cerebellum, brainstem, bone, 3d, model, printable, paranasal, sinuses, nasal, nose, vomer, head, skull, neurosurgery

    Free

  11. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    T10 Fixation - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. ribs, bone, .stl, 3d, model, printable, dorsal, spine, transverse, spinous,pedicles, fixation, surgery,

    Free

  12. spud13

    T10 Fixation

    Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    CT scan of fixated T10 chance fracture. Two rods screwed in from T8- to T12. May be substantial noise due to reflections/refractions from the titanium equipment, ct, scan, without, contrast, .stl, bone, dorsal, spine, fixated, t10, fracture, rods, screw, t8, t12, reflection, refracion, titanium, surgery, pedicles, transverse, body, spinous, heart, diaphragm, spleen, liver, pancreas, stomach

    Free

  13. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This is my version of the Phenix CT dataset from the Osirix Dicom Library - an infant with Treacher-Collins syndrome and aplasia of the left zygomatic bone and maxilla after a reconstruction surgery with an autograft. I wanted to preserve the small details of the maxilla and the nasal cavity, so I segmented them manually. It took me a week. The spine is not done yet - I'm redoing it and I'll reupload the whole set in the following week. The model is 3D printable, but you'll need a multi-material extruder with soluble support for this purpose - PLA/PVA will be best (PLA/PVA is much better than ABS/HIPS in my opinion). I hope you'll enjoy it skull, face, 3d, model, printable, skull, skeleton, bone, ct, scan, maxilla, malformation, reconstruction, surgery, autograft, zygomatic, arch, fracture, craniotomy, stl, temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital, mandible, nasal, orbit, cervical, spine, clavicle, ribs, thorax, 3d, model, printable

    $20.00

  14. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Antebracheums, cropped from CT scan, to show forelimb angular deformities and to practice surgical correction, canine, k9, forelimb, angular limb deformity, surgery, radius, cubitus, veterinary, animal, .stl, 3d, model, printable, without, contrast

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    Iatrogenic skull defect following surgical excision due to severe maxillary osteomyelitis. CT scan, 5mm slices. Sketchfab The patient refused to make another scan, so I had to segment it manually from 5mm slices. The calvaria is made as a lid, so the model can be used as a candy jar... osteology, bone, skull, head, orbit, stl, 3d, model, printable, frontal, surgery, osteomyelitis, maxillary, calvaria, zygomatic, arch

    $10.00

  16. Aimi

    MSAA

    Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    SPINE CT SCAN TESTING 00000 interbody cages, spinal, fixation, xrays, osteosynthesis, system, orthopedic, surgery, fracture, connectors, screws, rods, 3d, model, .stl, printable

    Free

  17. Top Orbital and Skull 3D Model STL Files on embodi3D® In our day-to-day lives, we rely on vision more than any of the other four senses, so it only makes sense that human anatomy has adapted to include several features which keep our eyes safe: tear ducts, eyelids, and of course the orbital bone. The orbit (also known as the "eye socket") provides a rigid form of support and protection for some of the most sensitive parts of the eye including the central retinal artery, maeula, retina, choroid, and sclera. The orbit has such complex anatomical features that modeling can prove difficult, and in many instances, the finer features of the orbital bone have been simply been averaged out. The orbital structure isn't one bone, but seven: the frontal, lacrimal, ethmoid, zygomatic, maxillary, and palatine, and sphenoid bones. Can you think of any part of the human body where seven bones converge to fulfill a singular purpose? In recognition of this phenomenal feature of the human anatomy (and one of the most recognizable parts of the human skull), this week's embodi3D® Top Uploads articles, we are featuring several standout uploads — all of which can be used to create an orbital and skull 3D model. As detailed in the scholarly article "Clinical application of three-dimensional printing technology in craniofacial plastic surgery" 3D printing techniques are being used in craniofacial surgeries and especially in reconstruction procedures the require complex modeling. Using the latest 3D printing technology and the STL files converted using democratiz3D®, the contralateral orbit can serve as a point of reference for those in the medical field since the ipsilateral structures taken with a CT scan can be easily converted into an STL file and then fed to a 3D printer. These technologies improve patient consultations, increase the quality of diagnostic information while also helping to improve the planning stage of the surgical process. During surgery, a 3D-printed model of the orbital can be used to orient surgical staff and serve as a guide for surgical resectioning procedures. While these files are available for free on the website, you must register with embodi3D® before you can begin uploading and converting your own CT scans into STL files as well as downloading and 3D printing anatomical models from other users. Every day the collection of anatomical models grows on the embodi3D® website. This is but one of the many ways embodi3D® is seeking to revolutionize medical practices. #1. An Awesome Model of the Orbit's Acute Anatomy The orbits are conical structures dividing the upper facial skeleton from the middle face and surround the organs of vision. Seven bones conjoin to form the orbital structure as we can see in the example below. #2. A 3D Model of the Orbit's Surface in STL Format This excellent 3D model of embodi3D® shows the superficial bony margin of the orbit, which is rectangular with rounded corners. The margin is discontinuous at the lacrimal fossa. The supraorbital notch (seen in the image below) is within the supraorbital rim and is closed to form the supraorbital foramen in 25% of individuals. The supratrochlear notch is medial to the supraorbital notch. #3. A CT Scan of an Orbital Floor Fracture Hisham published this excellent ct scan on embodi3D®. Direct fractures of the orbital floor can extend from fractures of the inferior orbital rim. Indications for repair of the orbital floor in these cases are the same as those for indirect (blowout) fractures. Indirect fractures of the orbital floor are not associated with fracture of the inferior orbital rim. #4. A 3D Model of an Orbital Fracture CT scans with coronal or sagittal views and 3D models help guide treatment. They allow evaluation of fracture size and extraocular muscle relationships, providing information that can be used to help predict enophthalmos and muscle entrapment. #5. 3D Model Showing an Orbital Fracture Dropbear upload this excellent example of a right orbit fracture. #6. An Orbit 3D Model (Printable) Showing Fibrous Dysplasia (FD) for Surgical Demonstration The FD is a benign slowly progressive disorder of bone, where normal cancellous bone is replaced by fibrous tissue and immature woven bone. This entity constitutes about 2.5 % of all bone tumors. References Choi, J. W., & Kim, N. (2015). Clinical application of three-dimensional printing technology in craniofacial plastic surgery. Archives of plastic surgery, 42(3), 267. Bibby, K., & McFadzean, R. (1994). Fibrous dysplasia of the orbit. British journal of ophthalmology, 78(4), 266-270.
  18. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    tooth - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. tooth transplantation, ct, scan, without, contrast, tooth, transplantation, upper, lower, teeth, upper, lower, dental, dentistry, .stl, 3d, model, printable, axial, surgery

    Free

  19. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    tooth transplantation, ct, scan, without, contrast, tooth, transplantation, upper, lower, teeth, upper, lower, dental, dentistry, .stl, 3d, model, printable, axial, surgery

    Free

  20. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    britt, mandible, x ray, edentula, implants, osteosynthesis, angle, body, ramus, bone, 3d, model, printable, .stl, nasal, septum, maxilla, hard, palate, coronoid, process, dental, maxillofacial, surgery

    Free

  21. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    CT scan for dental implant surgical guide - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. 3d, model, .stl, printable, sphenoid, bone, maxilla, maxillary, sinus, clinoid, apophysis, zygomatic, arch, mastoid, process, foramen, magnum, mastoid, process, cervical, spine, mandible, ramus, body, angle, coronoid, teeth, dental, incisor, molar, premolar, alveolar, implant, maxillofacial, surgery,

    Free

  22. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    Class III Maloclusion - stl file processed skull, stl, face nasal, septum, maxillary, mandible, maloclusion, class iii, maxillofacial, surgery, zygomatic, arch, cervical, spine, temporal

    Free

  23. Version 1.0.0

    10 downloads

    Cone beam adult woman implant pacient - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. implant placement, stl, 3d model, bone, teeth, preoperative, implant, cone, beam, maxillofacial, surgery, orbit, nasal, septum, face, mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, arch, cervical, sine, magnun, sella, turica, clinoid, process, mastoid, temporal

    Free

  24. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    Cardiac CT Cropped - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. heart, stl, thorax, medistinum, aorta, ventricle, auricule, right, left, cardiac, cardiology, surgery, 3d model, sternum, ribs

    Free

  25. Version 1.0.0

    71 downloads

    CT TL Spine Scoliosis - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. stl, 3d, model, bone, printable, dorsal, lumbar, spine, vertebrae, body, lordosis, ciphosis, scoliosis, ribs, clavicle, traumatology, surgery

    Free

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