Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'models'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Blogs

  • Embodi3d Test Blog
  • 3D Printing in Medicine
  • Cool Medical 3D-Printing
  • 3D Bio Printing by Paige Anne Carter
  • SSchoppert's Blog
  • Additive Manufacturing in Medicine
  • biomedical 3D printing
  • Bryce's Blog
  • Chris Leggett
  • 3D Models Help Improve Surgical Precision, Reduce Operating Time
  • Desktop 3D Printing in Medical Imaging
  • 3D Printing: Radiology corner
  • The Embodi3D.com Blog
  • descobar3d's Blog
  • 3D Printing in Anthropology
  • Learn to 3D Print: Basic Tools from software to printers
  • 3D printing for bio-medicine
  • 3D Biomedical Printing - by Jacob M.
  • Valchanov's Blog
  • Deirdre_Manion-Fischer's Blog
  • Matt Johnson's Biomedical 3D Printing Blog
  • Devarsh Vyas's Biomedical 3D Printing Blogs
  • Devarsh Vyas's Biomedical 3D Printing Blogs
  • Mike at Medical Models
  • TOP TEN THE MOST DOWNLOADED EMBODI3D

Forums

  • Biomedical 3D Printing
    • Hardware and 3D Printers
    • democratiz3D®
    • Software
    • Clinical applications
    • 3D Printable Models
    • Medical Imaging: CT, MRI, US
    • Science and Research
    • News and Trending Topics
    • Education, Conferences, Meetings, Events
    • Member Lounge (new!)
    • General
  • Classifieds, Goods and Services
    • General Classifieds - members post free
    • Services needed
    • Services offered
    • Stuff for sale/needed
    • Post a Job
    • Looking for work - visible only to members

Categories

  • democratiz3D® Processing
  • Bones
    • Skull and Head
    • Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial
    • Spine and Pelvis
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm)
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg)
    • Thorax and Ribs
    • Whole body
    • Skeletal tumors, fractures and bony pathology
  • Muscles
    • Head and neck muscles
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg) Muscles
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm) Muscles
    • Thorax and Ribs Muscles
    • Abdomen and Pelvis muscles
    • Whole body Muscles
    • Muscular tumors and sarcomas
  • Cardiac and Vascular
    • Heart
    • Congenital Heart Defects
    • Aorta
    • Mesenteric and abdominal arteries
    • Veins
  • Organs of the Body
    • Brain and nervous system
    • Kidneys
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Other organs
  • Skin
  • Veterinary
    • Dogs
    • Cats
    • Other
  • Science and Research
    • Paleontology
    • Anthropology
    • Misc Research
  • Miscellaneous
    • Formlabs
  • Medical CT Scan Files
    • Skull, Head, and Neck CTs
    • Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial CTs
    • Thorax and Ribs CTs
    • Abdomen and Pelvis CTs
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm) CTs
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg) CTs
    • Spine CTs
    • Whole Body CTs
    • MRIs
    • Ultrasound
    • Veterinary/Animals
    • Other

Product Groups

  • Premium Services
  • Physical Print Quotes

Find results in...

Find results that contain...


Date Created

  • Start

    End


Last Updated

  • Start

    End


Filter by number of...

Joined

  • Start

    End


Group


Found 4 results

  1. In this tutorial we will learn how to use the free medical imaging conversion service on embodi3D.com to create detailed anatomic muscle and skin 3D printable models in STL file format from medical CT scans. Muscle models show the detailed musculature by subtracting away the skin and fat. Even when created from a scan of an obese person, the model looks like it comes from a bodybuilder, Figure 1A. Skin models show an exact replica of the skin surface. The finest details are captured, including wrinkles and veins underneath the skin. Hair however is not captured in a CT scan and thus the model does not have any hair, Figure 1B. Figure 1A (left): A muscle 3D printable model. Figure 1B (right): A skin 3D printable model These models can be used for a variety of purposes such as medical and scientific education and research. Additionally, the skin models can be used to re-create a person's likeness in 3D from a medical scan. If you have had a CT scan of the head, you can create a lifelike replica of your head. You can create replicas of your friends, family, or even pets if they have had a medical CT scan. Alternatively, if you have a loved one who passed away but had a CT scan prior to death, you can use the scan to re-create an exact replica of their face. Even scans that are years old can be used for this purpose. Some people may consider this to be a little creepy, so if you are considering doing this think carefully first. Before proceeding please register for an embodi3D.com account if you haven't already. You will need an account to use the service. It is highly recommended that you download the associated file pack for this tutorial so that you can follow along with the exact same files that are used in this tutorial. >> DOWNLOAD THE FREE FILE PACK BY CLICKING HERE << If you are interested in learning how to use the free embodi3D.com service, see my prior tutorials on creating bone models, processing multiple models simultaneously, and sharing and selling your models on the embodi3D.com website. If you are interested in converting your own CT scan or that of a friend or family member, you can go to the radiology department of the hospital or clinic that did the scan and ask for the scan to be put on a CD or DVD for you. Figure 2 shows the radiology department at my hospital, called Image Management, and the CDs that they give out. Most radiology departments will have you sign a written release and give you a CD or DVD for free or with a small processing fee. If you are a doctor or other healthcare provider and want to 3D print a model for a patient, the radiology department can also help you. There are multiple online repositories of anonymized CT scans for research that are also available. If you have downloaded the file pack for this tutorial, example CT scans are included Figure 2A, the Image Management (radiology) department at my hospital, where you can pick up a DVD of your CT scan as shown in Figure 2B (right). My hospital does this for free, but some may charge a trivial fee. PART 1: Creating a Muscle STL model from NRRD File Before we begin please bear in mind that this process only works for CT scan images. It will not work for MRI images. Before proceeding please check that the scan you wish to convert is a CT (CAT) scan! Step 1: Convert Your CT scan to an Anonymized NRRD File with 3D Slicer Open 3D Slicer. If you don't have the software program you can download it for free from slicer.org. Once Slicer has opened, take the folder from the download pack that is called STS_004. This folder contains anonymized DICOM images from a CT scan of the legs of a 24-year-old woman who had a muscle tumor. Drag and drop the entire folder onto the Slicer window, as shown in Figure 3. Slicer will ask you if you want to load the images into the DICOM database. Click OK. Slicer will also ask you if it should copy the images into the database, click Copy. Slicer will take about one minute to load the scanned. Figure 3: Drag-and-drop the STS_004 DICOM folder from the file pack onto the Slicer window Next, load the scan into the active wor king area in slicer. If the DICOM browser is not open, click on the Show DICOM browser button, as shown in Figure 4. Click on the STS_004 patient and series, and click the Load button, as shown in Figure 4. The leg CT scan will now load into the active seen within Slicer, as shown in Figure 5. Figure 4: Open the DICOM browser and load the study into the active seen Figure 5: The leg CT scan is shown in the active seen Step 2: Trim the Scan so that only the Right Thigh is included. Click on the Volume Rendering module from the Modules drop-down menu as shown in Figure 6. Turn on volume rendering by clicking on the eyeball button, as shown in Figure 7. Then, center the model in the 3D pane by clicking on the crosshairs button, Figure 7. If you don't have the same window layout as shown in Figure 7, you can correct this by clicking on the Four-Up window layout from the window layout drop-down menu, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 6: Turn on the volume rendering module Figure 7: Center the rendered volume. Figure 8: Make sure you are in the Four-Up window layout Next we are going to crop the volume so that we exclude everything other than the right knee and thigh. From the modules menu, select All Modules, Crop Volume, as shown in Figure 9. Turn on ROI visibility by clicking on the eyeball button, as shown in Figure 10. Then, move the region of interest box so that it only encapsulates the right thigh, as shown in Figure 10. You can adjust the size of the box by grabbing on the colored circular handles and moving the sides of the box as needed. Figure 9: The Crop Volume module. Figure 10: Turning on and adjusting the crop volume ROI (Region Of Interest) Once the crop volume ROI is adjusted to the area that you want, perform the crop by clicking on the Crop button, Figure 11. Figure 11: the Crop button. The new, smaller volume that encompasses the right fight and knee has been assigned a cryptic name. The entire scan had a name of "2: CT IMAGES – RESEARCH," and the new thigh volume has a name "2: CT IMAGES-RESEARCH-subvolume-scale_1." That's a mouthful and I want to rename it to something more descriptive. I'm going to select the Volumes module, and then select the "2: CT IMAGES-RESEARCH-subvolume-scale_1" from the Active Volume drop-down menu. Then, from the same drop-down menu I'm going to select "Rename Current Volume". Type in whatever name you want. In this case I'm choosing "right thigh." Figure 12: Renaming the newly cropped volume. Step 3: Save the right thigh volume as an anonymized NRRD file. Click on the Save button in the upper left-hand corner. The save window is then shown. All the checkboxes on the left except for the one that corresponds to the right by. Make sure the file format for this line says NRRD (.nrrd). Make sure you specify the proper directory you want the file to be saved as. When you are satisfied click on save. This is demonstrated in Figure 13. In the specified directory you should see a called right thigh.nrrd. Figure 13: The save file options. Step 4: Upload the NRRD file to embodi3D.com Make sure you are logged into your embodi3D.com account. Click on Imag3D from the nav bar, Launch App. Then drag-and-drop your NRRD file onto the upload pain, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14: Uploading the NRRD file to embodi3D.com. While the file is uploading, fill in the required fields, including the name of the uploaded file, a brief description, file privacy, and license type. Except the terms of use. next, turn on Imag3D processing. Under operation, select "CT NRRD to Muscle STL." Leave the threshold value unchanged. Under quality, select medium or high. Specify your privacy preference for your output STL file. If you are going to share this file, you can choose to share it for free or sell it. Please see my separate tutorial on how to share and sell your files on the embodi3D.com website for additional details. When you're happy with your choices, save the file, as shown in Figure 15: Figure 15: File processing options. Step 5: Download your new STL file after processing is completed. In about 5 to 15 minutes you should receive an email that says your file has finished processing and is ready to download. Follow the link in the email or access the new file via your profile on the embodi3D.com website. Your newly created STL file should have several rendered thumbnails associated with it on its download page. If you want to download the file click on the Download button, as shown in Figure 16. Figure 16: the download page for your new muscle STL file I opened the file in AutoDesk MeshMixer to have another look at it, and it looks terrific, as shown in Figure 17. This file is ready to 3D print! Figure 17: The final 3D printable muscle model. PART 2: Creating a Skin Model STL File Ready for 3D Printing Creating a skin model is essentially identical to creating the muscle model, except instead of choosing the CT NRRD to Muscle STL on the embodi3D.com service, we choose CT NRRD to Skin STL. Step 1: Load DICOM image set into Slicer Launch Slicer. From the tutorial file pack drag and drop the MANIX folder onto the Slicer window to load this head and neck CT scan data set. This is shown in Figure 18. Figure 18: Loading the head and neck CT scan into Slicer. It may take a minute or two to load. From the DICOM browser, click on the ANGIO CT series as shown in Figure 19. Figure 19: Loading the ANGIO CT series from the MANIX data set Step 2: Skip the trimming and crop volume operations In this case we don't need to trim and crop a volume as we did with the muscle file above. We can skip Step 2. Step 3: Save the CT scan in NRRD format. Just as with the muscle file above, save the volume in NRRD format. Click on the save button, make sure that the checkbox for the nrrd file is selected and all other checkboxes are deselected. Specify the correct directory you want the file to be saved in, and click Save. Step 4: Upload your NRRD file of the head to the embodi3D website. Just as with the muscle file process as shown above, upload the head NRRD file to the embodi3D.com website. Enter in the required fields. In this case, however, under Operation choose the CT NRRD to Skin STL operation, as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Selecting the CT NRRD to Skin STL file operation Step 5: Download your new Skin STL file After about 5 to 15 minutes, you should receive an email that says your file processing has been completed. Follow the link in the email or look for your file in the list the files you own in your profile. You should see that your skin STL file has been completed, with several rendered images, as shown in Figure 21. Go ahead and download your file. You can then check the quality of your file in Meshmixer as shown in Figure 22. In this instance everything looks great and the file is error free and ready for 3D printing. Figure 21: The download page for your newly created 3D printable skin STL file. Figure 22: Opening the file in Meshmixer for quality control checks. The file is error free and incredibly lifelike. It is ready for 3D printing. Thank you very much! I hope you enjoyed this tutorial. If you use this service to create 3D printable models, please consider sharing your models with the embodi3D community. Here is a detailed tutorial that I wrote on exactly how to do this. This community is built on medical 3D makers helping each other. Please share the models that you create!
  2. 3D-Printed Models of the Spine In this week's post, we want to share with you some of the best 3D-printed models of the spine uploaded by embodi3D® members. We will explore features of this unique anatomy and some of the main uses of 3D printing as it relates to the spine . To convert your own scans and download and 3D-print STL files from other users, all you have to do is register with embodi3D®. It's quick, easy, and costs absolutely nothing to join. Anatomical models have applications in clinical training and surgical planning as well as in medical imaging research. The Wall Street Journal recently ran an article to discuss the many ways 3D printing is changing the face of healthcare. The article also highlighted a case where a 3D model of a pelvis was used to plan a surgical operation on a young female patient. A full-scale, anatomical model of a human lumbar vertebra created with embodi3D®. In terms of clinical applications, the physical interaction with models facilitates learning anatomy and how different structures interact spatially in the body. Simulation-based training with anatomical models reduces the risks of surgical interventions, which are directly linked to patient experience and healthcare costs. Surgical planning 3D printing (3DP) is most frequently utilised in spinal surgery in the pre-operative planning stage. A full-scale, stereoscopic understanding of the pathology allows for more detailed planning and simulation of the procedure. Assessing complex pathologies on a model overcomes many of the issues associated with traditional 3D imaging, such as the lack of realistic anatomical representation and the associated complexity of computer-related skills and techniques. Summary of 3DP in spinal surgery planning 1999 D’Urso et al. (4) Osteogenesis imperfecta, cervicothoracic deformity, lumbar spinal fusion, cervical osteoblastoma 1999 D’Urso et al. (5) Craniofacial, maxillofacial and skull base cervical spine pathologies. 2005 D’Urso et al. (6) Complex spinal disorders. 2007 Guarino et al. (7) Multiplane spinal and pelvic deformities. 2007 Izatt et al. (8) Deformities, spinal tumours. 2007 Paiva et al. (9) Cervical Ewing Sarcoma. 2008 Mizutani et al. (10)Rheumatoid cervical spine. 2009 Madrazo et al. (11)Degenerative cervical disease. 2010 Mao et al. (12) Kyphoscoliosis, congenital malformations, neuromuscular disease. 2010 Yang et al. (13) Kyphoscoliosis. 2011 Wu et al.(14) Severe congenital scoliosis. 2013 Toyoda et al. (15) Atlantoaxial subluxation. 2014 Yang et al. (16) Atlantoaxial instability. 2015 Li et al.(17) Revision lumbar discectomy. 2015 Kim et al. (18)Thoracic tumours. 2015 Sugimoto et al. (19) Congenital kyphosis. 2015 Yang et al. (20) Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. 2016 Goel et al. (21) Craniovertebral junction anomalies. 2016 Wang et al. (22) Congenital scoliosis, atlas neoplasm, atlantoaxial dislocation. 2016 Xiao et al. (23) Cervical bone tumours. 2017 Guo et al. (24) Cervical spine diseases. Imaging Anatomy There are 33 spinal vertebrae, which comprise two components: A cylindrical ventral bone mass, which is the vertebral body,and the dorsal arch. 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar bodies • 5 fused elements form the sacrum • 4-5 irregular ossicles form the coccyx Arch • 2 pedicles, 2 laminae, 7 processes (1 spinous, 4 articular, 2 transverse) • Pedicles attach to the dorsolateral aspect of the body • Pedicles unite with a pair of arched flat laminae • Lamina capped by dorsal projection called the spinous process • Transverse processes arise from the sides of the arches The two articular processes (zygapophyses) are diarthrodial joints. • (1) Superior process bearing a facet with the surface directed dorsally • (2) Inferior process bearing a facet with the surface directed ventrally Pars interarticularis is the part of the arch that lies between the superior and inferior articular facets of all subatlantal movable elements. The pars are positioned to receive biomechanical stresses of translational forces displacing superior facets ventrally, whereas inferior facets remain attached to dorsal arch (spondylolysis). C2 exhibits a unique anterior relation between the superior facet and the posteriorly placed inferior facet. This relationship leads to an elongated C2 pars interarticularis, which is the site of the hangman's fracture. 1. An Exceptional Human Lumbar Vertebra Converted from a CT Scan with embodi3D® An anatomically accurate full-size human lumbar vertebra created from a real CT scan. The lumbar vertebral bodies are large, wide and thick, and lack a transverse foramen or costal articular facets. The pedicles are strong and directed posteriorly. The superior articular processes are directed dorsomedially and almost face each other. The inferior articular processes are directed anteriorly and laterally. 2. Create Your Own Lumbar Spine Model with a 3D-Printable STL File A 3D printable STL file and medical model of the lumbar spine was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the lumbar (lower back) spine, including the vertebral bodies, facets, neural foramina and spinous proceses. 3. A 3D Printer-Ready Spinal Column in Amazing Detail Thoracic bodies are heart-shaped and increase in size from superior to inferior. Facets are present for rib articulation and the laminae are broad and thick. Spinous processes are long, directed obliquely caudally. Superior facets are thin and directed posteriorly. The T1 vertebral body shows a complete facet for the capitulum of the first rib, and an inferior demifacet for capitulum of second rib. The T12 body has transitional anatomy, and resembles the upper lumbar bodies with the inferior facet directed more laterally 4. Create a 3D-Printed Model of Lumbar Vertebrae The lumbar spine is formed by 5 lumbar vertebrae labelled L1-L5 and the intervening discs. Its main function is to provide stability and permits movement. The lumbar vertebral body is formed of 3 parts : Body, arch and spinal processes. The body of the lumbar vertebrae is large, its transverse diameter is larger than is AP diameter, and is more thickened anteriorly. The arch of the lumbar vertebra on the other hand is formed of pedicle, a strong structure that is projected from the back of the upper part of the vertebrae, and lamina which forms the posterior portion of the arch. Another well reported benefit of 3DP models is improved patient education. A physical model is much easier for a patient to understand than complex MRI and CT scans. 5. An NRRD File Showing the Whole Spine — See the Future of Medical 3D Printing A Whole Spine (Dorsal-Lumbar-Sacral) and Aorta NRRD file from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing As 3DP technology continues to become cheaper, faster and more accurate, its use in the setting of spinal surgery is likely to become routine, and in a greater number of procedures. 6. Download a 3D-Printable Thoracic Spine with Prevalent Scoliosis A 3D printable STL file contains a model of the thoracic spine derived from a CT. The spine has significant scoliosis. In a recent embodi3D® article, we touched on the topic of how medical 3D printing is being used to plan spinal surgeries, such as in correcting the spinal curvature in scoliosis patients. Scoliosis is considered to be present when there is a coronal plane curvature of the spine measuring at least 10°. However, treatment is not generally instituted unless the curvature is > 20-25°. The curvature may be balanced (returning to midline) or unbalanced. The vertebrae at the ends of the curve are designated the terminal (or end) vertebrae, while the apical vertebra is at the curve apex. Curvatures are described by the side to which they deviate. A dextroscoliosis is convex to the right, with its apex to the right of midline. A levoscoliosis is convex to the left, with its apex to the left of midline. Curvatures can be categorized as flexible (normalizing with lateral bending toward the side of the curve) or structural (failing to correct). Most scoliotic curvatures are associated with abnormal curvature in the sagittal plane. These are described as kyphosis (apex dorsal) or lordosis (apex ventral). Morphology of the Curvature Scoliosis due to fracture, congenital anomaly, or infection typically has an angular configuration. Other causes of scoliosis tend to have a smooth curvature. Scoliosis most commonly involves the thoracic spine, followed by the thoracolumbar spine. In the past, curves were categorized as primary and secondary (compensatory), but it is often difficult to make the distinction and so these designations are no longer commonly used. Measurement of Scoliosis The Cobb method is most commonly used to measure scoliosis. The vertebrae at each end of the curve (the terminal vertebrae) are chosen. These are the endplates with the greatest deviation from the horizontal. The curvature is the angle between a line drawn along the superior endplate of superior terminal vertebra and a line along the inferior endplate of the inferior terminal vertebra. In severe curvatures, the endplates are often difficult to see. In that case, the inferior cortex of the pedicle can be used as the landmark for making the measurement. If measurements are made on hard copy radiographs, it is usually necessary to draw lines perpendicular to the endplates and measure the angle between the perpendicular lines. Scoliosis is almost always associated with abnormal curvature in the sagittal plane. The most common finding is loss of normal thoracic kyphosis. The Cobb method can be used to determine sagittal plane deformity. Rotational deformity is often present but can only be grossly assessed on radiographs. It can be measured on CT scan by superimposing the apical and terminal vertebrae. Normally, the T1 vertebra is centered over the L5 vertebra in both the coronal and sagittal planes. Coronal or sagittal plane imbalance can be measured as the horizontal distance between the center of the L5 vertebral body and a plumb line drawn through the center of the T1 vertebral body. 7. Dr. Mike's Excellent Tutorial on Converting CT Scans to 3D Printer-Ready STL Models An excellent tutorial of A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes which allows you to follow along with the tutorial. Included is an anonymized chest abdomen pelvis CT in both DICOM and NRRD formats. 8. An MRI of a Lumbar Spine with Disc Bulge at L4-L5 and L5-S1 The term bulge is used to describe a generalized extension greater than 50% of the circumference of the disc tissues, extending a short distance (< 3 mm) beyond the edges of the adjacent apophyses. A bulge is not a herniation, although 1 portion of the disc may be bulging and another portion of the disc may herniate. A bulge is often a normal variant, particularly in children in whom all normal discs appear to extend slightly beyond the vertebral body margin. Bulge may also be associated with disc degeneration or may occur as a response to axial loading or angular motion with ligamentous laxity. Occasionally, a bulge in 1 plane is really a central subligamentous disc herniation in another plane. Asymmetric bulging of disc tissue greater than 25% of the disc circumference may be seen as an adaptation to adjacent deformity, and is not considered a form of herniation. Herniations are a localized displacement of disc material beyond the limits of the intervertebral disc space in any direction. 9. Using 3D Modeling to Understand the Severity of a Scoliosis Case A 3D model of a severe scoliosis. CT scan should always be performed with reformatted images. Angled reformatted images and 3D reformations are often useful in assessment of severe curvatures. Some physicians find it useful to obtain both SPECT and CT images of degenerative scoliosis. An area of arthritis on CT scan, which shows increased uptake on SPECT, is probably a pain generator. MR can be difficult to interpret when scoliosis is severe. Angled axial images should be obtained based on both sagittal and coronal scout images and angled along the plane of the vertebral endplate on both scouts. Sagittal images should be angled along each segment of the curvature. The coronal plane is often the most useful for evaluating bony anomalies, spondylolysis, or degeneration of the discs and facet joints. References 1. Bücking, T. M., Hill, E. R., Robertson, J. L., Maneas, E., Plumb, A. A., & Nikitichev, D. I. (2017). From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models. PloS one, 12(5), e0178540. 2. Wilcox, B., Mobbs, R. J., Wu, A. M., & Phan, K. (2017). Systematic review of 3D printing in spinal surgery: the current state of play. Journal of Spine Surgery, 3(3), 433. 3. Ross, J. S., Moore, K. R., Bryson Borg, M. D., Julia Crim, M. D., & Shah, L. M. (2010). Diagnostic imaging: spine: published by Amirsys®. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. 4. D'Urso PS, Askin G, Earwaker JS, et al. Spinal biomodeling.Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1999;24:1247-51. 10.1097/00007632-199906150-00013. 5. D'Urso PS, Barker TM, Earwaker WJ, et al. Stereolithographic biomodelling in cranio-maxillofacial surgery: a prospective trial. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 1999;27:30-7. 10.1016/S1010-5182(99)80007-9 6. D'Urso PS, Williamson OD, Thompson RG. Biomodeling as an aid to spinal instrumentation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2005;30:2841-5. 10.1097/01.brs.0000190886.56895.3d 7. Guarino J, Tennyson S, McCain G, et al. Rapid prototyping technology for surgeries of the pediatric spine and pelvis: benefits analysis. J Pediatr Orthop 2007;27:955-60. 10.1097/bpo.0b013e3181594ced 8. Izatt MT, Thorpe PL, Thompson RG, et al. The use of physical biomodelling in complex spinal surgery. Eur Spine J 2007;16:1507-18. 10.1007/s00586-006-0289-3 9. Paiva WS, Amorim R, Bezerra DA, et al. Aplication of the stereolithography technique in complex spine surgery. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2007;65:443-5. 10.1590/S0004-282X2007000300015 10. Mizutani J, Matsubara T, Fukuoka M, et al. Application of full-scale three-dimensional models in patients with rheumatoid cervical spine. Eur Spine J 2008;17:644-9. 10.1007/s00586-008-0611-3 11. Mao K, Wang Y, Xiao S, et al. Clinical application of computer-designed polystyrene models in complex severe spinal deformities: a pilot study. Eur Spine J 2010;19:797-802. 10.1007/s00586-010-1359-0 12. Yang JC, Ma XY, Lin J, et al. Personalised modified osteotomy using computer-aided design-rapid prototyping to correct thoracic deformities. Int Orthop 2011;35:1827-32. 10.1007/s00264-010-1155-9 13. Wu ZX, Huang LY, Sang HX, et al. Accuracy and safety assessment of pedicle screw placement using the rapid prototyping technique in severe congenital scoliosis. J Spinal Disord Tech2011;24:444-50. 10.1097/BSD.0b013e318201be2a 14. Toyoda K, Urasaki E, Yamakawa Y. Novel approach for the efficient use of a full-scale, 3-dimensional model for cervical posterior fixation: a technical case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976)2013;38:E1357-60. 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182a1f1bd 15. Yang JC, Ma XY, Xia H, et al. Clinical application of computer-aided design-rapid prototyping in C1-C2 operation techniques for complex atlantoaxial instability. J Spinal Disord Tech 2014;27:E143-50. 16. Li C, Yang M, Xie Y, et al. Application of the polystyrene model made by 3-D printing rapid prototyping technology for operation planning in revision lumbar discectomy. J Orthop Sci 2015;20:475-80. 10.1007/s00776-015-0706-8 17. Kim MP, Ta AH, Ellsworth WA, 4th, et al. Three dimensional model for surgical planning in resection of thoracic tumors. Int J Surg Case Rep 2015;16:127-9. 10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.09.037 18. Sugimoto Y, Tanaka M, Nakahara R, et al. Surgical treatment for congenital kyphosis correction using both spinal navigation and a 3-dimensional model. Acta Med Okayama 2012;66:499-502. 19. Yang M, Li C, Li Y, et al. Application of 3D rapid prototyping technology in posterior corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015;94:e582. 10.1097/MD.0000000000000582 20. Goel A, Jankharia B, Shah A, et al. Three-dimensional models: an emerging investigational revolution for craniovertebral junction surgery. J Neurosurg Spine 2016;25:740-4. 10.3171/2016.4.SPINE151268 21. Wang YT, Yang XJ, Yan B, et al. Clinical application of three-dimensional printing in the personalized treatment of complex spinal disorders. Chin J Traumatol 2016;19:31-4. 10.1016/j.cjtee.2015.09.009 22. Xiao JR, Huang WD, Yang XH, et al. En Bloc Resection of Primary Malignant Bone Tumor in the Cervical Spine Based on 3-Dimensional Printing Technology. Orthop Surg 2016;8:171-8. 10.1111/os.12234 23. Guo F, Dai J, Zhang J, et al. Individualized 3D printing navigation template for pedicle screw fixation in upper cervical spine. PLoS One 2017;12:e0171509. 10.1371/journal.pone.0171509
  3. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    Melissa Vandenbosch - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. maxilla, upper, arch, canine, incisive, hard, palate, dentistry, 3d, models, stl, printable

    Free

  4. Dear Members, We have just made a series of high quality bone models available for download in the File Vault. These STL files are all water tight (manifold) and have been manually edited and run through 3D printing optimization software to ensure that they have a minimum wall thickness (1mm) to enable 3D printing. Arm Humerus Shoulder joint Elbow joint Lumbar spine fracture Embodi3D members can download these models for free. Thanks to Dr. Bruno Gobbato for submitting the original files. More files will be released as we perform quality checks and corrections. Enjoy! Dr. Mike
×