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Found 8 results

  1. Version 1.0.0

    29 downloads

    This is the normal right foot and ankle muscle model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The primary motions of the ankle are dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion. However, with the addition of midfoot motion (adduction, and abduction), the foot may supinate (inversion and adduction) or pronate (eversion and abduction). In order to accomplish these motions, muscles outside of the foot (extrinsic) and muscles within the foot (intrinsic) attach throughout the foot, crossing one or more joints. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  2. Version 1.0.0

    5 downloads

    This is the normal left knee muscle model of a 56 year old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The knee is composed of 3 separate joints: two hinge joints (medial and lateral femorotibial joints), and one sellar, or gliding, joint (the patellofemoral joint). These also compose the three compartments of the knee: medial, lateral, and patellofemoral. Although the knee is thought of as a hinge joint, it actually has 6 degrees of motion: extension/flexion, internal/external rotation, varus/valgus, anterior/posterior translation, medial/lateral translation, and compression/distraction. In order to provide stability to this inherently unstable knee, static and dynamic stabilizers surround the knee, including muscles and ligaments. On the medial aspect of the knee, the static stabilizers consist of the superficial and deep medial collateral ligaments (MCL) and the posterior oblique ligament (POL). The dynamic stabilizers are the semimembranosus, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, and pes tendons (semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius). The lateral stabilizers are best known as the posterolateral corner, and consist of the static stabilizers (lateral collateral ligament (LCL), iliotibial band (ITB), arcuate ligament), and dynamic stabilizers (popliteus, biceps femoris, lateral gastrocnemius). Inside the joint, the anterior cruciate ligament provides resistance to anterior tibial translation varus, and internal rotation, whereas the posterior cruciate ligament provides resistance to posterior tibial translation, varus, valgus, and external rotation. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    19 downloads

    This is the normal left leg muscle model (including foot) of a 56 year old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The lower leg is divided into four muscle compartments: the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior compartments. The anterior compartment is made from the dorsiflexors, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus (EHL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and peroneus tertius, which are innervated by the deep peroneal nerve. The lateral compartment includes the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis, which assist in foot eversion and are innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve. The superficial posterior compartment includes the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris, which assist in plantarflexion and are innervated by the tibial nerve. The deep posterior compartment is made up of the popliteus, flexor hallucis longus (FHL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL), and tibialis posterior, which mostly assist in plantarflexion and are innervated similarly by the tibial nerve. This file was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  4. Version 1.0.0

    19 downloads

    This is the normal right leg muscle model (including foot) of a 56 year old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The lower leg is divided into four muscle compartments: the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior compartments. The anterior compartment is made from the dorsiflexors, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus (EHL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and peroneus tertius, which are innervated by the deep peroneal nerve. The lateral compartment includes the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis, which assist in foot eversion and are innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve. The superficial posterior compartment includes the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris, which assist in plantarflexion and are innervated by the tibial nerve. The deep posterior compartment is made up of the popliteus, flexor hallucis longus (FHL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL), and tibialis posterior, which mostly assist in plantarflexion and are innervated similarly by the tibial nerve. This file was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  5. Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    This is the normal left thigh muscle model of a 56 year old male with contralateral anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The thigh is divided into three compartments: the anterior, posterior, and adductor. The anterior compartment contains the “quadriceps muscles”, made up of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis vastus intermedius, and rectus femoris, and the sartorius. These muscles are innervated by the femoral nerve (L3-L4), and act to extend the leg. The Sartorius muscle originates at the ASIS and crosses anterior to the quadriceps muscle to insert on the medial tibia in the pes anserinus. The posterior compartment contains the “hamstrings”, made up of the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and short and long heads of the biceps femoris. These muscles act to flex the leg. All of these muscles are innervated by the sciatic nerve (tibial division) except for the short head of the biceps femoris, which is innervated by the sciatic nerve (peroneal division). The adductor compartment contains the adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, and gracilis, which act to adduct the thigh. These muscles are innervated by the obturator, and the adductor magnus has dual innervation with the sciatic nerve. In addition, the obturator externus (a thigh external rotator) and pectineus muscle (thigh flexor and adductor) are located within this compartment. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    5 downloads

    This model is the right thigh muscle rendering of a 56 year old male with a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the anterior compartment of the right thigh. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. However, the tumor metastasized to his lungs, and the patient died 2.5 years after diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Leiomyosarcomas are aggressive soft tissue malignancies that are thought to arise from the smooth muscle cells lining small blood vessels. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive form of leiomyosarcoma, accounting for approximately 10% of these tumors. The mean age of occurrence is 58 years old, with a range from 31-89 years. These usually occur in the extremities, but may also present in the retroperitoneum/abdominal cavity, chest/abdominal wall, and, occasionally, the scalp. On biopsy, the definition of pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma is the presence of pleomorphic cells in at last two-thirds of the cut section and at least one section of positive staining for smooth muscle. Treatment is early wide resection of the primary lesion and neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Tumors may metastasize to the lung. A large primary tumor and presence in the retroperitoneal cavity are poor predictive factors, and about 65% of patients succumb to the disease. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    These images are the isolated left thigh tumor muscle renderings of an 82 year old male with a dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the anterior compartment of the left thigh. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Liposarcomas are the second most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults, occurring more commonly in males between the ages of 50 and 80 years old. They present as a slow growing, painless mass typically located in the extremities, with the thigh being the most common location. Multiple variants of liposarcomas exist, but the dedifferentiated type is a high-grade sarcoma. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas are typically located adjacent to a well-differentiated lipomatous lesion. The incidence of pulmonary metastasis increases with grade. Therefore, work up of the lesion consists of MRI, biopsy through the area of future resection, CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis to rule out metastases. Treatment consists of radiation and wide surgical resection but chemotherapy agents are being developed to target chromosomal abnormalities associated with certain well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. This patient received radiation and resection of the tumor and has not had a metastasis or recurrence in 4.5 years. This model came from the file STS_013.

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    These images are the bilateral leg muscle renderings of an 82 year old male with a dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the anterior compartment of the left thigh. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Liposarcomas are the second most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults, occurring more commonly in males between the ages of 50 and 80 years old. They present as a slow growing, painless mass typically located in the extremities, with the thigh being the most common location. Multiple variants of liposarcomas exist, but the dedifferentiated type is a high-grade sarcoma. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas are typically located adjacent to a well-differentiated lipomatous lesion. The incidence of pulmonary metastasis increases with grade. Therefore, work up of the lesion consists of MRI, biopsy through the area of future resection, CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis to rule out metastases. Treatment consists of radiation and wide surgical resection but chemotherapy agents are being developed to target chromosomal abnormalities associated with certain well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. This patient received radiation and resection of the tumor and has not had a metastasis or recurrence in 4.5 years. This figure came from the file STS_013.

    Free

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