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  1. UPDATED TUTORIAL: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes Hello and welcome back. I hope you enjoyed my last tutorial on creating 3D printable medical models using free software on Macintosh computers. In this brief video tutorial I'll show you how to create a 3D printable skull STL file from a CT scan in FIVE minutes using only free and open source software. In the video I use a program called 3D Slicer, which is available from slicer.org. 3D Slicer works on Windows, Macintosh, and Linux operating systems. Also, I use Blender, which is available from blender.org, to perform some mesh cleanup. Finally, I check my model prior to 3D printing using Meshmixer from Autodesk. This is available at meshmixer.com. All software programs are free. If you like this, view my complete tutorial where I go through each step shown here in detail. I hope you enjoy the video.
  2. In this tutorial we will learn how to use the free medical imaging conversion service on embodi3D.com to create detailed anatomic muscle and skin 3D printable models in STL file format from medical CT scans. Muscle models show the detailed musculature by subtracting away the skin and fat. Even when created from a scan of an obese person, the model looks like it comes from a bodybuilder, Figure 1A. Skin models show an exact replica of the skin surface. The finest details are captured, including wrinkles and veins underneath the skin. Hair however is not captured in a CT scan and thus the model does not have any hair, Figure 1B. Figure 1A (left): A muscle 3D printable model. Figure 1B (right): A skin 3D printable model These models can be used for a variety of purposes such as medical and scientific education and research. Additionally, the skin models can be used to re-create a person's likeness in 3D from a medical scan. If you have had a CT scan of the head, you can create a lifelike replica of your head. You can create replicas of your friends, family, or even pets if they have had a medical CT scan. Alternatively, if you have a loved one who passed away but had a CT scan prior to death, you can use the scan to re-create an exact replica of their face. Even scans that are years old can be used for this purpose. Some people may consider this to be a little creepy, so if you are considering doing this think carefully first. Before proceeding please register for an embodi3D.com account if you haven't already. You will need an account to use the service. It is highly recommended that you download the associated file pack for this tutorial so that you can follow along with the exact same files that are used in this tutorial. >> DOWNLOAD THE FREE FILE PACK BY CLICKING HERE << If you are interested in learning how to use the free embodi3D.com service, see my prior tutorials on creating bone models, processing multiple models simultaneously, and sharing and selling your models on the embodi3D.com website. If you are interested in converting your own CT scan or that of a friend or family member, you can go to the radiology department of the hospital or clinic that did the scan and ask for the scan to be put on a CD or DVD for you. Figure 2 shows the radiology department at my hospital, called Image Management, and the CDs that they give out. Most radiology departments will have you sign a written release and give you a CD or DVD for free or with a small processing fee. If you are a doctor or other healthcare provider and want to 3D print a model for a patient, the radiology department can also help you. There are multiple online repositories of anonymized CT scans for research that are also available. If you have downloaded the file pack for this tutorial, example CT scans are included Figure 2A, the Image Management (radiology) department at my hospital, where you can pick up a DVD of your CT scan as shown in Figure 2B (right). My hospital does this for free, but some may charge a trivial fee. PART 1: Creating a Muscle STL model from NRRD File Before we begin please bear in mind that this process only works for CT scan images. It will not work for MRI images. Before proceeding please check that the scan you wish to convert is a CT (CAT) scan! Step 1: Convert Your CT scan to an Anonymized NRRD File with 3D Slicer Open 3D Slicer. If you don't have the software program you can download it for free from slicer.org. Once Slicer has opened, take the folder from the download pack that is called STS_004. This folder contains anonymized DICOM images from a CT scan of the legs of a 24-year-old woman who had a muscle tumor. Drag and drop the entire folder onto the Slicer window, as shown in Figure 3. Slicer will ask you if you want to load the images into the DICOM database. Click OK. Slicer will also ask you if it should copy the images into the database, click Copy. Slicer will take about one minute to load the scanned. Figure 3: Drag-and-drop the STS_004 DICOM folder from the file pack onto the Slicer window Next, load the scan into the active wor king area in slicer. If the DICOM browser is not open, click on the Show DICOM browser button, as shown in Figure 4. Click on the STS_004 patient and series, and click the Load button, as shown in Figure 4. The leg CT scan will now load into the active seen within Slicer, as shown in Figure 5. Figure 4: Open the DICOM browser and load the study into the active seen Figure 5: The leg CT scan is shown in the active seen Step 2: Trim the Scan so that only the Right Thigh is included. Click on the Volume Rendering module from the Modules drop-down menu as shown in Figure 6. Turn on volume rendering by clicking on the eyeball button, as shown in Figure 7. Then, center the model in the 3D pane by clicking on the crosshairs button, Figure 7. If you don't have the same window layout as shown in Figure 7, you can correct this by clicking on the Four-Up window layout from the window layout drop-down menu, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 6: Turn on the volume rendering module Figure 7: Center the rendered volume. Figure 8: Make sure you are in the Four-Up window layout Next we are going to crop the volume so that we exclude everything other than the right knee and thigh. From the modules menu, select All Modules, Crop Volume, as shown in Figure 9. Turn on ROI visibility by clicking on the eyeball button, as shown in Figure 10. Then, move the region of interest box so that it only encapsulates the right thigh, as shown in Figure 10. You can adjust the size of the box by grabbing on the colored circular handles and moving the sides of the box as needed. Figure 9: The Crop Volume module. Figure 10: Turning on and adjusting the crop volume ROI (Region Of Interest) Once the crop volume ROI is adjusted to the area that you want, perform the crop by clicking on the Crop button, Figure 11. Figure 11: the Crop button. The new, smaller volume that encompasses the right fight and knee has been assigned a cryptic name. The entire scan had a name of "2: CT IMAGES – RESEARCH," and the new thigh volume has a name "2: CT IMAGES-RESEARCH-subvolume-scale_1." That's a mouthful and I want to rename it to something more descriptive. I'm going to select the Volumes module, and then select the "2: CT IMAGES-RESEARCH-subvolume-scale_1" from the Active Volume drop-down menu. Then, from the same drop-down menu I'm going to select "Rename Current Volume". Type in whatever name you want. In this case I'm choosing "right thigh." Figure 12: Renaming the newly cropped volume. Step 3: Save the right thigh volume as an anonymized NRRD file. Click on the Save button in the upper left-hand corner. The save window is then shown. All the checkboxes on the left except for the one that corresponds to the right by. Make sure the file format for this line says NRRD (.nrrd). Make sure you specify the proper directory you want the file to be saved as. When you are satisfied click on save. This is demonstrated in Figure 13. In the specified directory you should see a called right thigh.nrrd. Figure 13: The save file options. Step 4: Upload the NRRD file to embodi3D.com Make sure you are logged into your embodi3D.com account. Click on Imag3D from the nav bar, Launch App. Then drag-and-drop your NRRD file onto the upload pain, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14: Uploading the NRRD file to embodi3D.com. While the file is uploading, fill in the required fields, including the name of the uploaded file, a brief description, file privacy, and license type. Except the terms of use. next, turn on Imag3D processing. Under operation, select "CT NRRD to Muscle STL." Leave the threshold value unchanged. Under quality, select medium or high. Specify your privacy preference for your output STL file. If you are going to share this file, you can choose to share it for free or sell it. Please see my separate tutorial on how to share and sell your files on the embodi3D.com website for additional details. When you're happy with your choices, save the file, as shown in Figure 15: Figure 15: File processing options. Step 5: Download your new STL file after processing is completed. In about 5 to 15 minutes you should receive an email that says your file has finished processing and is ready to download. Follow the link in the email or access the new file via your profile on the embodi3D.com website. Your newly created STL file should have several rendered thumbnails associated with it on its download page. If you want to download the file click on the Download button, as shown in Figure 16. Figure 16: the download page for your new muscle STL file I opened the file in AutoDesk MeshMixer to have another look at it, and it looks terrific, as shown in Figure 17. This file is ready to 3D print! Figure 17: The final 3D printable muscle model. PART 2: Creating a Skin Model STL File Ready for 3D Printing Creating a skin model is essentially identical to creating the muscle model, except instead of choosing the CT NRRD to Muscle STL on the embodi3D.com service, we choose CT NRRD to Skin STL. Step 1: Load DICOM image set into Slicer Launch Slicer. From the tutorial file pack drag and drop the MANIX folder onto the Slicer window to load this head and neck CT scan data set. This is shown in Figure 18. Figure 18: Loading the head and neck CT scan into Slicer. It may take a minute or two to load. From the DICOM browser, click on the ANGIO CT series as shown in Figure 19. Figure 19: Loading the ANGIO CT series from the MANIX data set Step 2: Skip the trimming and crop volume operations In this case we don't need to trim and crop a volume as we did with the muscle file above. We can skip Step 2. Step 3: Save the CT scan in NRRD format. Just as with the muscle file above, save the volume in NRRD format. Click on the save button, make sure that the checkbox for the nrrd file is selected and all other checkboxes are deselected. Specify the correct directory you want the file to be saved in, and click Save. Step 4: Upload your NRRD file of the head to the embodi3D website. Just as with the muscle file process as shown above, upload the head NRRD file to the embodi3D.com website. Enter in the required fields. In this case, however, under Operation choose the CT NRRD to Skin STL operation, as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Selecting the CT NRRD to Skin STL file operation Step 5: Download your new Skin STL file After about 5 to 15 minutes, you should receive an email that says your file processing has been completed. Follow the link in the email or look for your file in the list the files you own in your profile. You should see that your skin STL file has been completed, with several rendered images, as shown in Figure 21. Go ahead and download your file. You can then check the quality of your file in Meshmixer as shown in Figure 22. In this instance everything looks great and the file is error free and ready for 3D printing. Figure 21: The download page for your newly created 3D printable skin STL file. Figure 22: Opening the file in Meshmixer for quality control checks. The file is error free and incredibly lifelike. It is ready for 3D printing. Thank you very much! I hope you enjoyed this tutorial. If you use this service to create 3D printable models, please consider sharing your models with the embodi3D community. Here is a detailed tutorial that I wrote on exactly how to do this. This community is built on medical 3D makers helping each other. Please share the models that you create!
  3. In this brief tutorial we will go over how to use Meshmixer to create a hollow shell from a medical 3D printable STL file. Hollowing out the shell, as shown in the pictures below, can allow you to 3D print the model using much less material that printing a solid piece. The print will take less time and cost less money. For this tutorial we will use a head that we created from a real medical CT scan in a prior tutorial, " Easily Create 3D Printable Muscle and Skin STL Files from Medical CT Scans" If you haven't seen the prior tutorial, please check it out. To follow along with the tutorial, please download the accompanying file. This will enable you to replicate the process exactly as it is shown in the tutorial. >> DOWNLOAD THE TUTORIAL FILE NOW <<
  4. Note: This tutorial accompanies a workshop I presented at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting. The workflow and techniques presented in this tutorial and the conference workshop are identical. In this tutorial we will be using two different ways to create a 3-D printable medical model of a head and neck which will be derived from a real contrast-enhanced CT scan. The model will show detailed anatomy of the bones, as well as the veins and arteries. We will independently create this model using two separate methods. First, we will automatically generate the model using the free online service embodi3D.com. Next, we will create the same file using free desktop software programs 3D Slicer and Meshmixer. If you haven't already, please download the associated file pack which contains the files you'll need to follow along with this tutorial. Following along with the actual files used here will make learning these techniques much easier. The file pack is free. You need to be logged into your embodi3D account to download, but registration is also free and only takes a minute. Also, you'll need an embodi3D.com account in order to use the online service. Registration is worth it, so if you haven't already go ahead and register now. >> DOWNLOAD THE FILE PACK NOW << Online Service: embodi3D.com Step 1: Go to the embodi3D.com website and click on the democratiz3D menu item in the naw bar. Click on the "Launch democratizD" link, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Opening the free online 3D model making service service democratiz3D. Step 2: Now you have to upload your imaging file. Drag and drop the file MANIX Angio CT.nrrd from the File Pack, as shown in Figure 2. This contains the CT scan of the head and neck in NRRD file format. If you are using a file other NRRD that provided by the file pack, please be aware the file must contain a CT scan (NOT MRI!) and the file must be in NRRD format. If you don't know how to create an NRRD file, here is a simple tutorial that explains how. Figure 2: Dragging and dropping the NRRD file to start uploading. Step 3: Type in basic information on the file being uploaded, including File name, file description, and whether you want to share the file or keep it private. Bear in mind that this information pertains to the uploaded file, not the file that will be generated by the service. Step 4: Type in basic parameters for file processing. Turn on the processing slider. Here you will enter in basic information about how you would like the file to be processed. Under Operation, select CT NRRD to Bone STL Detailed, as shown in Figure 3. This will convert a CT scan in NRRD format to a bone STL with high detail. You also have the option to create muscle and skin STL files. The standard operation, CT NRRD to Bone STL sacrifices some detail for a smoother output model. Leave the default threshold at 150. Figure 3: Selecting an operation for file conversion. Next, choose the quality of your output file. Low-quality files process quickly and are appropriate for structures with simple geometry. High quality files take longer to process and are appropriate for very complex geometry. The geometry of our model will be quite complex, so choose high quality. This may take a long time to process however, sometimes up to 40 minutes. If you don't wish to wait so long, you can choose medium quality, as shown in Figure 4, and have a pretty decent output file in about 12 minutes or so. Figure 4: Choosing a quality setting. Finally, specify whether you want your processed file to be shared with the community (encouraged) or private and accessible only to you. If you do decide to share you will need to fill out a few items, such as which CreativeCommons license to share under. If you're not sure, the defaults are appropriate for most people. If you do decide to share thanks very much! The 3D printing community thanks you! Click on the submit button and your file will be submitted for processing! Now all you have to do is wait. The service will do all the work for you! Step 5: Download your file. In 5 to 40 minutes you should receive an email indicating that your file is done and is ready for download. Follow the link in the email message or, if you are already on the embodi3D.com website, click on your profile to view your latest activity, including files belonging to you. Open the download page for your file and click on the "Download this file" button to download your newly created STL file! Figure 5: Downloading your newly completed STL file. Desktop software If you haven't already, download 3D Slicer and Meshmixer. Both of these programs are available on Macintosh and Windows platforms. Step 1: Create an STL file with 3D Slicer. Open 3D Slicer. Drag and drop the file MANIX Angio CT.nrrd from the file pack onto the 3D Slicer window. This should load the file into 3D Slicer, as shown in Figure 6. When Slicer asks you to confirm whether you want to add the file, click OK. Figure 6: Opening the NRRD file in 3D Slicer using drag-and-drop. Step 2: Convert the CT scan into an STL file. From within Slicer, open the Modules menu item and choose All Modules, Grayscale Model Maker, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Opening the Grayscale Model Maker module. Next, enter the conversion parameters for Grayscale Model Maker in the parameters window on the left. Under Input Volume select MANIX Angio CT. Under Output Geometry choose "Create new model." Slicer will create a new model with the default name such as "Output Geometry. If you wish to rename this to something more descriptive, choose Rename current model under the same menu. For this tutorial I am calling the model "RSNA model." For Threshold, set the value to 150. Under Decimate, set the value to 0.75. Double check your settings to make sure everything is correct. When everything is filled in correctly click the Apply button, as shown in Figure 8. Slicer will process for about a minute. Figure 8: Filling in the Grayscale Model Maker parameters. Step 3: Save the new model to STL file format. Now it is time to create an STL file from our digital model. Click on the Save button on the upper left-hand corner of the Slicer window. The Save Scene pop-up window is now shown. Find the row that corresponds to the model name you have given the model. In my case it is called "RSNA model." Make sure that the checkbox next to this row is checked, and all other rows are unchecked. Next, under the File Format column make sure to specify STL. Finally, specify the directory that the new STL file is to be saved into. Double check everything. When you are ready, click Saved. This is all shown in Figure 9. Now that you've created an STL file, we need to postprocessing in Meshmixer. Figure 9: Saving your file to STL format. Step 4: Open Meshmixer, and drag-and-drop the newly created STL file onto the Meshmixer window to open it. Once the model opens, you will notice that there are many red dots scattered throughout the model. These represent errors in the mesh and need to be corrected, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Errors in the mesh as shown in Meshmixer. Each red dot corresponds to an error. Step 5: Remove disconnected elements from the mesh. There are many disconnected elements in this model that we do not want in our final model. An example of unwanted mesh are the flat plates on either side of the head from the pillow that was used to secure the head during the CT scan. Let's get rid of this unwanted mesh. First use the select tool and place the cursor over the four head of the model and left click. The area under the cursor should turn orange, indicating that those polygons have been selected, as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Selecting a small zone on the forehead. Next, we are going to expand the selection to encompass all geometry that is attached to the area that we currently have selected. Go to the Modify menu item and select Expand to Connected. Alternatively, you can use the keyboard shortcut and select the E key. This operation is shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: Expanding the selection to all connected parts. You will notice that the right clavicle and right scapula have not been selected. This is because these parts are not directly connected to the rest of the skeleton, as shown in Figure 13. We wish to include these in our model, so using the select tool left click on each of these parts to highlight a small area. Then expand the selection to connected again by hitting the E key. Figure 13: The right clavicle and right scapula are not included in the selection because they are not connected to the rest of the skeleton. Individually select these parts and expand the selection again to include them. At this point you should have all the geometry we want included in the model selected in orange, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14: All the desired geometry is selected in orange Next we are going to delete all the unwanted geometry that is currently unselected. To start this we will first invert the selection. Under the modify menu, select Invert. Alternatively, you can use the keyboard shortcut I, as shown in Figure 15. Figure 15: Inverting the selection. At this point only the undesired geometry should be highlighted in orange, as shown in Figure 16. This unwanted geometry cannot be deleted by going to the Edit menu and selecting Discard. Alternatively you can use the keyboard shortcut X. Figure 16: Only the unwanted geometry is highlighted in orange. This is ready to delete. Step 6: Correcting mesh errors using the Inspector tool. Meshmixer has a nice tool that will automatically fix many mesh errors. Click on the Analysis button and choose Inspector. Meshmixer will now identify all of the errors currently in the mesh. These are indicated by red, blue, and pink balls with lines pointing to the location of the error. As you can see from Figure 17, there are hundreds of errors still within our mesh. We can attempt to auto repair them by clicking on the Auto Repair All button. At the end of the operation most of the errors have been fixed, but if you remain. This can be seen in Figure 18. Figure 17: Errors in the mesh. Most of these can be corrected using the Inspector tool. Figure 18: Only a few errors remain after auto correction with the Inspector tool. Step 7: Correcting the remaining errors using the Remesh tool. Click on the select button to turn on the select tool. Expand the selection to connected parts by choosing Modify, Expand to Connected. The entire model should now be highlighted and origin color. Next under the edit menu choose Remesh, or use the R keyboard shortcut, as shown in Figure 19. This operation will take some time, six or eight minutes depending on the speed of your computer. What remesh does is it recalculates the surface topography of the model and replaces each of the surface triangles with new triangles that are more regular and uniform in appearance. Since our model has a considerable amount of surface area and polygons, the remesh operation takes some time. Remesh also has the ability to eliminate some geometric problems that can prevent all errors from being automatically fixed in Inspector. Figure 19: Using the Remesh tool. Step 8: Fixing the remaining errors using the Inspector tool. Once the remesh operation is completed we will go back and repeat Step 6 and run the Inspector tool again. Click on Analysis and choose Inspector. Inspector will highlight the errors. Currently there are only two, as shown in Figure 20. These two remaining errors can be easily auto repair using the Auto Repair All button. Go ahead and click on this. Figure 20: running the Inspector tool again. At this point the model is now completed and ready for 3D printing as shown in Figure 21. The mesh is error-free and ready to go! Congratulations! Figure 21: The final, error-free model ready for 3D printing. Conclusion Complex bone and vascular models, such as the head and neck model we created in this tutorial, can be created using either the free online service at embodi3D.com or using free desktop software. Each approach has its benefits. The online service is easier to use, faster, and produces high quality models with minimal user input. Additionally, multiple models can be processed simultaneously so it is possible to batch process multiple files at once. The desktop approach using 3D Slicer and Meshmixer requires more user input and thus more time, however the user has greater control over individual design decisions about the model. Both methods are viable for creating high quality 3D printable medical models. Thank you very much for reading this tutorial. Please share your medical 3D printing designs on the embodi3D.com website. Happy 3D printing!
  5. In this tutorial we will learn how to easily create a 3D printable dental, orthodontic, or maxillofacial bone model quickly and easily using the free democratiz3D® file conversion service on the embodi3D.com website. Creating the 3D printable dental model takes about 10 minutes and requires no prior experience or specialized knowledge. Dental 3D printing is one of the many uses for democratiz3D. You can 3D print teeth, braces, dental implants and so much more. Step 1: Download the CT scan file for dental 3D printing. Go to the navigation bar on the embodi3D.com website and click on the Download menu. This is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: The Download menu This will take you to the download section of the website, which has a very large and extensive library of 3D printable anatomy files and source medical scan files. Look for the category along the right side of the page that says Medical Scan Files. Click on the section within that that says Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Viewing the medical scan library on the embodi3D website This section contains anonymized CT scans of the teeth and face. Many of the scans in this section are perfect for 3D printing dental models. For this tutorial we will use the file openbiteupdated by member gcross, although you can use any source CT scan. This particular scan is a good one to choose because the patient does not have metallic fillings which can create streak artifact which can lower the quality of the model. Click on the link below to go to the file download page. Step 2: Preview the Dental CT scan file. Once you've downloaded the file you can inspect the CT scan using 3D Slicer. If you don't know about 3D Slicer, it is a free open source medical image viewing software package that can be downloaded from slicer.org. Once you have installed and opened Slicer, you can drag-and-drop the downloaded NRRD file onto the slicer window and it will open for you to view. You can see as shown in Figure 3 that the file appears to be quite good, without any dental fillings that cause streak artifact. Figure 3: Viewing the dental CT scan in Slicer. Step 3: Upload your dental CT scan NRRD file to the democratiz3D online service. Now that we are happy with our NRRD source file, we can upload it to the democratiz3D service for conversion into a 3D printable STL file. On the embodi3D website click on the democratiz3D navigation menu and Launch App, as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4: Launching the democratiz3D service. Once the online application opens, you will be asked to drag-and-drop your file onto the webpage. Go ahead and do this. Make sure that the file you are adding is an NRRD file and corresponds to a dental CT scan. An MRI will not work. This is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: Dragging and dropping the CT scan NRRD file onto the democratiz3D application page. Step 4: Fill in basic information about your uploaded scan and generated model file While the file is uploading you can begin to fill out some of the required form fields. There are two main sections to the form. The section labeled 3 pertains to the file currently being uploaded, the NRRD file. Section 4 pertains to the generated STL file that democratiz3D will create. In Section 3 fill out a filename and a short description of your uploaded NRRD file. Specify whether you want the file to be private or shared, and whether this is a free file or a paid file that you wish to sell. You must choose a license type, although this is only really applicable if your file is shared as if it is private nobody will be able to download it. This portion of the form is shown in Figure 6. Figure 6: Filling out the submission form, part 1. Enter in information related to the uploaded NRRD file. Next proceed to section 4, the portion of the form related to the file you wish to generate. Make sure that democratiz3D processing is turned on and the slider shows green. Choose the appropriate operation. For creation of dental files, the best operation is "CT NRRD to Bone STL Detailed." This takes a CT scan in NRRD file format and converts it to a bone STL file using maximum detail. Leave the threshold at the default value of 150. Set quality to high. Make sure that you specify whether you want the file to be private or shared, and free versus paid. Make sure you specify file license. The steps are shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Filling out the submission form, part 2. Enter in information related to the generated STL file. Make sure you check the checkbox that states you agree to the terms of use, and click the submit button. Your file will now start processing. In approximately 10 minutes or so you should receive an email stating that the file has been processed and your newly created 3D printable STL model is ready for download. The email should contain a link that will take you to your file download page, which should look something like the page in Figure 8. There should be several thumbnails which show you what the model looks like. To download the file click on the Download button. Figure 8: The file download page for your newly created dental model. Step 5: Check your dental STL file for errors and send it to your dental 3D printer! Once you have downloaded the STL file open it in Meshmixer. Meshmixer is a free 3D software program available from meshmixer.com that has many handy 3D printing related features. The democratized service is a good job of creating error-free files, but occasionally a few errors will sneak through, which can be easily fixed and Meshmixer. Click on the analysis button and then select Inspector as shown in Figure 9. Click on the Auto Repair All button and any minor defects that are remaining will be automatically fixed. Make sure to save your repaired and finalized 3D printable model by clicking on the menu File -> Export. You can now send your STL file to the 3D printer of your choice. Here is an example of the model when printed on a Form 1+ using white resin. You can see that the level of detail is very good. Formlabs has several examples of 3d printing teeth and other dental applications on their website. Thank you very much. I hope this tutorial was helpful. If you are not already a member, please consider joining the embodi3D community of medical 3D printing enthusiasts. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to post them below.
  6. 358 downloads

    Normally there are two main blood vessels leaving the heart: the aorta, carrying blood to the body, and the pulmonary artery that branches immediately to carry blood to each lung. Instead of having a separate pulmonary artery and aorta, each with its own three-leafed valves, a baby with truncus arteriosus has only one great blood vessel or trunk leaving the heart, which then branches into blood vessels that go to the lungs and the body. This great vessel usually has one large valve which may have between two and five leaflets. Usually this great vessel sits over both the left and right ventricle. The upper portion of the wall between these two chambers is missing, resulting in what is known as a ventricular septal defect (VSD). There are 3 separate files as well as a fourth STL file for 3D printing the whole model. The three part model has holes for magnets, which can be used to connect and separate the pieces. All the STL files have been zipped to conserve space. The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives. It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement. A US quarter is shown for scale in the images below.

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  7. Version 1.0.0

    106 downloads

    Left Knee Joint 3D Printable STL File Converted From CT Scan - stl file processed The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation. The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI. This 3D model was created from the file STS_045. The source CT scan used to create this model can be found here.

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  8. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    this is edentulous patient cbct scan to be converted to stl format. stl, file, axial, dicom, ct, scan, without contrast, maxillary, sinus, septum, nasal, teeth, alveolar, mandible, hyoid, bone, canine, incisive

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  9. Version 1.0.0

    10 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the lumbar spine was derived from a medical CT scan. It shows a compression fracture at L5. This model was created using the democratiz3D 3D model creation service 0522c0878 L5fx

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  10. Version 1.0.0

    19 downloads

    This is a 3D printable STL model of the face and skull base derived from a CT scan. STS_003. This model was created with the democratiz3D free online conversion tool.

    Free

  11. Version 1.0.0

    89 downloads

    Thoracic vertebrae compose the middle portion of the vertebral column. They are 12 in number and their size is intermediate between the cervical and the lumbar spine. They increase gradually in size as we go down the vertebral column. They are characterized by the presence of facets for articulation with the corresponding ribs and they are of limited flexibility compared to the cervical and the lumbar regions, they also have thinner intervetebral discs and a narrower spinal canal. This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset

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  12. Version 1.0.0

    17 downloads

    The sternum is a long flat bone situated in the center of the chest. It has the shape of a necktie and it is connected to the adjacent rib via cartilage forming the anterior portion of the rib cage, it protects the heart, lungs, and mediastinal structures. The sternum gives origin and insertion sites for some of the critical upper limb muscles. It's formed of 3 parts : The manubrium , The body, and the xiphoid process. The manubrium is the flat upper part, the body is longest middle part, and the xiphoid is located at the inferior end. This is a 3D printable medical file converted form a CT scan DICOM dataset.

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  13. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    This is a 3D printable STL model of the thoracic spine derived from a CT scan. STS_003. This model was created using the democratiz3D service.

    Free

  14. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is a 3D printable STL model of the cervical spine derived from a CT scan. This model was created using the democratiz3D service.

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    164 downloads

    The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs. The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation. The sacrum is the lower most segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior wall of the bony pelvis. The sacrum is formed by five fused sacral vertebrae. This model shows the origin of ribs, few of the cervical spines and the sacroiliac joint. The minimal tilt seen is likely positional rather that pathological. This 3D model was created from the file STS_036. The source CT scan used to create this model can be found here.

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  16. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation. Each lumbar vertebra is formed of: A body which is kidney shaped and is convex anteriorly while flattened posteriorly, pedicles and lamina, transverse processes, articular processes and a spinous process. This models shows lumbar spondylo-degenerative changes in the form of marginal osteophytic lipping. This 3D model was created from the file STS_037 The original CT examination can be reviewed at:

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  17. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    The sternum is formed by three bones; the manubrium, the sternal body and the xiphoid process (xiphisternum). These bones articulate together by hyaline cartilage with a fibrocartilaginois disc to form the anterior and midline portion of the chest wall. The sternum has many articulations, where the manubrium articulates with the first rib and the clavicle while the sternal body articulates with the second to seventh ribs as well as the costal cartilages. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at:

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  18. Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    This whole body 3D printable STL file includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It was converted from an NRRD file to an STL file using democratiz3D, embodi3D's file conversion service. The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum. The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs. The cervical spine is the upper most spines forming the spinal column, extending from the skull base to the level of the thoracic vertebra (the spines with attached ribs). The cervical spines are usually seven and the main function is to support the skull and to protect the spinal cord. The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs. The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation. The bony pelvis is formed by 4 bones; a pair of hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bony pelvis supports the pelvic viscera and works to transmit force from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs. The two hip bones are related anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacroiliac joints bilaterally. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

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  19. Version 1.0.0

    26 downloads

    This whole body bone STL file ready for medical 3D printing including chest, abdomen and pelvis was converted from an NRRD file to an STL file using democratiz3D, embodi3D's file conversion service. The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum. The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs. The cervical spine is the upper most spines forming the spinal column, extending from the skull base to the level of the thoracic vertebra (the spines with attached ribs). The cervical spines are usually seven and the main function is to support the skull and to protect the spinal cord. The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs. The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation. The bony pelvis is formed by 4 bones; a pair of hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bony pelvis supports the pelvic viscera and works to transmit force from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs. The two hip bones are related anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacroiliac joints bilaterally. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    Free

  20. Version 1.0.0

    7 downloads

    The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at:

    Free

  21. Version 1.0.0

    12 downloads

    The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum. The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs. There are five muscles that make up the thoracic cage; the intercostal (external, internal and innermost), subcostals, and transversus thoracis. This model ready for medical 3D printing was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    Free

  22. Version 1.0.0

    10 downloads

    The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum. The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs. There are five muscles that make up the thoracic cage; the intercostal (external, internal and innermost), subcostals, and transversus thoracis. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    Free

  23. Version 1.0.0

    24 downloads

    Whole Spine (Dorsal-Lumbar-Sacral) and Aorta: The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs. The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation. The sacrum is the lower most segment of the vertebral column and also forms the posterior wall of the bony pelvis. The sacrum is formed by five fused sacral vertebrae. The sacrum is formed by fusion of five sacral vertebrae has three surfaces, a base and an apex. The body of the first segment is large and is similar to lumbar vertebra whereas the bodies of the next bones get progressively smaller, are flattened from the back, and curved to shape. The sacrum articulates with four other bones – iliac bones on either side, L5 above and coccyx below. It is tilted forward and curved with anterior concavity and posterior convexity allowing greater room for pelvic cavity. The curvature of sacrum varies in individuals. This model shows segment of the heart, the aorta and sacro-iliac joints. This 3D model was created from the file ABD_LYMPH_001 The original CT examination can be reviewed at:

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  24. Version 1.0.0

    62 downloads

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation. The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI. This 3D model was created from the file STS_051 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D skin model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    Free

  25. Version 1.0.0

    19 downloads

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation. The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI. This 3D model was created from the file STS_051 The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D skin model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    Free

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