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Found 8 results

  1. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This model is the left lower extremity skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Myxoid fibrosarcoma (or myxoid MFH) is the most common subtype of MFH, at about 10%-20% of cases. Clinically, the tumor presents as a deep, slow-growing, painless mass. It is located more commonly in the lower extremities and retroperitoneum. Imaging on MRI demonstrates a mass with low signal intensity on T1-weighting imaging, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. On histology, a myxoid background is present with a storiform (or cartwheel) pattern seen on low-power imaging, seen in fibrosarcomas. A “myxoid background” is composed of a clear, mucoid substance. Treatment includes radiation, wide surgical resection, and chemotherapy in selected cases. However, the 5-year survival is 50%-60% depending on size, grade, depth and presence of metastasis. The term “malignant fibrous histiocytoma” was coined in the 1960s by Margaret R. Murray when histology a sarcoma demonstrated an appearance like histiocytes, with characteristics of phagocytosis and a pleomorphic pattern. With further research, this entity was identified to have a wider range of appearances with a fibrous characteristic. Today, these sarcomas are known as “pleomorphic sarcomas.” Recently, a change in the understanding of soft tissue tumors has purported that MFH is not a specific type of cancer, but a common morphologic pattern shared by unrelated tumors. One school of thought states that this morphologic pattern is shared by tumors as a common final pathway in cancer progression whereas another school of thought believes that true pleomorphic sarcomas are the result of a transformation from mesenchymal stem cells. Future research into understanding the pathway of these sarcomas and progression will help to target specific therapies and, hopefully, eventual cures. This model was created from the file STS_022.

    Free

  2. Version 1.0.0

    16 downloads

    This model is the right leg muscle rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The lower leg is divided into four muscle compartments: the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior compartments. The anterior compartment is made from the dorsiflexors, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus (EHL), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and peroneus tertius, which are innervated by the deep peroneal nerve. The lateral compartment includes the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis, which assist in foot eversion and are innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve. The superficial posterior compartment includes the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris, which assist in plantarflexion and are innervated by the tibial nerve. The deep posterior compartment is made up of the popliteus, flexor hallucis longus (FHL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL), and tibialis posterior, which mostly assist in plantarflexion and are innervated similarly by the tibial nerve. The primary motions of the ankle are dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion and eversion. However, with the addition of midfoot motion (adduction, and abduction), the foot may supinate (inversion and adduction) or pronate (eversion and abduction). In order to accomplish these motions, muscles outside of the foot (extrinsic) and muscles within the foot (intrinsic) attach throughout the foot, crossing one or more joints. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively. This model was created from the file STS_022.

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    This model is the left leg skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Landmarks of the lower extremity consist of bony and muscular landmarks. Proximally, the extensor mechanism consists of the quadriceps tendon, patella, and the tibial tuberosity, which is located on the anterior proximal tibia, where the patellar tendon attaches. On the anteromedial surface of the tibia is Gerdy's tubercle, where the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus attach. Laterally, the head of the fibula may be palpated, which is the attachment for the posterolateral corner structures of the knee joint. The peroneal nerve wraps around the fibular neck, and a tinel’s sign may be elicited due to its superficial position at this location. Distally, the anterior ankle joint may be palpated. Pain with palpation may be indicative of osteoarthritis if general or an osteochondral defect if localized. The medial and lateral malleoli are located on either side of the tibiotalar joint, respectively and are the site of common ankle fractures. Posteriorly, the Achilles tendon inserts on the calcaneus. A defect along this tendon may be a sign of a tendon rupture. The superficial peroneal nerve can possibly be isolated on the lateral aspect of the dorsal foot with full plantarflexion of the fourth ray. Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible at the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions. This model was created from the file STS_022.

    Free

  4. Version 1.0.0

    9 downloads

    This model is the right knee skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Landmarks of the lower extremity consist of bony and muscular landmarks. Prior to incision, the bone landmarks should be palpated and drawn. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone (bone located within a tendon) and is located on the anterior aspect of the knee. Along with the femur, it forms the patellofemoral joint, providing a mechanical advantage to leg extension. The quadriceps tendon inserts proximally and the patellar tendon inserts distally. The patellar tendon attaches to the tibial tubercle on the anterior aspect of the tibia. On the anteromedial surface of the tibia is Gerdy's tubercle, where the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus attach. Laterally, the head of the fibula may be palpated, which is the attachment for the posterolateral corner structures of the knee joint. The peroneal nerve wraps around the fibular neck, and a tinel’s sign may be elicited due to its superficial position at this location. The knee joint can be palpated and must be accurately located in order to provide landmarks for surgeries such as arthroscopy and arthroplasty. Typically, pain with palpation of the joint line is indicative of knee pathologies such as osteoarthritis or a meniscal tear, with point tenderness at the area of the tear. Proper landmarks are essential for the success of procedures about the knee, and therefore the skin should be adequately evaluated prior to any procedure. This model was created from the file STS_022.

    Free

  5. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the bilateral thigh rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slow growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the right thigh muscle rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape, and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on the grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This model is the bilateral lower extremity muscle rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape, and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on the grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    These images are the isolated left thigh tumor muscle renderings of an 82 year old male with a dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the anterior compartment of the left thigh. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Liposarcomas are the second most common soft tissue sarcoma in adults, occurring more commonly in males between the ages of 50 and 80 years old. They present as a slow growing, painless mass typically located in the extremities, with the thigh being the most common location. Multiple variants of liposarcomas exist, but the dedifferentiated type is a high-grade sarcoma. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas are typically located adjacent to a well-differentiated lipomatous lesion. The incidence of pulmonary metastasis increases with grade. Therefore, work up of the lesion consists of MRI, biopsy through the area of future resection, CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis to rule out metastases. Treatment consists of radiation and wide surgical resection but chemotherapy agents are being developed to target chromosomal abnormalities associated with certain well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. This patient received radiation and resection of the tumor and has not had a metastasis or recurrence in 4.5 years. This model came from the file STS_013.

    Free

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