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Found 19 results

  1. Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    Skull and face models were generated in Mimics from a CT scan from TCIA (citations: http://doi.org/10.7937/K9/TCIA.2015.K0F5CGLI, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2057, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10278-013-9622-7) as reference models for visualizing skin-to-bone relationships for forensic craniofacial identification applications. See Figshare for additional project information. Face model was hollowed in Meshlab and extruded to this individual's minimum facial tissue depth (1.6 mm) with Meshmixer (tutorial). Cuts were made in 3D Slicer using the EasyClip plugin to cut at specific landmark coordinate values: skin was cut through x-coordinate of pronasale and right oculus anterius, z-coordinate of bony glabella; bone was cut through x-coordinates of left and right oculus anterius, z-coordinate of glabella, y-plane was adjusted until posterior to cheilion. For 3D printing, I rotated the model until the posterior surface was flat on the bed and added a raft to hold the supports (I left the raft on--see pic), but a custom platform could be added instead with Meshmixer or Tinkercad. I usually leave most of the supports attached to hold the skin layer in place, but remove supports from inside the nasal aperture and sometimes remove supports from the lateral side to reveal the infraorbital foramen. I don't have dual extrusion, but you could probably print the skin in one color and bone in another. The above pics show a print at 300 micron resolution. **Note that this file contains two merged models that can be printed together or separately--to separate, open in Meshlab, right-click the model name in the layer dialog and select "Split into Connected Components" and save each layer as a separate model.

    Free

  2. Version .stl

    14 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of an 18yo male (ABD_LYMPH_010) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD010_PS_M18_1mm.stl" has a wall thickness of 1mm to minimize material volume for printing through Shapeways--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD010_PS_M18_closed.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I haven't printed this model yet, but I will post pics when I do!

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    5 downloads

    ABD009 from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA.

    Free

  4. Version 1.0.0

    44 downloads

    62yo male skull from the Head-Neck Cetuximab collection of The Cancer Imaging Archives. Bosch, Walter R., Straube, William L., Matthews, John W., & Purdy, James A. (2015). Data From Head-Neck_Cetuximab. The Cancer Imaging Archive.http://doi.org/10.7937/K9/TCIA.2015.7AKGJUPZ Clark K, Vendt B, Smith K, Freymann J, Kirby J, Koppel P, Moore S, Phillips S, Maffitt D, Pringle M, Tarbox L, Prior F. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA): Maintaining and Operating a Public Information Repository, Journal of Digital Imaging, Volume 26, Number 6, December, 2013, pp 1045-1057.

    Free

  5. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of a 59yo male (ABD_LYMPH_011) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD011_PS_M59_1mm.stl" has a wall thickness of 1 mm to minimize material volume for printing with powder-based printers (for example, through Shapeways)--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD011_PS_M59_hollow.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I also cut the bottoms flat on both so they can be oriented upright to print--I would not recommend printing with the symphyseal face up because the layering process will impose ridges. If you want to split the left and right halves, in Meshlab use the filter "Split in Connected Components"--once split, each "layer" can be exported as separate .stl files. The "Plane Cut" tool in Meshmixer can be used to further cut the models if you want smaller segments. If you would like to add shading to the 3D models to enhance viewing of the symphyseal face, in Meshlab apply the Filter--> Color Creation and Processing--> Ambient Occlusion per Vertex.

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of a 59yo female (ABD_LYMPH_006) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD006_PS_F59_1mm.stl" has a wall thickness of 1 mm to minimize material volume for printing with powder-based printers (for example, through Shapeways)--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD006_PS_F59_hollow.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I also cut the bottoms flat on both so they can be oriented upright to print--I would not recommend printing with the symphyseal face up because the layering process will impose ridges. If you want to split the left and right halves, in Meshlab use the filter "Split in Connected Components"--once split, each "layer" can be exported as separate .stl files. The "Plane Cut" tool in Meshmixer can be used to further cut the models if you want smaller segments. If you would like to add shading to the 3D models to enhance viewing of the symphyseal face, in Meshlab apply the Filter--> Color Creation and Processing--> Ambient Occlusion per Vertex.

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of a 41yo female (ABD_LYMPH_005) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD005_PS_F41_1mm.stl" has a wall thickness of 1 mm to minimize material volume for printing with powder-based printers (for example, through Shapeways)--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD005_PS_F41_hollow.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I also cut the bottoms flat on both so they can be oriented upright to print--I would not recommend printing with the symphyseal face up because the layering process will impose ridges. If you want to split the left and right halves, in Meshlab use the filter "Split in Connected Components"--once split, each "layer" can be exported as separate .stl files. The "Plane Cut" tool in Meshmixer can be used to further cut the models if you want smaller segments. If you would like to add shading to the 3D models to enhance viewing of the symphyseal face, in Meshlab apply the Filter--> Color Creation and Processing--> Ambient Occlusion per Vertex.

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    5 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of a 60yo male (ABD_LYMPH_004) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD004_PS_M60_LR_1mm_cut.stl" has a wall thickness of 1 mm to minimize material volume for printing with powder-based printers (for example, through Shapeways)--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD_004_PS_M60_flat2.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I also cut the bottoms flat on both so they can be oriented upright to print--I would not recommend printing with the symphyseal face up because the layering process will impose ridges. I've included a screenshot showing how to split the left and right halves in Meshlab using the filter "Split in Connected Components"--once split, each "layer" can be exported as separate .stl files. The "Plane Cut" tool in Meshmixer can be used to further cut the models if you want smaller segments. If you would like to add shading to the 3D models to enhance viewing of the symphyseal face, in Meshlab apply the Filter--> Color Creation and Processing--> Ambient Occlusion per Vertex.

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    7 downloads

    These are the pubic bones of a 73yo male (ABD_LYMPH_007) from the CT Lymph Nodes Collection of TCIA, which is made available under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled these with the Grayscale Model Maker in 3D Slicer (see tutorial pt. 1), hollowed with Meshlab, fixed for printing with Meshmixer. "ABD007_PS_M73_1mm.stl" has a wall thickness of 1 mm to minimize material volume for printing with powder-based printers (for example, through Shapeways)--I would recommend white "strong and flexible plastic." "ABD007_PS_M73_hollow.stl" is hollow with filled holes--this is what I would use for filament printers, but you could use this to print a solid model through Shapeways. I also cut the bottoms flat on both so they can be oriented upright to print--I would not recommend printing with the symphyseal face up because the layering process will impose ridges. If you want to split the left and right halves, in Meshlab use the filter "Split in Connected Components"--once split, each "layer" can be exported as separate .stl files. The "Plane Cut" tool in Meshmixer can be used to further cut the models if you want smaller segments. If you would like to add shading to the 3D models to enhance viewing of the symphyseal face, in Meshlab apply the Filter--> Color Creation and Processing--> Ambient Occlusion per Vertex.

    Free

  10. Embodi3D member tserhardt has uploaded an outstanding tutorial on using the Grayscale Model Maker module in the free software program 3D slicer to create 3D printable anatomic models. Read her tutorial here. Thanks for sharing with the community!
  11. Here is a tutorial for the Grayscale Model Maker in the free program Slicer, specifically for modeling pubic bones since they are used in anthropology for age and sex estimation. The Grayscale Model Maker is very quick and easy! And I can't stand the "flashing" in the Editor. For this example, I am using a scan from TCIA, specifically from the CT Lymph Node collection. Slicer Functions used: Load Data/Load DICOM Volume Rendering Crop Volume Grayscale Model Maker Save Load a DICOM directory or .nrrd file. Hit Ok. Make sure your volume loads into the red, yellow, and green views. Select Volume Rendering from the drop-down. Select a bone preset, such as CT-AAA. Then click on the eye next to "Volume." ...Give it a minute... Use the centering button in the top left of the 3D window to center the volume if needed. Since we only want the pubic bones, we will use the ROI box and Crop Volume tools to isolate that area. To crop the volume check the "Enable" box next to "Crop" and click on the eye next to "Display ROI" to open it. A box appears in all 4 windows. The spheres can be grabbed and dragged in any view to adjust the size of the box. The 3D view is pretty handy for this so you can rotate the model around to get the area you want. The model itself doesn't have to be perfectly symmetrical because you can always edit it later. Once you like the ROI, we can crop the volume. To crop the volume, go to the drop-down in the top toolbar, select "All Modules" and navigate to "Crop Volume." Once the Crop Volume workspace opens, just hit the big Crop button and wait. You won't see a change in the 3D window, but you will see your slice views adjust to the cropped area. At this point, you can Save your subvolume that you worked so hard to isolate in case your software crashes! Select the Save button from the top left of the toolbar and select the .nrrd with "subvolume" in the file name to save. Now we will use the All Modules dropdown to open the Grayscale Model Maker. If you want to clear the 3D window of the volume rendering and ROI box, you can just go back to Volume Rendering, uncheck the Enable box and close the eyes for the Volume and ROI. When using the Grayscale Model Maker, the only tricky thing here is to select your "subvolume" from the "Input Volume" list, otherwise your original uncropped volume will be used. Click on the "Output Geometry" box and select "Create a new Model as..." and type in a name for your model. Now move down to "Grayscale Model Maker Parameters" in the workspace. I like to enter the same name for my Output Geometry into the "Model Name" field. Enter a threshold value: 200 works well for bone, but for lower density bone, you might need to adjust it down. Since the Grayscale Model Maker is so fast, I usually start with 200 and make additional models at lower values to see which works best for the current volume. ***Here is where I adjust settings for pubic bones in order to retain the irregular surfaces of the symphyseal faces.***The default values for the Smoothing and Decimate parameters work well for other bones, but for the pubic symphyses, they tend to smooth out all the relevant features, so I slide them both all the way down. Then hit Apply and wait for the model to appear in the 3D window (it will be gray). You can see from the image above that my model is gray, but still has the beige from the Volume Render on it since I didn't close the Volume Rendering. If for some reason you don't see your model: 1) check your Input Volume to make sure your subvolume is selected, 2) click on that tiny centering button at the top left of your 3D window, or 3) go to the main dropdown and go to "Models." If the model actually generated, it will be there with the name you specified, but sometimes the eye will be closed so just open it to look at your model. Now we an save your subvolume and model using the Save button in the top left of the main toolbar. You can uncheck all the other options and just save the subvolume .nrrd and adjust the file type of your model to .stl. Click on "Change Directory" to specify where you want to save your files and Save! This model still needs some editing to be printable, so stay tuned for Pt. 2 where I will discuss functions in Meshlab and Meshmixer. Thanks for reading and please comment if you have any issues with these steps!
  12. I thought I'd do a quick post on why anthropologists need 3D printed bones in case anybody's interested. Real bones are expensive! Although we have real skeletons for teaching osteology, we are often limited to teaching the identification and examination of whole bones. For both forensic and archaeological contexts, osteologists need to be able to identify bones that are incomplete, scavenged, weathered, burned, or damaged in some other way. In such situations, the first question is whether or not the bone is human. In order to teach this advanced level of identification, we need bone fragments. We can't go around smashing bones to create the fragments, and if you're at an institution without a large archaeological collection of bones, 3D printing, especially of CT scans, can provide some fragments. Because CT scans contain internal structures (as opposed to laser scans of bones), we can digitally slice long bones to create cross-sections or cut models in ways that bone frequently fragments. We can potentially simulate trauma as well, although scans of bones with trauma or pathology would be even better. I've recently started working with the Virtual Curation Laboratory (https://vcuarchaeolo....wordpress.com/) to 3D print bone fragments, whole bones, and bones with pathology or trauma. All of these things can be used to create "case studies" of single individuals or commingled individuals as well, and since they're plastic, we would have no problem using them outside for field exercises and excavations. Having age and/or sex is also important since higher quality 3D printed bones could be analyzed for those traits as well. I've added some pictures from a recent conference at VCU where we presented our preliminary work and displayed a few printed bones. Some of them still have some support structures, but you can see what we're going for. Thanks for reading!
  13. Version STL

    21 downloads

    This is a skull of a 43yo male that I modeled from TCIA from the QIN-HEADNECK collection, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. I modeled it in Mimics and cleaned it up (as best I could) for printing with Meshlab and Meshmixer. I have printed it on a Robo3D. To prep for printing, I used the Plane Cut tool in Meshmixer to slice posterior to the mandible, making a front and back half. Then I cut the front half down the midsagittal line. I used white MakerBot PLA, 200 micron resolution, outer perimeter print speed of 20 mm/s, 3 perimeter shells, 25% infill. I have printed the two halves of the front but not the back yet!

    Free

  14. From the album: 3D Bones for Anthropology

    Lumbar vertebrae segmented from a CT scan.
  15. From the album: 3D Bones for Anthropology

    Digitally sliced CT femur to provide fragments and cross-sections for advanced identification.
  16. From the album: 3D Bones for Anthropology

    Digitally sliced CT humerus to provide fragments and cross-sections for advanced identification.
  17. From the album: 3D Bones for Anthropology

    Examples of 3D printed bones we presented at a recent conference.
  18. I thought I'd do a quick post on why anthropologists need 3D printed bones in case anybody's interested. Real bones are expensive! Although we have real skeletons for teaching osteology, we are often limited to teaching the identification and examination of whole bones. For both forensic and archaeological contexts, osteologists need to be able to identify bones that are incomplete, scavenged, weathered, burned, or damaged in some other way. In such situations, the first question is whether or not the bone is human. In order to teach this advanced level of identification, we need bone fragments. We can't go around smashing bones to create the fragments, and if you're at an institution without a large archaeological collection of bones, 3D printing, especially of CT scans, can provide some fragments. Because CT scans contain internal structures (as opposed to laser scans of bones), we can digitally slice long bones to create cross-sections or cut models in ways that bone frequently fragments. We can potentially simulate trauma as well, although scans of bones with trauma or pathology would be even better. I've recently started working with the Virtual Curation Laboratory (https://vcuarchaeology3d.wordpress.com/) to 3D print bone fragments, whole bones, and bones with pathology or trauma. All of these things can be used to create "case studies" of single individuals or commingled individuals as well, and since they're plastic, we would have no problem using them outside for field exercises and excavations. Having age and/or sex is also important since higher quality 3D printed bones could be analyzed for those traits as well. I've added some pictures from a recent conference at VCU where we presented our preliminary work and displayed a few printed bones. Some of them still have some support structures, but you can see what we're going for. Thanks for reading!
  19. It’s easy to think of the benefits of 3D printing for teaching anthropology. The new technology allows professors to digitalize fragile fossil and bone samples for classroom use—creating a great visual teaching aid. As it turns out, 3D printing has considerable benefits for anthropologists outside of the classroom as well. For one, increasing access to fossil samples for scientists is putting collaborative research on the fast track. Digitizing fossils and making the files available to universities around the world allows more scientists to study them and bring novel hypotheses to the table. The traditional use of rubber or silicon models used to serve this purpose to a degree, but when it comes to studying the incredibly rare examples of fossil hominins (extinct species of humans), even minor errors can lead researchers down the wrong path. The old style of modeling can create bulges, bubbles and other inaccuracies in the fossil copy, especially when you’re not using the original sample. The incredible detail involved in 3D printing technology prevents these types of errors. Despite being a fairly new technology, 3D printing is already aiding anthropologists make some groundbreaking discoveries. Paleoanthropologists at Stony Brook University Department of Anatomical Sciences are utilizing 3D morphometric analyses to paint a cleaner picture of our evolutionary tree closer to Lucy’s time (australopithecus afarensis, 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago). 3D printing allowed them to get a much more detailed view of the characteristics of the femur of Orrorin, a 6 million year old fossil that could be one of the earliest hominins. By comparing the femur with Lucy’s species and other samples, they were able to determine that Orrorin likely lived in trees but walked on two feet like Lucy and modern humans. Anthropologists at the Max Plank Institute for Human Evolution are in the process of digitizing their collection of hominin fossils. Their CT machines can create a resolution as detailed as 0.8 micrometers, much better than traditional medical scanners. This allows for unprecedented analyses of miniscule structures, such as tooth enamel. This may not seem like an incredibly exciting ability, but the vast majority of discoveries in human evolution have come from analyzing fossil dentition. Breaking open rare fossil samples to learn more about their internal structures has never been an option, but 3D versions give researchers the ability to remove layers digitally. This turns fossils that were discovered 30 years ago into novel specimens again, as inner structures such as tooth roots and ear cavities become easily visible. 3D printing is helping answer questions about our much more recent past, by allowing researchers to run simulations that wouldn’t otherwise be possible. For example, researchers at the Anthropological Institute at Zurich University were able to digitally embed the remains of three Neanderthal infants into the pelvis of a Neanderthal woman, giving new insights into brain size at birth and the nature of childbirth for Neanderthals, who were once our closest living relatives. The partial pelvis was discovered in the 1930s and has been thoroughly studied, but with the help of 3D printing, the sample is allowing researchers come up with new answers to old questions. The high-resolution CT scanners anthropologists need to conduct these studies are costly, so it will be a while before the majority of universities can benefit from the technology. Still, the possibility of making digital copies of every known fossil hominin available to universities across the world is an exciting prospect for future discoveries. For more information about the case studies described here, visit: http://sb.cc.stonybrook.edu/news/general/131204earlytreedwelling.php http://www.stratasys.com/resources/case-studies/education/university-of-zurich
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