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Found 2,077 results

  1. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    Trial, axial, dicom, .stl, 3d, model, printable, orbit, nasal, spine, hard, palate, foramina, foramen, magnum, .stl, ct, scan, without, contrast, paranasal, sinuses, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, cells, petrous, ridge, temporal, parietal, occipital, base, skull, coronoid, process, ramus, mandible, angle, teeth, tooth, dental, dentistry, incisor, molar, premolar, canine

    Free

  2. Version 2.1

    33 downloads

    JC 2.2 - stl file processed scoliosis, severe, bone, 3d model, stl, ribs, scapula, clavicle, lumbar, spine, dorsal, pelvis, hip, sacrum, printable This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    185 downloads

    hand bone - stl file processed, Distal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Middle phalanx, Head of the proximal phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Base of the proximal phalanx, Metacarpal head, Sesamoid, Metacarpal, Metacarpal base, Capitate, Trapezoid, Hamate, Trapezium, Triquetrum, Scaphoid, Pisiform, Radial styloid, Ulnar styloid, Lunate, Distal radius, Distal radioulnar joint Distal ulna, 3d, model, .stl, upper, limb, hand, wrist, upper, limb, bone

    Free

  4. Version 1.0.0

    7 downloads

    heart3 - processed, har, vessels, ventricle, pulmonary, artery, .stl, auricle, muscle, mediastinum, vascular, pulmonary, trunk, coronary, 3d, model, printable, .stl,

    Free

  5. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    vertebre - stl file processed, spine, 3d, model, printable, .stl, ribs, bone, intervertebral, body, transverse, spinous, process, chest, lumbar, dorsal, pelvis, iliac, sacrum, ischium, pubis, foramina, .stl, obturator, head, neck, trochanter, femur, hip, 3d, model, printable, scapula, kidney,

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This is a Chest CT. the target is check patient's heart function. ct without contrast, stl, 3d, model, chest, mediastinum, axial, dicom, heart, diaphragm, .stl, printable, medical, thorax, ribs, bone, dorsal, spine, intervertebral, ct, with, contrast, ventricle, auricle, septum, muscle, lung, trachea, bronchi, pulmonary, trunk, coronary, vessels, aorta, ascendent, arch, descendent, vascular, anatomy,

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    14 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the left scapula was derived from a medical CT scan and shows the glenoid fossa This model was created using the democratiz3D 3D model creation service 0522c0883 Superior angle of the scapula, Coracoid process, Acromion, Spine of the scapula, Lateral margin of the scapula, Inferior angle of the scapula, 3d, model, .stl, printable,

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    21 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the right foot was derived from a real medical CT scan of a 64 year old man. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. STS006 calcaneus, 3d, model, .stl, bone, foot, Distal phalanx, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joint, Sesamoids, Metatarsals, Tarsometatarsal joint (Lisfranc’s joint), Medial cuneiform, Middle cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, Intertarsal joint, Base of the fifth metatarsal, Navicular, Cuboid, Talocalcaneonavicular joint, Transverse tarsal joint (Chopart’s joint), calcaneus, printable, lower, limb, foot, fibula, tibia, ankle,

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    kb, scaphoid, trapezium, and trapezoid, wrist, bone, 3d, model, stl, finger, ulnar, radius, printable, lunate, capitate, triquetrum, hamate, metacarpus, ct, scan, without, contrast,

    Free

  10. Version 1.0.0

    53 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the thorax was derived from a medical CT scan. It shows the heart and aorta as they reside in the chest. This model was created using the democratiz3D 3D model creation service 0522c0878 CAPw, .stl, heart, aorta, ribs, thorax, sternum, chest, .stl, 3d, model, printable, bone, dorsal, transverse, spinous, process, intervertebral, disc, scapula, clavicle, manubrium, mediastinum, ventricle, auricle, great, vessels,

    Free

  11. There are many challenging cases, in which the single segmentation is not enough. The paranasal sinuses and the congenital heart defects are notable examples. My usual workflow was to segment whatever I can as good as it's possible, to clean the unnecessary structures and the artefacts, to export the segmentation as stl 3d model and then to "CAD my way around". This is solid philosophy for simple, uncomplicated models, but for complex structures with a lot of small details and requirement from the client for the highest quality possible, this is just not good enough, especially for a professional anatomist like myself. Then I started to exploit the simple fact, that you're actually able to export the model as stl, to model it with your CAD software and then to reimport it back and convert it into label map again. I called this "back and forth technique". You can model the finest details on your model and then you can continue the segmentation right where you need it, catching even the slightest details of the morphology of the targeted structure. This technique, combined with my expertise, gives me the ability to produce the best possible details on some of the most challenging cases, including nasal cavity, heart valves, brain models etc. etc.To use this technique, just import the stl file, convert it into a label map (for 3D slicer - segmentation module/ export/import models and label maps). The main advantages of this technique are:1. You can combine the segmentation with the most advanced CAD functions of your favorite software. Two highly specialized programs are better than one "Jack of all trades" (cough cough Mimics cough cough)2. Advanced artefact removing.3. Advanced small detail segmentation and modelling.4. Combined with several markers (separate segmentations, several voxels in size) on the nearby anthropometric points, this technique increases the accuracy of the final product significantly. Without points of origin, the geometry of your model will go to hell, if you're not especially careful (yes, I'm talking about the 3D brushes in Slicer).5. You can easily compare the label map with the 3d model, converted back. Every deviation, produced during the CAD operations will be visible like a big, shining dot, which you can easily see and correct. This is one of the strongest quality control techniques.6. You can create advanced masks with all the geometrical forms you can possibly imagine, which you can use for advanced detail segmentation. Those masks will be linked with the spatial coordinates of the targeted structures - the stl file preserves the exact coordinates of every voxel, which was segmented.7. You can go back and forth multiple times, as many as you like.8. This technique is more powerful than the best AI, developed by now. It combines the best from the digital technologies with the prowess of the human visual cortex (the best video card up to date).The main disadvantages are:1. It's time consuming.2. It produces A LOT of junk files.3. Advanced expertise is needed for this technique. This is not some "prank modelling", but an actual morphological work. A specialized education and practical experience in the human anatomy, pathology and radiology will give you the best results, which this technique can offer. 4. You need highly developed visual cortex for this technique (dominant visual sense). This technique is not for the linguistic, spatial-motor, olphactory etc. types of brains. Recent studies confirms, that a part of the population have genetically determined bigger, more advanced visual cortex (The human connectome project, Prof. David Van Essen, Washington University in Saint Louis). Such individuals become really successful cinematographers, designers, photographers and medical imaging specialists. The same is true for all the other senses, but right now we're talking about visual modality and 3D intellect (I'm sorry, dear linguists, musicians, craftsmen and tasters). It's not a coincidence that I have so many visual artists in my family (which makes me the medical black sheep). But if you don't have this kind of brain, you can still use the technique for quality control and precise mask generation. Just let the treshould module or the AI to do the job for you in the coordinates, in which you want (You should really start using the Segment Editor module in Slicer 3D).5. You really need to love your work, if you're using this technique. For the usual 3D modelling you don't need so many details in your model and to "CAD your way around" is enough for the task.6. You should use only stl files. For some reason, the obj format can't preserve the spatial geometry as good as the stl format. Maybe because the stl is just a simple map of vertex coordinates and the obj contains much more sophisticated data. The simple, the better.On the picture - comparison of the semilunar valves, made by treshould segmentation at 250-450 Hounsfield units (in green) and modelled and reimported model (in red).
  12. Version 1.0.0

    474 downloads

    This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. This model is an improvement over a prior version (here). It shows the heart with slices cut in the anatomical transverse plane. If you are interested in a heart with short-axis slices, check out my short-axis stackable slice model here. Notches have been added to ensure the slices fit together and do not slide against each other. The model demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. It has been validated as printable on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer. Technical parameters: manifold STL (watertight) vertices: 462576 triangles: 925800 dimensions: 15.1 x 15.2 x 10.5 cm

    $19.99

  13. MMMMATT

    Spine full

    Version 1.0.0

    154 downloads

    from cat scan, bone, stl, dicom, 3dmodel, lumbar, spine, vertebrae, .stl, dicom, 3d, model, bone, transverse, .stl, printable, intervertebral, disc, dorsal, foramen, spinous, lordosis,

    Free

  14. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    CT SCAN - CHEST-PELVIC - 10-27-16 - processed, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, abdomen, rectum, pelvis, iliac, bone, ischium, pubis, gluteus, heart, .stl,

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    3D Model of Lumbar spine. Anterior, Lateral, Oblique, axial and posterior views for tutorial NRRDs - processed bones, lumbar, spine, intervertebral, disc, body, laminae, transverse, spinous, process, foramen, pedicle, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, sacrum, vertebrae, coccyx, foramina,

    Free

  16. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This 3D printable STL model of the thoracic spine shows notable kyphosis (hunchback deformity) and was derived from a CT scan. STS_002. This model was created using the democratiz3D service. thoracic, spine, t, spine, hunch, back, kyphosis, .stl, ribs, costovertebral, joint, body, 3d, model, printable, .stl, intervertebral, disc, foramen, laminae, pedicle, bone, transverse, spinous, scoliosis,

    $2.99

  17. 0 downloads

    Extracted from CT., hip and spine, lumbar, spine, columb, vertebrae, stl, bone, print, 3d model hip, and, spine, acetabulum, pelvis, iliac, ribs, thorax, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, intervertebral, disc, body, transverse, spinous, foramen, laminae, facet, joint, costovertebral, chest,

    Free

  18. 54 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file of a thoracic spine with severe scoliosis was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows how the vertebrae become misaligned in the scoliotic spine. Great for education at all levels. Download is free for registered members. This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing. The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors. Technical specs: File format: STL Manifold mesh: Yes Triangles: 261682 thoracic, spine, scoliosis, t, spine, .stl, 3d, printable, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, body, transverse, foramen, intervertebral, disc, costovertebral, joint, facet,

    Free

  19. 106 downloads

    This is a .stl file produced from a CT scan of myself. I used 'InVesalius 3.0 free' to convert the 2D dicom images into the .stl file. I use either 3D Tool or Materialise's MiniMagics (free versions) to view and manipulate the 3D image. I have been told I had a severe hyperflexion injury to my c spine during an assault in 1988 and sustained a number of fractures and subluxations which were not diagnosed by a hospital as they discharged me from the ER in error before I had been examined by a Dr. It wasn't until I had a CT scan in 2011 and produced 3D images from it that I discovered various bony abnormalities that were subsequently identified as fractures & subluxations by experts. I understand the right transverse process of T1, tip of C6 spinous process and the left greater cornu of the hyoid bone are the most obvious old fractures that can be seen. cervical, spine, .stl, 3d, printing, .stl, bone, 3d, model, printable, vertebrae, spine, atlas, axis, body, intervertebral, space, laminae, facet, transverse, process, spinous, process, printable, 3d, model, ribs, clavicle,

    Free

  20. 38 downloads

    This anatomically accurate acetabulum was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 132 slices). The model may be useful for medical education. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au acetabulum, skeletal, 3d, model, .stl, hip, bone, ilium, labrum, fossa, spine, anterior, inferior, ilio-pubis, suture, posterior, horn, facies, lunata,

    Free

  21. 154 downloads

    This anatomically accurate C1 vertebra was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 47 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows shows the vertebral body, spinous process, facets, transverse processes and spinal canal. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au c1, vertebra, skeletal, 3d, model, .stl, cervical, spine, bone, atlas, anterior, posterior, arch, auricular, facet, lateral, mass, transverse, process, inferior, articular, for axis, vertebral, foramen, 3d, model, printing, .stl,

    Free

  22. 348 downloads

    This anatomically accurate L3 vertebra was extracted from a DICOM CT dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 95 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows shows the vertebral body, spinous process, facets, transverse processes and spinal canal. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Printed on a Makerbot Replicator 1. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. L3, vertebra, skeletal, 3d, model, print, .stl, bone, laminae, body, lumbar, .stl, 3d, model, printable, laminae, pedicle, Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au

    Free

  23. 70 downloads

    This anatomically accurate sacrum was derived from a DICOM CT dataset (0.8 mm slice thickness x 138 slices). The model may be useful for medical education and shows the sacral foramina, dorsal and ventral surfaces, and articular surface with the L5 vertebra. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. Thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders. Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au sacrum, skeletal, .stl, 3d, model, pelvis, coccyx, bone, print, foramina, 3d, model, printable, .stl, spinous, process, crest, ala, tubercles, promontory, auricular, fossa, body, spine

    Free

  24. 3D Free Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus Models in 3D-Printable STL Format Shoulders are comprised of three main bones. These include humerus (bone in the upper arm), scapula (shoulder blade), and the clavicle, which we commonly refer to as the "collarbone." Bones of the shoulder work together with the transverse humeral ligament, synovial membrane of the bicep, bursa sac, and the superior transverse ligament to perform a complex range of motions. In fact, the shoulder has the most extended pivot range of any joint within the body. Your glenohumearal joint (shoulder) is a ball-and-socket joint that is able to move in so many positions due to the relatively small size of the glenoid fossa, as well as the laxity ("wiggle room") of the joint capsule. But, these features also make the shoulder prone to overuse injuries, subluxation, dislocation, and ligament tears. In this week's embodi3D® Top Ten, we are bringing you some of the best 3D scapula, clavicle, and humerus models which comprise the majority of the human shoulder joint. Before you dive into this week's Top 10 and start printing your own 3D anatomical models, you must first register with embodi3D®. It's absolutely free to sign up and you can take advantage of many of the features found on the embodi3D® website, including standard resolution democratiz3D® conversions. Register with embodi3D® today! Technologies like these were recently featured in the journal Société Internationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie (SICOT), where models of a 3D scapula, humerus, and soft tissues are being used in preoperative planning. If you are interested in uploading your CT scans and converting these to 3D-printable STL format, the democratiz3D® Quick Start Guide will help you to quickly get up and running. How Shoulders Achieve Their Range of Motion Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. * Flexion: Pectoralis major, deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps muscles * Extension: Deltoid & teres major muscles. – If against resistance, also latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major. * Abduction: Deltoid & supraspinatus muscles. – Subscapularis, infraspinatus, & teres minor exert downward traction – Supraspinatus contribution controversial * Medial rotation: Pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, & teres major muscles. – Subscapularis when arm at side * Lateral rotation: Infraspinatus, deltoid, & teres minor muscles. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Shoulder in STL Format This articulation is maintained by overlying soft tissue structures. The posterosuperior acromion process of the scapula provides one half of the AC joint. It also forms most of the osseous portion of the coracoacromial arch, the roof over the rotator cuff. The acromion process is connected to the body of the scapula by the spine. The osseous structures of the shoulder girdle are the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Medially, the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint. This joint serves as the only true articulation between the shoulder girdle and the axial skeleton. Laterally, the clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint #2. STL File Showing Scapular Notch and Shoulder Variations in the shape of the clavicle are considered normal and are not usually pathologic. These variations may range from an almost straight bone to one with exaggerated curves. Another variation of the clavicle that is present in 6-10% of the population is termed the canalis nervi supraclavicularis. In this variation, a foramen forms through the clavicle, and the medial supraclavicular nerve passes through this accessory osseous canal. The scapular notch varies in size and shape. The notch is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This ligament ossifies in 10% of patients, producing a bony foramen for the suprascapular nerve. #3. A 3D Model of the Shoulders of the Muscle Rotator cuff: 4 muscles arising on scapula and inserting on humerus * Supraspinatus: From supraspinatus fossa of scapula to greater tuberosity – Abducts humerus, also depresses humeral head. * Infraspinatus: From posterior surface of scapula to greater tuberosity. – Externally rotates humerus * Teres minor: From lateral border of scapula to greater tuberosity – Externally rotates humerus * Subscapularis muscle: From anterior surface of scapula to lesser tuberosity – Superficial fibers extend across to anterior margin of greater tuberosity as part of transverse ligament – Internally rotates, adducts humerus #4. 3D Model (STL Format) of the Muscles Connecting the Arm to Axial Skeleton 4. Various muscles also serve to connect the arm to the axial skeleton. Anteriorly, the pectoralis major and minor muscles extend from the sternum and clavicle to the proximal humeral shaft. Posteriorly, the latissimus dorsi muscle arises from the thoracic cage to attach onto the proximal humeral shaft. The great range of motion provided for by the glenohumeral joint is executed in large part by the muscles of the rotator cuff. The supraspinatus muscle arises superior to the scapular spine and attaches to the superior facet of the greater tuberosity. The more posterior infraspinatus muscle arises below the spine and inserts onto the posterior facet of the greater tuberosity. The teres minor muscle originates and inserts just caudal to the infraspinatus. The subscapularis muscle arises from the anterior scapular body to insert onto the lesser tuberosity. The long head of the biceps originates at the superior glenoid rim, passes through the rotator cuff interval at the anterosuperior glenohumeral joint, and then follows the bicipital groove between the tuberosities into the upper arm. The deltoid muscle has a broad origination along the lateral aspect of the acromion from anterior to posterior. It covers the lateral portion of the upper arm before inserting on to the lateral proximal humeral shaft at the deltoid tuberosity. #5. 3D Model of the Skin around the Shoulder, Arm, and Upper Chest A 3D model of the skin of the shoulder where the soft tissue of the shoulder and arm are shown. Trapezius: is responsible for the smooth contour of the lateral side of the neck and over the superior aspect of the shoulder. It can be seen and felt throughout its entirety when the shoulder girdles are retracted against resistance; the superior part can be palpated when the shoulders are elevated against resistance. Posterior axillary fold: is formed by the latissimus dorsi winding around the lateral border of the teres major muscle. Latissimus dorsi forms much of the muscle mass underlying the posterior axillary fold extending obliquely upward from the trunk to the arm. Teres major passes from the inferior angle of the scapula to the upper humerus and contributes to the fold laterally. Both muscles can be palpated on resisted shoulder adduction. Pectoralis major: can be seen and felt throughout its entire extent when it is contracted against resistance as in pressing the palm together in front of the body. Clavicular fibers can be felt if the shoulder is flexed against resistance to a position midway between flexion and extension, while the sternocostal fibers can be felt if the shoulder is extended against resistance starting in a flexed position. The inferior border of the pectoralis major muscle forms the anterior axillary fold. Deltoid: forms the muscular eminence inferior to the acromion and around the glenohumeral joint. The anterior, middle, and posterior fibers of the deltoid can be palpated. When the arm is abducted against resistance, the anterior border of the deltoid can be felt. The clavipectoral triangle (deltopectoral triangle) is the depressed area just inferior to the lateral part of the clavicle, bounded by the clavicle superiorly, the deltoid laterally, and the clavicular head of the pectoralis major medially. #6. CT Scan Showing a Fracture in the Proximal Humeral A computed tomography (CT) is recommended for complex fracture situations although those situations were not clearly defined. Therefore, precise indications for CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. #7. Connection of Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle Shown in 3D STL File The scapula is a spade-shaped bone comprised of a thin triangular body and a semi-ovoid cavity known as the glenoid fossa (glenoid cavity). The glenoid fossa faces lateral and slightly anterior and cranial. A bony spine runs across the dorsal surface of the scapular body and terminates in the acromion. The scapula articulates with two bones, the humerus and clavicle. The scapula does not directly contact the bony rib cage: the two structures are separated by muscle and other soft tissue. #8. Right Shoulder Injury Revealed by CT Scan On CT acute trauma may result of bony, labral, ligamentous or musculotendinous damage. The shoulder may be injured following repetitive injury or as part of systemic inflammatory conditions or infection. Moreover, the bones around the shoulder may be affected by benign or malignant bony lesions, and associated pathological fracture. #9. Right Shoulder with Pleomorphic Spindle Cell Sarcoma (3D-Printable STL File) Pleomorphic sarcoma composed of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and histiocyte-like cells. Historically considered the most common adult soft tissue sarcoma. Usually older adults (age 50+ years) with slight male predominance; more common in lower extremities, rarely retroperitoneum, head and neck, breast. Large and deep-seated with progressive enlargement. Sarcomas adjacent to orthopedic implants or post-radiation are usually osteosarcoma or MFH. #10. 3D-Printable Model of Right Shoulder Bones The humerus is the large single bone of the upper arm. Proximally, it articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula forming the glenohumeral joint. The humeral head is large and globular. Just ventral to the articular surface is the lesser tubercle, where the subscapularis attaches. Lateral to the articular surface is the greater tubercle. The rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder insert on the proximal humerus. References 1. Manaster, B. J., & Crim, J. R. (2016). Imaging Anatomy: Musculoskeletal E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2. Bahrs, C., Rolauffs, B., Südkamp, N. P., Schmal, H., Eingartner, C., Dietz, K., ... & Helwig, P. (2009). Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 10(1), 33. 3. Duke University Medical School - Anatomy. (2018). Web.duke.edu. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://web.duke.edu/anatomy/ 4. Shoulder Joint Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy. (2018). Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1899211-overview#a1 5. The Radiology Assistant : Shoulder MR - Anatomy. (2012). Radiologyassistant.nl. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/p4f49ef79818c2/shoulder-mr-anatomy.html
  25. Top 10 Free Downloadable CT Angiogram (CTA) 3D Printable Models on embodi3D.® For several years now, surgeons, radiologists, and others in the medical profession have used 3D-printed vascular simulation models from CT angiograms (CTAs) to practice complex procedures, as well as for research and educational purposes. The growth has been fueled by the development of high resolution imaging studies merging with the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, and the development of new printing materials. These advances have resulted in reductions in the costs associated with creating high resolution medical models. As noted in the journal RadioGraphics (Radiological Society of North America), CT angiogram-derived 3D-printed models are quickly being embraced by those in the medical field. The evolution of this disruptive technology is expected to revolutionize medical practices over the years to come. And, tools such as democratiz3D® are making it easy for medical professionals to create ultra-resolution 3D models. A human skull and collarbone, created by a CT Angiogram. Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are focal dilatations of the abdominal aorta that are 50% greater than the proximal normal segment or >3 cm in maximum diameter. The prevalence of AAAs increases with age. Males are much more commonly affected than females, with a ratio of 4:1. They are the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world. Approximately 10% of individuals older than 65 have an AAA. This week we would like to share the best 3d models of a CT angiogram (CTA). Don’t forget to register in order to download the images, you can do it clicking here: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) An excellent 3D model an abdominal CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) showing the location infrarrenal. When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include : - size and shape - sac dimensions (outer surface to outer surface) - luminal diameter if mural thrombus is present - fusiform or saccular - size of vessel proximal and distal to aneurysm - characteristics of wall - mural calcification - presence of mural thrombus - location and relationship to involved branches/structurerenal arteries - involvement of the origins of the renal arteries - presence of accessory renal arteries and where they arise splanchnic arteries great vessels from the arch characterisation of possible aetiology - true or false - possibility of mycotic aetiology - complications: leak, rupture, proximity to bowel, aortocaval fistula, other relevant vesselsthoracic aortic aneurysms - the size and dominance of vertebral arteries should be included if the aneurysm is close to the left subclavian artery presence of carotid disease is important, as significant stenosis may predispose the patient to strokes during any period of reduced flow/hypotension AAA 2. Model of Abdominal Vessels Ready for 3D Printing A 3D model of the abdominal vessels with detail. In addition to great vessel pathology, 3D printing has also been used in the treatment of other visceral vessel diseases. 3D modeling was used to plan the optimal combination of guide catheter and microcatheter to successfully treat a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms. The team was able to preserve splenic function and minimize the need for repeat angiograms. 3D printing has also been described as an intraoperative reference for robotic resection of a celiac trunk aneurysm. Modeling other visceral vessel aneurysms has been described, including left gastric, right epigastric, gastroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms. If this model is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a heart and pulmonary artery tree CT angiogram 3D model uploaded by health_physics, who used the democratiz3D® tool. 3. CT Angiogram of the Brain and Neck A brain and neck CTA example. 4. Vascular Simulation Model The use of 3D modeling for vascular simulations can provide training and education in either normal or complex anatomy. . It can also provide the haptic feedback which may be lacking in virtual reality simulations and has been shown to improve anatomical knowledge in students. In addition to provider education, 3D models have been demonstrated as a useful tool for preoperative patient education. 5. External Carotid Artery (ECA) CT Angiogram External Carotid artery ( ECA): arises from the CCA bifurcation and has 8 branches: 1) Superior thyroid artery- 1st branch of the ECA 2) Lingual artery- arises between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery; supplies tongue with blood supply 3) Facial artery- arises just above the lingual artery & courses along the lower mandible, across the cheek to the angle of the mouth. It continues to course superior along the side of the nose to the inner canthus of the eye; supplies tongue, lips, nose, and lachrymal sac with a blood supply; AKA- Angular artery 4) Occipital artery- arises from the posterior portion of the ECA opposite the facial artery and is an important communicating artery with the muscular branches of the vertebral artery 5) Posterior Auricle artery- arises from the ECA above the digastric & styo-hoid muscles opposite the apex of the styloid process. It has 3 branches which supply the membranous tympani, back of ear, and muscle 6) Ascending Pharyngeal artery- usually arises at the level of the carotid bifurcation and the smallest branch. It has 4 branches that supply the longus muscle, coli muscle, lymph glands, palate, typani, and dura matter 7) Superficial Temporal artery- arises between the neck, lower jaw, and external auditory meatus. It is the smaller of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It bifurcates into the anterior temporal and posterior temporal arteries providing a blood supply to the supraorbital rim and facial muscles. It is used to help identify the ICA from the ECA 8) Maxillary artery- arises at the level of the parotid gland opposite the neck of the condoyle of the lower jaw. It is the larger of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It is divided into 3 segments: 1st is the maxillary segment 2nd is the pterygoid segment 3rd is the spheno-maxillary segment One of its terminating branches is the infraorbital artery It anastomoses with the ophthalmic artery It is collateral for brain circulation (Pre-Willisian anastomosis) 6. CTA of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms probably represent the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention. Recent advances in imaging techniques have raised new possibilities in medical imaging regarding aneurysmal disease making size recordings more accurate and reproducible than ever. Here we show an excellent example of a AAA CTA. 7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a CT Angiogram-Created 3D Model A 3D reconstruction of an AAA. 3D printing has become a useful tool to many clinicians and researchers. A variety of applications currently employ 3D printing for the treatment of aortic vascular disease, including pre-procedural planning, training, and creation of personalized aortic grafts. Advances in the accessibility of 3D printing, as well as continued research in 3D-printed vascular networks, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of aortic diseases. 8. Stunning 3D Model of Human "Bovine Arch" Aorta The term “bovine arch” is widely used to describe a common anatomic variant of the human aortic arch branching. This so-called bovine aortic arch has no resemblance to the bovine aortic arch. A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. A related variant, also known as truncus bicaroticus, is the origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic artery but not sharing a true common origin, which occurs in ~9% of the population. Sometimes this can be difficult to distinguish from a common origin because the left common carotid artery arises within 1cm of the origin of the brachiocephalic artery. Clinical presentation: This common variant is asymptomatic most of the time. In rare cases of head and neck surgery, e.g. tracheostomy, it can be a risk factor for injury and cause complications 4. In combination with an aberrant right subclavian artery it can cause a dysphagia lusoria. 9. CT Scan of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intraluminal Trombus A CT scan of an AAA with an intraluminal trombus. The pathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) shows several hallmarks of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic disease, but comprises an additional, predominant feature of proteolysis resulting in the degradation and destabilization of the aortic wall. 10. CTA of a Human Head and Neck An excellent example of a neck and head CTA showing the neck vessels. 3D model printing has the potential to become an essential preoperative investigation for surgery on arteriovenous malformations. References: 1. Collins J, Stern EJ. Chest radiology, the essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781763142. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 2. Atar E, Belenky A, Hadad M et-al. MR angiography for abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms: assessment before endovascular repair in patients with impaired renal function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (2): 386-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.0449 - Pubmed citation 3. Hangge, P., Pershad, Y., Witting, A. A., Albadawi, H., & Oklu, R. (2018). Three-dimensional (3D) printing and its applications for aortic diseases. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 8(Suppl 1), S19.
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