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Found 2,076 results

  1. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the left scapula was derived from a medical CT scan and shows the glenoid fossa This model was created using the democratiz3D 3D model creation service 0522c0883 Superior angle of the scapula, Coracoid process, Acromion, Spine of the scapula, Lateral margin of the scapula, Inferior angle of the scapula, 3d, model, .stl, printable,


  2. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the right foot was derived from a real medical CT scan of a 64 year old man. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. STS006 calcaneus, 3d, model, .stl, bone, foot, Distal phalanx, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joint, Sesamoids, Metatarsals, Tarsometatarsal joint (Lisfranc’s joint), Medial cuneiform, Middle cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Intertarsal joint, Base of the fifth metatarsal, Navicular, Cuboid, Talocalcaneonavicular joint, Transverse tarsal joint (Chopart’s joint), calcaneus, printable, lower, limb, foot, fibula, tibia, ankle,


  3. Version 1.0.0


    kb, scaphoid, trapezium, and trapezoid, wrist, bone, 3d, model, stl, finger, ulnar, radius, printable, lunate, capitate, triquetrum, hamate, metacarpus, ct, scan, without, contrast,


  4. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the thorax was derived from a medical CT scan. It shows the heart and aorta as they reside in the chest. This model was created using the democratiz3D 3D model creation service 0522c0878 CAPw, .stl, heart, aorta, ribs, thorax, sternum, chest, .stl, 3d, model, printable, bone, dorsal, transverse, spinous, process, intervertebral, disc, scapula, clavicle, manubrium, mediastinum, ventricle, auricle, great, vessels,


  5. There are many challenging cases, in which the single segmentation is not enough. The paranasal sinuses and the congenital heart defects are notable examples. My usual workflow was to segment whatever I can as good as it's possible, to clean the unnecessary structures and the artefacts, to export the segmentation as stl 3d model and then to "CAD my way around". This is solid philosophy for simple, uncomplicated models, but for complex structures with a lot of small details and requirement from the client for the highest quality possible, this is just not good enough, especially for a professional anatomist like myself. Then I started to exploit the simple fact, that you're actually able to export the model as stl, to model it with your CAD software and then to reimport it back and convert it into label map again. I called this "back and forth technique". You can model the finest details on your model and then you can continue the segmentation right where you need it, catching even the slightest details of the morphology of the targeted structure. This technique, combined with my expertise, gives me the ability to produce the best possible details on some of the most challenging cases, including nasal cavity, heart valves, brain models etc. etc.To use this technique, just import the stl file, convert it into a label map (for 3D slicer - segmentation module/ export/import models and label maps). The main advantages of this technique are:1. You can combine the segmentation with the most advanced CAD functions of your favorite software. Two highly specialized programs are better than one "Jack of all trades" (cough cough Mimics cough cough)2. Advanced artefact removing.3. Advanced small detail segmentation and modelling.4. Combined with several markers (separate segmentations, several voxels in size) on the nearby anthropometric points, this technique increases the accuracy of the final product significantly. Without points of origin, the geometry of your model will go to hell, if you're not especially careful (yes, I'm talking about the 3D brushes in Slicer).5. You can easily compare the label map with the 3d model, converted back. Every deviation, produced during the CAD operations will be visible like a big, shining dot, which you can easily see and correct. This is one of the strongest quality control techniques.6. You can create advanced masks with all the geometrical forms you can possibly imagine, which you can use for advanced detail segmentation. Those masks will be linked with the spatial coordinates of the targeted structures - the stl file preserves the exact coordinates of every voxel, which was segmented.7. You can go back and forth multiple times, as many as you like.8. This technique is more powerful than the best AI, developed by now. It combines the best from the digital technologies with the prowess of the human visual cortex (the best video card up to date).The main disadvantages are:1. It's time consuming.2. It produces A LOT of junk files.3. Advanced expertise is needed for this technique. This is not some "prank modelling", but an actual morphological work. A specialized education and practical experience in the human anatomy, pathology and radiology will give you the best results, which this technique can offer. 4. You need highly developed visual cortex for this technique (dominant visual sense). This technique is not for the linguistic, spatial-motor, olphactory etc. types of brains. Recent studies confirms, that a part of the population have genetically determined bigger, more advanced visual cortex (The human connectome project, Prof. David Van Essen, Washington University in Saint Louis). Such individuals become really successful cinematographers, designers, photographers and medical imaging specialists. The same is true for all the other senses, but right now we're talking about visual modality and 3D intellect (I'm sorry, dear linguists, musicians, craftsmen and tasters). It's not a coincidence that I have so many visual artists in my family (which makes me the medical black sheep). But if you don't have this kind of brain, you can still use the technique for quality control and precise mask generation. Just let the treshould module or the AI to do the job for you in the coordinates, in which you want (You should really start using the Segment Editor module in Slicer 3D).5. You really need to love your work, if you're using this technique. For the usual 3D modelling you don't need so many details in your model and to "CAD your way around" is enough for the task.6. You should use only stl files. For some reason, the obj format can't preserve the spatial geometry as good as the stl format. Maybe because the stl is just a simple map of vertex coordinates and the obj contains much more sophisticated data. The simple, the better.On the picture - comparison of the semilunar valves, made by treshould segmentation at 250-450 Hounsfield units (in green) and modelled and reimported model (in red).
  6. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. This model is an improvement over a prior version (here). It shows the heart with slices cut in the anatomical transverse plane. If you are interested in a heart with short-axis slices, check out my short-axis stackable slice model here. Notches have been added to ensure the slices fit together and do not slide against each other. The model demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. It has been validated as printable on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer. Technical parameters: manifold STL (watertight) vertices: 462576 triangles: 925800 dimensions: 15.1 x 15.2 x 10.5 cm



    Spine full

    Version 1.0.0


    from cat scan, bone, stl, dicom, 3dmodel, lumbar, spine, vertebrae, .stl, dicom, 3d, model, bone, transverse, .stl, printable, intervertebral, disc, dorsal, foramen, spinous, lordosis,


  8. Version 1.0.0


    CT SCAN - CHEST-PELVIC - 10-27-16 - processed, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, abdomen, rectum, pelvis, iliac, bone, ischium, pubis, gluteus, heart, .stl,


  9. Version 1.0.0


    3D Model of Lumbar spine. Anterior, Lateral, Oblique, axial and posterior views for tutorial NRRDs - processed bones, lumbar, spine, intervertebral, disc, body, laminae, transverse, spinous, process, foramen, pedicle, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, sacrum, vertebrae, coccyx, foramina,


  10. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable STL model of the thoracic spine shows notable kyphosis (hunchback deformity) and was derived from a CT scan. STS_002. This model was created using the democratiz3D service. thoracic, spine, t, spine, hunch, back, kyphosis, .stl, ribs, costovertebral, joint, body, 3d, model, printable, .stl, intervertebral, disc, foramen, laminae, pedicle, bone, transverse, spinous, scoliosis,


  11. 0 downloads

    Extracted from CT., hip and spine, lumbar, spine, columb, vertebrae, stl, bone, print, 3d model hip, and, spine, acetabulum, pelvis, iliac, ribs, thorax, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, intervertebral, disc, body, transverse, spinous, foramen, laminae, facet, joint, costovertebral, chest,


  12. 52 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file of a thoracic spine with severe scoliosis was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows how the vertebrae become misaligned in the scoliotic spine. Great for education at all levels. Download is free for registered members. This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing. The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors. Technical specs: File format: STL Manifold mesh: Yes Triangles: 261682 thoracic, spine, scoliosis, t, spine, .stl, 3d, printable, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, body, transverse, foramen, intervertebral, disc, costovertebral, joint, facet,


  13. 103 downloads

    This is a .stl file produced from a CT scan of myself. I used 'InVesalius 3.0 free' to convert the 2D dicom images into the .stl file. I use either 3D Tool or Materialise's MiniMagics (free versions) to view and manipulate the 3D image. I have been told I had a severe hyperflexion injury to my c spine during an assault in 1988 and sustained a number of fractures and subluxations which were not diagnosed by a hospital as they discharged me from the ER in error before I had been examined by a Dr. It wasn't until I had a CT scan in 2011 and produced 3D images from it that I discovered various bony abnormalities that were subsequently identified as fractures & subluxations by experts. I understand the right transverse process of T1, tip of C6 spinous process and the left greater cornu of the hyoid bone are the most obvious old fractures that can be seen. cervical, spine, .stl, 3d, printing, .stl, bone, 3d, model, printable, vertebrae, spine, atlas, axis, body, intervertebral, space, laminae, facet, transverse, process, spinous, process, printable, 3d, model, ribs, clavicle,


  14. 35 downloads

    This anatomically accurate acetabulum was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 132 slices). The model may be useful for medical education. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au acetabulum, skeletal, 3d, model, .stl, hip, bone, ilium, labrum, fossa, spine, anterior, inferior, ilio-pubis, suture, posterior, horn, facies, lunata,


  15. 149 downloads

    This anatomically accurate C1 vertebra was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 47 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows shows the vertebral body, spinous process, facets, transverse processes and spinal canal. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au c1, vertebra, skeletal, 3d, model, .stl, cervical, spine, bone, atlas, anterior, posterior, arch, auricular, facet, lateral, mass, transverse, process, inferior, articular, for axis, vertebral, foramen, 3d, model, printing, .stl,


  16. 337 downloads

    This anatomically accurate L3 vertebra was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 95 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows shows the vertebral body, spinous process, facets, transverse processes and spinal canal. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. L3, vertebra, skeletal, 3d, model, print, .stl, bone, laminae, body, lumbar, .stl, 3d, model, printable, laminae, pedicle, Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au


  17. 67 downloads

    This anatomically accurate sacrum was derived from a DICOM CT dataset (0.8 mm slice thickness x 138 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows the sacral foramina, dorsal and ventral surfaces, and articular surface with the L5 vertebra. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au sacrum, skeletal, .stl, 3d, model, pelvis, coccyx, bone, print, foramina, 3d, model, printable, .stl, spinous, process, crest, ala, tubercles, promontory, auricular, fossa, body, spine


  18. 3D Free Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus Models in 3D-Printable STL Format Shoulders are comprised of three main bones. These include humerus (bone in the upper arm), scapula (shoulder blade), and the clavicle, which we commonly refer to as the "collarbone." Bones of the shoulder work together with the transverse humeral ligament, synovial membrane of the bicep, bursa sac, and the superior transverse ligament to perform a complex range of motions. In fact, the shoulder has the most extended pivot range of any joint within the body. Your glenohumearal joint (shoulder) is a ball-and-socket joint that is able to move in so many positions due to the relatively small size of the glenoid fossa, as well as the laxity ("wiggle room") of the joint capsule. But, these features also make the shoulder prone to overuse injuries, subluxation, dislocation, and ligament tears. In this week's embodi3D® Top Ten, we are bringing you some of the best 3D scapula, clavicle, and humerus models which comprise the majority of the human shoulder joint. Before you dive into this week's Top 10 and start printing your own 3D anatomical models, you must first register with embodi3D®. It's absolutely free to sign up and you can take advantage of many of the features found on the embodi3D® website, including standard resolution democratiz3D® conversions. Register with embodi3D® today! Technologies like these were recently featured in the journal Société Internationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie (SICOT), where models of a 3D scapula, humerus, and soft tissues are being used in preoperative planning. If you are interested in uploading your CT scans and converting these to 3D-printable STL format, the democratiz3D® Quick Start Guide will help you to quickly get up and running. How Shoulders Achieve Their Range of Motion Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. * Flexion: Pectoralis major, deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps muscles * Extension: Deltoid & teres major muscles. – If against resistance, also latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major. * Abduction: Deltoid & supraspinatus muscles. – Subscapularis, infraspinatus, & teres minor exert downward traction – Supraspinatus contribution controversial * Medial rotation: Pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, & teres major muscles. – Subscapularis when arm at side * Lateral rotation: Infraspinatus, deltoid, & teres minor muscles. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Shoulder in STL Format This articulation is maintained by overlying soft tissue structures. The posterosuperior acromion process of the scapula provides one half of the AC joint. It also forms most of the osseous portion of the coracoacromial arch, the roof over the rotator cuff. The acromion process is connected to the body of the scapula by the spine. The osseous structures of the shoulder girdle are the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Medially, the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint. This joint serves as the only true articulation between the shoulder girdle and the axial skeleton. Laterally, the clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint #2. STL File Showing Scapular Notch and Shoulder Variations in the shape of the clavicle are considered normal and are not usually pathologic. These variations may range from an almost straight bone to one with exaggerated curves. Another variation of the clavicle that is present in 6-10% of the population is termed the canalis nervi supraclavicularis. In this variation, a foramen forms through the clavicle, and the medial supraclavicular nerve passes through this accessory osseous canal. The scapular notch varies in size and shape. The notch is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This ligament ossifies in 10% of patients, producing a bony foramen for the suprascapular nerve. #3. A 3D Model of the Shoulders of the Muscle Rotator cuff: 4 muscles arising on scapula and inserting on humerus * Supraspinatus: From supraspinatus fossa of scapula to greater tuberosity – Abducts humerus, also depresses humeral head. * Infraspinatus: From posterior surface of scapula to greater tuberosity. – Externally rotates humerus * Teres minor: From lateral border of scapula to greater tuberosity – Externally rotates humerus * Subscapularis muscle: From anterior surface of scapula to lesser tuberosity – Superficial fibers extend across to anterior margin of greater tuberosity as part of transverse ligament – Internally rotates, adducts humerus #4. 3D Model (STL Format) of the Muscles Connecting the Arm to Axial Skeleton 4. Various muscles also serve to connect the arm to the axial skeleton. Anteriorly, the pectoralis major and minor muscles extend from the sternum and clavicle to the proximal humeral shaft. Posteriorly, the latissimus dorsi muscle arises from the thoracic cage to attach onto the proximal humeral shaft. The great range of motion provided for by the glenohumeral joint is executed in large part by the muscles of the rotator cuff. The supraspinatus muscle arises superior to the scapular spine and attaches to the superior facet of the greater tuberosity. The more posterior infraspinatus muscle arises below the spine and inserts onto the posterior facet of the greater tuberosity. The teres minor muscle originates and inserts just caudal to the infraspinatus. The subscapularis muscle arises from the anterior scapular body to insert onto the lesser tuberosity. The long head of the biceps originates at the superior glenoid rim, passes through the rotator cuff interval at the anterosuperior glenohumeral joint, and then follows the bicipital groove between the tuberosities into the upper arm. The deltoid muscle has a broad origination along the lateral aspect of the acromion from anterior to posterior. It covers the lateral portion of the upper arm before inserting on to the lateral proximal humeral shaft at the deltoid tuberosity. #5. 3D Model of the Skin around the Shoulder, Arm, and Upper Chest A 3D model of the skin of the shoulder where the soft tissue of the shoulder and arm are shown. Trapezius: is responsible for the smooth contour of the lateral side of the neck and over the superior aspect of the shoulder. It can be seen and felt throughout its entirety when the shoulder girdles are retracted against resistance; the superior part can be palpated when the shoulders are elevated against resistance. Posterior axillary fold: is formed by the latissimus dorsi winding around the lateral border of the teres major muscle. Latissimus dorsi forms much of the muscle mass underlying the posterior axillary fold extending obliquely upward from the trunk to the arm. Teres major passes from the inferior angle of the scapula to the upper humerus and contributes to the fold laterally. Both muscles can be palpated on resisted shoulder adduction. Pectoralis major: can be seen and felt throughout its entire extent when it is contracted against resistance as in pressing the palm together in front of the body. Clavicular fibers can be felt if the shoulder is flexed against resistance to a position midway between flexion and extension, while the sternocostal fibers can be felt if the shoulder is extended against resistance starting in a flexed position. The inferior border of the pectoralis major muscle forms the anterior axillary fold. Deltoid: forms the muscular eminence inferior to the acromion and around the glenohumeral joint. The anterior, middle, and posterior fibers of the deltoid can be palpated. When the arm is abducted against resistance, the anterior border of the deltoid can be felt. The clavipectoral triangle (deltopectoral triangle) is the depressed area just inferior to the lateral part of the clavicle, bounded by the clavicle superiorly, the deltoid laterally, and the clavicular head of the pectoralis major medially. #6. CT Scan Showing a Fracture in the Proximal Humeral A computed tomography (CT) is recommended for complex fracture situations although those situations were not clearly defined. Therefore, precise indications for CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. #7. Connection of Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle Shown in 3D STL File The scapula is a spade-shaped bone comprised of a thin triangular body and a semi-ovoid cavity known as the glenoid fossa (glenoid cavity). The glenoid fossa faces lateral and slightly anterior and cranial. A bony spine runs across the dorsal surface of the scapular body and terminates in the acromion. The scapula articulates with two bones, the humerus and clavicle. The scapula does not directly contact the bony rib cage: the two structures are separated by muscle and other soft tissue. #8. Right Shoulder Injury Revealed by CT Scan On CT acute trauma may result of bony, labral, ligamentous or musculotendinous damage. The shoulder may be injured following repetitive injury or as part of systemic inflammatory conditions or infection. Moreover, the bones around the shoulder may be affected by benign or malignant bony lesions, and associated pathological fracture. #9. Right Shoulder with Pleomorphic Spindle Cell Sarcoma (3D-Printable STL File) Pleomorphic sarcoma composed of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and histiocyte-like cells. Historically considered the most common adult soft tissue sarcoma. Usually older adults (age 50+ years) with slight male predominance; more common in lower extremities, rarely retroperitoneum, head and neck, breast. Large and deep-seated with progressive enlargement. Sarcomas adjacent to orthopedic implants or post-radiation are usually osteosarcoma or MFH. #10. 3D-Printable Model of Right Shoulder Bones The humerus is the large single bone of the upper arm. Proximally, it articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula forming the glenohumeral joint. The humeral head is large and globular. Just ventral to the articular surface is the lesser tubercle, where the subscapularis attaches. Lateral to the articular surface is the greater tubercle. The rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder insert on the proximal humerus. References 1. Manaster, B. J., & Crim, J. R. (2016). Imaging Anatomy: Musculoskeletal E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2. Bahrs, C., Rolauffs, B., Südkamp, N. P., Schmal, H., Eingartner, C., Dietz, K., ... & Helwig, P. (2009). Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 10(1), 33. 3. Duke University Medical School - Anatomy. (2018). Web.duke.edu. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://web.duke.edu/anatomy/ 4. Shoulder Joint Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy. (2018). Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1899211-overview#a1 5. The Radiology Assistant : Shoulder MR - Anatomy. (2012). Radiologyassistant.nl. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/p4f49ef79818c2/shoulder-mr-anatomy.html
  19. Top 10 Free Downloadable CT Angiogram (CTA) 3D Printable Models on embodi3D.® For several years now, surgeons, radiologists, and others in the medical profession have used 3D-printed vascular simulation models from CT angiograms (CTAs) to practice complex procedures, as well as for research and educational purposes. The growth has been fueled by the development of high resolution imaging studies merging with the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, and the development of new printing materials. These advances have resulted in reductions in the costs associated with creating high resolution medical models. As noted in the journal RadioGraphics (Radiological Society of North America), CT angiogram-derived 3D-printed models are quickly being embraced by those in the medical field. The evolution of this disruptive technology is expected to revolutionize medical practices over the years to come. And, tools such as democratiz3D® are making it easy for medical professionals to create ultra-resolution 3D models. A human skull and collarbone, created by a CT Angiogram. Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are focal dilatations of the abdominal aorta that are 50% greater than the proximal normal segment or >3 cm in maximum diameter. The prevalence of AAAs increases with age. Males are much more commonly affected than females, with a ratio of 4:1. They are the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world. Approximately 10% of individuals older than 65 have an AAA. This week we would like to share the best 3d models of a CT angiogram (CTA). Don’t forget to register in order to download the images, you can do it clicking here: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) An excellent 3D model an abdominal CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) showing the location infrarrenal. When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include : - size and shape - sac dimensions (outer surface to outer surface) - luminal diameter if mural thrombus is present - fusiform or saccular - size of vessel proximal and distal to aneurysm - characteristics of wall - mural calcification - presence of mural thrombus - location and relationship to involved branches/structurerenal arteries - involvement of the origins of the renal arteries - presence of accessory renal arteries and where they arise splanchnic arteries great vessels from the arch characterisation of possible aetiology - true or false - possibility of mycotic aetiology - complications: leak, rupture, proximity to bowel, aortocaval fistula, other relevant vesselsthoracic aortic aneurysms - the size and dominance of vertebral arteries should be included if the aneurysm is close to the left subclavian artery presence of carotid disease is important, as significant stenosis may predispose the patient to strokes during any period of reduced flow/hypotension AAA 2. Model of Abdominal Vessels Ready for 3D Printing A 3D model of the abdominal vessels with detail. In addition to great vessel pathology, 3D printing has also been used in the treatment of other visceral vessel diseases. 3D modeling was used to plan the optimal combination of guide catheter and microcatheter to successfully treat a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms. The team was able to preserve splenic function and minimize the need for repeat angiograms. 3D printing has also been described as an intraoperative reference for robotic resection of a celiac trunk aneurysm. Modeling other visceral vessel aneurysms has been described, including left gastric, right epigastric, gastroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms. If this model is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a heart and pulmonary artery tree CT angiogram 3D model uploaded by health_physics, who used the democratiz3D® tool. 3. CT Angiogram of the Brain and Neck A brain and neck CTA example. 4. Vascular Simulation Model The use of 3D modeling for vascular simulations can provide training and education in either normal or complex anatomy. . It can also provide the haptic feedback which may be lacking in virtual reality simulations and has been shown to improve anatomical knowledge in students. In addition to provider education, 3D models have been demonstrated as a useful tool for preoperative patient education. 5. External Carotid Artery (ECA) CT Angiogram External Carotid artery ( ECA): arises from the CCA bifurcation and has 8 branches: 1) Superior thyroid artery- 1st branch of the ECA 2) Lingual artery- arises between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery; supplies tongue with blood supply 3) Facial artery- arises just above the lingual artery & courses along the lower mandible, across the cheek to the angle of the mouth. It continues to course superior along the side of the nose to the inner canthus of the eye; supplies tongue, lips, nose, and lachrymal sac with a blood supply; AKA- Angular artery 4) Occipital artery- arises from the posterior portion of the ECA opposite the facial artery and is an important communicating artery with the muscular branches of the vertebral artery 5) Posterior Auricle artery- arises from the ECA above the digastric & styo-hoid muscles opposite the apex of the styloid process. It has 3 branches which supply the membranous tympani, back of ear, and muscle 6) Ascending Pharyngeal artery- usually arises at the level of the carotid bifurcation and the smallest branch. It has 4 branches that supply the longus muscle, coli muscle, lymph glands, palate, typani, and dura matter 7) Superficial Temporal artery- arises between the neck, lower jaw, and external auditory meatus. It is the smaller of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It bifurcates into the anterior temporal and posterior temporal arteries providing a blood supply to the supraorbital rim and facial muscles. It is used to help identify the ICA from the ECA 8) Maxillary artery- arises at the level of the parotid gland opposite the neck of the condoyle of the lower jaw. It is the larger of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It is divided into 3 segments: 1st is the maxillary segment 2nd is the pterygoid segment 3rd is the spheno-maxillary segment One of its terminating branches is the infraorbital artery It anastomoses with the ophthalmic artery It is collateral for brain circulation (Pre-Willisian anastomosis) 6. CTA of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms probably represent the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention. Recent advances in imaging techniques have raised new possibilities in medical imaging regarding aneurysmal disease making size recordings more accurate and reproducible than ever. Here we show an excellent example of a AAA CTA. 7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a CT Angiogram-Created 3D Model A 3D reconstruction of an AAA. 3D printing has become a useful tool to many clinicians and researchers. A variety of applications currently employ 3D printing for the treatment of aortic vascular disease, including pre-procedural planning, training, and creation of personalized aortic grafts. Advances in the accessibility of 3D printing, as well as continued research in 3D-printed vascular networks, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of aortic diseases. 8. Stunning 3D Model of Human "Bovine Arch" Aorta The term “bovine arch” is widely used to describe a common anatomic variant of the human aortic arch branching. This so-called bovine aortic arch has no resemblance to the bovine aortic arch. A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. A related variant, also known as truncus bicaroticus, is the origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic artery but not sharing a true common origin, which occurs in ~9% of the population. Sometimes this can be difficult to distinguish from a common origin because the left common carotid artery arises within 1cm of the origin of the brachiocephalic artery. Clinical presentation: This common variant is asymptomatic most of the time. In rare cases of head and neck surgery, e.g. tracheostomy, it can be a risk factor for injury and cause complications 4. In combination with an aberrant right subclavian artery it can cause a dysphagia lusoria. 9. CT Scan of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intraluminal Trombus A CT scan of an AAA with an intraluminal trombus. The pathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) shows several hallmarks of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic disease, but comprises an additional, predominant feature of proteolysis resulting in the degradation and destabilization of the aortic wall. 10. CTA of a Human Head and Neck An excellent example of a neck and head CTA showing the neck vessels. 3D model printing has the potential to become an essential preoperative investigation for surgery on arteriovenous malformations. References: 1. Collins J, Stern EJ. Chest radiology, the essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781763142. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 2. Atar E, Belenky A, Hadad M et-al. MR angiography for abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms: assessment before endovascular repair in patients with impaired renal function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (2): 386-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.0449 - Pubmed citation 3. Hangge, P., Pershad, Y., Witting, A. A., Albadawi, H., & Oklu, R. (2018). Three-dimensional (3D) printing and its applications for aortic diseases. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 8(Suppl 1), S19.
  20. Top 10: Free Downloadable 3D Knee Model and Other STL Files As a complex joint and one of the largest joints in the body, the knee joint is a fascinating feature of the human form. This joint not only has the task of joining the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and patella (knee cap), but also remaining flexible enough to allow for compound movements, such as running, jumping, dancing, kicking a soccer ball — the list goes on. The knee joint may have the greatest range of motion thanks to its non-interlocking form, but the muscles, joint, tendons, ligaments, menisci, capsule, and tendons must all work together to give the leg the rigidity it needs to support nearly the entire human bodyweight. Have you guessed this week's Top 10 featured uploads from the embodi3D® community? That's right, we're highlighting the marvel that is the human knee joint — bones, tissues, and all. Within the following sections you see stunning images and STL files of a 3D knee model (several, actually), as well as a number of other STL models of the lower limbs that you can download and create using your 3D printer. If this topic is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a recent article in the online trade journal Manufacturing Tomorrow highlighting the use of 3D-printed knee models in pre-operative preparation. And, don't forget to check out our Extremity, Lower Leg library for more 3D-printable STL files like these! But, before you can make use of all the amazing tools offered on the embodi3D® website you need to register with embodi3D®. This community is absolutely free to join and members can upload, download, convert, and sell their CT-converted STL files. The Radiologist's Difficult Task of Imaging Knee Joints There are a number of pitfalls and challenges when it comes to getting a stable image of the knee area, including: • Variants: Multiple osseous and soft tissue normal variants • Loose bodies on MR: Easily missed • Partial voluming over convex surfaces: Morphology of trochlea, femoral condyles, and patella makes them particularly difficult to evaluate in 3 standard planes • Imaging cartilage ○ T2 underestimates cartilage thickness since cortex and cartilage have similar signal ○ PD may have similar signal for cartilage and adjacent joint fluid, obscuring defects; fat saturation solves this. #1. 3D Knee Model Showing the Muscles (in 3D-Printable STL Format) Muscles acting on knee joint: Extensors (4 parts of quadriceps femoris) ○ Rectus femoris (crosses both hip and knee joints, flexing hip and extending knee), ○ Vastus lateralis , ○ Vastus medialis ○ Vastus intermedius ( Extends knee) Muscles acting on knee joint: Flexors ○ Biceps femoris (Flexes knee and also rotates tibia laterally; long head also extends hip joint) ○ Sartorius (Crosses both hip and knee joints, flexes both hip and knee joints, rotating thigh laterally to bring limbs into position adopted by cross-legged tailor) ○ Gracilis (Adducts thigh, flexes knee, and rotates flexed leg medially) ○ Semitendinosus (Crosses both hip and knee joints, extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates flexed leg) ○ Semimembranosus (Crosses both hip and knee joints, extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates flexed knee) ○ Popliteus (Flexes knee and medially rotates tibia at beginning of flexion) – Innervation: Tibial nerve Muscles acting on knee joint: Superficial flexors of knee ○ Gastrocnemius: (Flexes knee and plantar flexes ankle) ○ Plantaris (Flexes knee and plantar flexes ankle) Muscles acting on knee joint: Internal rotators of leg ○ Popliteus, gracilis, sartorius, semitendinosus, semimembranosus Muscles acting on knee joint: External rotator of leg ○ Biceps femoris • Extensor mechanism ○ Quadriceps tendon and retinacula converge to inferior patellar tendon #2. A Remarkable STL Model of the Skin Surface of the Knee This detailed STL file was converted from a CT scan through democratiz3D® and uploaded to the community for the benefit of all. #3. 3D Model of the Bones within the Knee (Femur, Tibia, Fibula, and Patella) The knee is composed of 4 bones: the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. All these bones are functional in the knee joint, except for the fibula. The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The tibia lies distal to the femur and medial to the fibula. The proximal end consists of medial and lateral condyles, an intercondylar area, and the tibial tuberosity that articulates with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur. Distally, the tibia articulates with the ankle. The distal and proximal ends of the tibia articulate with the fibula. In addition, the shaft of the tibia and fibula are connected with an interosseous membrane to form a syndesmosis joint. The fibula does not articulate with the femur or patella. Furthermore, the fibula is not directly involved in weight transmission. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. This bone is flat, proximally curved, and distally tapered; however, the shape can vary. The posterior patella articulates with the femur, but the apex sits proximal to the line of the knee joint. The tendon of the quadriceps femoris completely encompasses the patella. #4. CT Scan of the Knee Showing Articulations of the Condylar Joints The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation. #5. Fracture of the Tibial Plateau (Converted into STL, 3D-Printable Format) Fx of tibial plateau due to axial loading, ± rotational injury, ± valgus angulation. Most tibial plateau fx involve lateral plateau ○ "Split" component of fx describes fx line extending from articular surface to margin of metaphyseal cortex ○ "Depressed" component is displaced below level of remainder of articular surface. I-III involve lateral plateau only ○ Schatzker I: Split fx with no depression (usually younger patients) ○ Schatzker II: Lateral split/wedge fx with depression of weight-bearing portion (usually older patients with osteoporosis) ○ Schatzker III: Focal depression of articular surface, no associated split (elderly, osteoporotic patients) ○ Schatzker IV: Any medial plateau fx: Split, ± depression; may involve tibial spines; associated soft tissue injuries and poor prognosis – Lateral plateau fx line that extends to medial articular surface adjacent to tibial spines but without depression or extension to metaphyseal cortex not considered to involve medial plateau for classification purposes – Commonly associated with lateral collateral ligament complex or posterolateral corner injuries or proximal fibula fx ○ Schatzker V: Split fx of both medial and lateral plateau (bicondylar) ± depression – Up to 1/2 have meniscal injuries, 1/3 anterior cruciate ligament avulsions ○ Schatzker VI: Bicondylar or unicondylar split fx with dissociation of metaphysis from diaphysis by transverse fx component #6. CT Scan of the Knee Showing an LTP Fracture Findings of this CT scan include: • Assists in diagnosis of radiographically occult fx • Confirms anatomic relationship of fx fragments in complex cases ○ Describe number, size, and location for fragments and fx lines ○ Accurate measurement of size and extent of plateau fragment depression • Surgical planning for either elevation of depressed fragments or for Schatzker type IV-VI fxs #7. An MRI of the Menisci of the Knee (History of Injury) These MRIs highlight a patient with a history of injury to the area. We can clearly see the menisci and its analysis include: Lateral meniscus ○ Overall configuration: Semicircular ○ Shape: Uniform, minimally and gradually enlarging from anterior to posterior ○ Normal recess: Peripheral, inferior at anterior horn Medial meniscus ○ Overall configuration: Semilunar (C-shaped) ○ Shape nonuniform: Anterior horn similar in size & shape to LM but midbody is small, approximating an equilateral triangle; MM posterior horn is largest portion of MM, nearly 2x as long as anterior horn ○ Normal recess: Peripheral, superior at posterior horn Meniscal "flounce": Buckling of a portion of meniscus, perhaps related to femorotibial subluxation Signal • Generally uniformly low signal throughout • Exceptions ○ Children and adolescents may have normal increased intrameniscal signal that does not extend to surface (due to rich vascular supply) ○ Adults may develop central degenerative changes seen as linear or globular signal that does not extend to surface and does not represent a tear ○ Various high signal clefts and dots can normally be seen in anterior horn LM at and near its root attachment, due to immediate adjacency of origin of ACL and divergence of longitudinal fibers at root; do not misinterpret as tear ○ Peripheral portion of meniscus is quite vascular – Outer meniscal margin as seen by MR is usually not true periphery of structure: Meniscus signal in its peripheral vascular portion (10-30%) blends in with gray signal of the capsule ○ "Magic angle" may affect signal in posterior horn of LM in region of intercondylar notch #8. Knee Ligaments and Muscles in a 3D-Printable Model (STL File) This extraordinarily detailed 3D model of a 64-year-old male's knee shows the exquisite details of the muscles and ligaments. #9. Printable STL File of a Right Leg Bone Model Fibrohistiocytic tumors represent a highly heterogeneous group of soft tissue neoplasms composed of cells exhibiting fibroblastic and histiocytic features. The extremities are the most common site followed by the trunk, the pelvis, the head and neck region and the genital area. The differential diagnosis should exclude benign myxoid neoplasms, epitheloid types of MFS, carcinoma, melanoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma and pleomorphic rabdomyosarcoma. #10. Total Knee Arthroplasty Completed with 3D-Printed Metal Condyles Total knee arthroplasty (TKA): Replacement of femoral, tibial, and patellar articular surfaces DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST: • Keep in mind shape of polyethylene components; lucency of this shape in wrong location is hint of dislocation • Periprosthetic fractures are easily missed; include them in your search pattern ○ Increased risk for periprosthetic fracture with osteoporosis &/or tibial tubercle transfer. Complications, other than malalignment ○ Patellar button dislocation from cement or metal backing. ○ Tibial polyethylene may dislocate from metal tray ○ Stress shielding: Occurs in anterior and mid femoral metaphysis, seen on lateral radiograph – Does not predict component failure ○ Loosening: Change in position (tilt or subsidence) – Patellar button usually subsides superiorly. - Tibial component subsides inferiorly, usually with medial trabecular compression ○ Infection – Rare radiographic findings of serpiginous destruction – MR: Lamellated hyperintense synovitis differentiates infectious from noninfectious synovitis References 1. Manaster, B. J., & Crim, J. R. (2016). Imaging Anatomy: Musculoskeletal E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2. Castronovo, C., Arrese, J. E., Quatresooz, P., & Nikkels, A. F. (2013). Myxofibrosarcoma: a diagnostic pitfall. Rare tumors, 5(2), 60-61. 3. Blankenbaker, D. G., & Davis, K. W. (2016). Diagnostic Imaging: Musculoskeletal Trauma E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  21. The upper extremity is connected to the axial skeleton and thoracic cage by the shoulder girdle. The unique arrangement of the skeletal and soft tissue structures of the shoulder allows for the greatest range of motion of any joint in the human body. For these same reasons, the shoulder joint is the least stable of all joints making it prone to dislocation and instability. The glenohumearal joint has a greater range of motion than any other joint in the body. The small size of the glenoid fossa and the relative laxity of the joint capsule renders the joint relatively unstable and prone to subluxation and dislocation. Range of motion: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. * Flexion: Pectoralis major, deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps muscles * Extension: Deltoid & teres major muscles. – If against resistance, also latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major. * Abduction: Deltoid & supraspinatus muscles. – Subscapularis, infraspinatus, & teres minor exert downward traction – Supraspinatus contribution controversial * Medial rotation: Pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, & teres major muscles. – Subscapularis when arm at side * Lateral rotation: Infraspinatus, deltoid, & teres minor muscles. 1. 2. The osseous structures of the shoulder girdle are the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Medially, the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint. This joint serves as the only true articulation between the shoulder girdle and the axial skeleton. Laterally, the clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
  22. 3D Printed Skull and the embodi3D® Top 10 Skull and Head Anatomy This week, embodi3D® brings you the best 3D anatomical models of the skull and head region, including several fascinating files that you can use to create a 3D printed skull. For medical professionals, students, and researchers, understanding the structure of the human skull is an important part of delivering an accurate diagnosis. Using tools such as democratiz3D® also helps medical professionals such as radiologists and surgeons to prepare for unique operations. Recently, a team of surgeons at at Boston Children's Hospital used 3D printing to plan for a young patient's surgery with great success. Citing this case, the Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons praised the training and surgical education benefits of 3D printing. After checking out this week's Top 10 list, you may also find Dr. Mike's entires on "Creating a 3D Printable Skull from a CT Scan in 5 Minutes Using Freeware" and "A Ridiculously Easy Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes." A 3D-printed skull shown with prominent fracture to the forehead. If you haven't already, be sure to register with embodi3D® to take advantage of all of the tools and conversion algorithms available to embodi3D® and democratiz3D® users. Registering is absolutely free and we have a number of tutorials available to help you get up and running as quickly as possible. 1. Excellent 3D-Printed Model of the Frontal Bone Colloquially known as the "forehead," the frontal bone comprises the squamus, orbital, and nasal parts of the skull. It is one of eight bones that form the cranium, or brain case. The frontal bone plays a vital role in supporting and protecting the delicate nervous tissue of the brain. It gives shape to the skull and supports several muscles of the head. At its inferior border, the frontal bone forms the roof of the orbits and the brow. The coronal suture forms the posterior boundary of the frontal bone where it meets the parietal bones. The primary functions of the frontal bone are the protection of the brain and the support of the structures of the head. The hard mineral matrix of the frontal bone provides protection for the soft brain tissue. Although the frontal bone follows the ridges of the brain very closely, a small gap between the frontal bone and brain houses the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid of the cranium. The pressure exerted by cerebrospinal fluid on the interior of the cranium holds the brain in place and prevents the brain from colliding with the skull. 2. A 3D Model of the Skull Base in Exquisite Detail A 3D model of the skull base with exquisite detail. The skull base forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from other facial structures. This anatomic region is complex and poses surgical challenges for otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons alike. Working knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the skull base is essential for effective surgical treatment of disease in this area. The 5 bones that make up the skull base are the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, paired frontal, and paired temporal bones. The skull base can be subdivided into 3 regions: the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae. (See the image below.) The petro-occipital fissure subdivides the middle cranial fossa into 1 central component and 2 lateral components. This article discusses each region, with attention to the surrounding structures, nerves, vascular supply, and clinically relevant surgical landmarks. 3. A 3D Model of the Paranasal Sinuses The paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the bones of the skull and facial bones. They are centered on the nasal cavity and have various functions, including lightening the weight of the head, humidifying and heating inhaled air, increasing the resonance of speech, and serving as a crumple zone to protect vital structures in the event of facial trauma. Four sets of paired sinuses are recognized: maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid (see the image below 4. Right Maxillary Bone Show in Anatomically Accurate Detail The maxilla consists of maxillary bones that form the upper jaw; together they are the keystone of the face, for all other immovable facial bones are connected to them. Portions of these bones make up the front of the roof of the mouth (hard palate), the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity. They also contain the sockets of the upper teeth. Inside the maxillae, on the sides the nasal cavity, are the maxillary sinuses (antrum of Highmore). These air-filled spaces are the largest of the sinuses, and they extend from the floor of the orbits to the roots of the upper teeth. 5. Create a 3D Printed Anatomical Sphenoid Bone The sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. It consists of a central part and two wing-like structures that extend sideways toward each side of the skull. This bone helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits (eye sockets). Along the middle, within the cranial cavity, a portion of the sphenoid bone rise. 6. A Mandible (Jawbone) 3D Printed from a CT Scan with democratiz3D® The mandible, or jawbone, is the only movable bone in the skull. It is the strongest and most massive bone in the face. The mandible plays a vital role in many common tasks, including chewing, speech, and facial expression. The mandible is one of the twenty-two bones that make up the skull and the only one of those bones that is not fused to its neighbors. It is often called the lower jawbone as it is located inferior to the maxillae, which contain the top row of teeth. Stretching from the left temporal bone to the right temporal bone, the mandible forms a flat arch with 16 teeth embedded in its superior surface. At the left and right temporal bones, the mandible begins as a pair of bony cylinders known as the condyles. The condyles form the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with the temporal bones before narrowing into the necks of the mandible. From the necks, the mandible widens considerably as it descends obliquely in the inferior and anterior directions to form the rami of the mandible. A large pointed projection, known as the coronoid process, extends superiorly from each ramus and is separated from the condyle by the mandibular notch. The mandibular foramina, a pair of holes for nerves and blood vessels to enter the mandible and support the teeth, perforate the rami on their medial surface just below the coronoid process. 7. A Highly Detailed, 3D Printer-Ready File of the Ethmoid Bone The ethmoid bone is located in front of the sphenoid bone. It consists of two masses, one on each side of the nasal cavity, which is joined horizontally by thin cribriform plates. These plates form part of the roof of the nasal cavity, and nerves (ethmoidal cells) associated with the sense of smell pass through tiny openings in them. Portions of the ethmoid bone also form sections of the cranial floor, eye sockets, and nasal cavity walls. A perpendicular plate projects downward in the middle from the cribriform plates to form the bulk of the nasal septum. Delicate scroll-shaped plates called superior and middle nasal conchae project inward from the sides of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate. These bones, which are called the turbinate bones, support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity. 8. A 3D-Printable Mandible (Jawbone) File This excellent 3D-printed mandible and the the 3D printer-ready file come by way of Dr. Marco Vettorello. As you likely know, the mandible forms the lower portion of the skull. This upload shows all the nuances of the CT scan-generated, anatomically accurate mandible. 9. Three-Dimensional Model of Labyrinthitis of the Inner Ear Labyrinthitis is an inflammatory disorder of the inner ear, or labyrinth. Clinically, this condition produces disturbances of balance and hearing to varying degrees and may affect one or both ears. Bacteria or viruses can cause acute inflammation of the labyrinth in conjunction with either local or systemic infections. Autoimmune processes may also cause labyrinthitis. Vascular ischemia may result in acute labyrinthine dysfunction that mimics labyrinthitis. ( 10. A 3D Printable Skull with Fracture (STL Format) A 3D printable STL file of a face and skull with bone fractures was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. Facial fractures occur for a variety of reasons related to sports participation: contact between players (eg, a head, fist, elbow); contact with equipment (eg, balls, pucks, handlebars); or contact with the environment, obstacles, or a playing surface (eg, wrestling mat, gymnastic equipment, goalposts, trees). Direct body contact accounts for the majority of sports-related injuries, and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck region. Sports like football, baseball, and hockey account for a high percentage of facial injuries among young adults. Forces that are required to produce a fracture of the facial bones are as follows: Nasal fracture – 30 g Zygoma fractures – 50 g Mandibular (angle) fractures – 70 g Frontal region fractures – 80 g Maxillary (midline) fractures – 100 g Mandibular (midline) fractures – 100 g Supraorbital rim fractures – 200 g References 1. Human Anatomy: Learn All About the Human Body at InnerBody.com. (2018). InnerBody. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from http://www.innerbody.com/ 2. Medscape Reference - Comprehensive peer-reviewed medical condition, surgery, and clinical procedure articles with symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, drugs and medications, prognosis, follow-up, and pictures. (2018). Reference.medscape.com. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from https://reference.medscape.com/ 3. Kim, H., Roh, H., & Lee, I. (2016). Craniosynostosis : Updates in Radiologic Diagnosis. Journal Of Korean Neurosurgical Society, 59(3), 219. doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.3.219
  23. Claudio


    Version 1.0.0


    RM de culumna lumbar. Lumbago en estudio. Discopatías L4-5 y L5-S1 Hernia discal L4-5 levemente descendida posterolateral izquerda que determina conflicto de espacio radicular. Cambios regresivos interfacetarios lumbares bajos. Diagnostico e informe validado por Dr. Pablo Andres Rodriguez Covili, Medico Neurorradiólogo Integramédica, Santaigo, Chile. 06-03-2015 Paciente Claudio Solis Carrazana espalda, columna, lumbar, spine, stl, dicom, mri without contrast


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    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the skull base was derived from a real medical CT scan. Some artifact from dental fillings is present. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003 .stl, 3d, printing, model, skull, base, jaw, mandible, artifact, base, foramina, .stl, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, mastoid, process, cervical, lordosis, atlas, axis,


  25. Version 1.0.0


    Porras medium bones detalled - processed, bone, 3d, model, stl, maxilla, mandible, teeth, arch, cervical, spine, vertebrae, sphenoid, hard, palate, medulla


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