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Found 60 results

  1. Version 1.0.0


    This two piece hollow heart model is derived from a high quality CT scan. The two halves can be kept separate to illustrate anatomy inside the heart, or they can be fused together to make a single piece realistic hollow heart. The cut plane is along the long axis of the heart, which allows for a perfect four-chamber view of the heart. Right and left ventricles, right and left atrium, SVC, IVC, pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins are present in the model. I printed this model in Formlabs elastic and fused the two models together to make a single hollow heart model for device testing. Below are some pictures from that project. Other heart models I have made:


  2. Version 1.0.0


    Human scapula made from a tomography


  3. Version 1.0.0


    This is a 3d model made of from a medical tomography.


  4. Selami

    Liver with c.v.

    Version 1.0.0


    Liver with c.v., portal, vein, suprahepatic, liver, lobes, anatomy, organ, 3d, model, printable, printing, medical,


  5. Version 1.0.0


    3D model made from a MRI. ventricle, encephalon, brain, ventricular, lateral, cavities, ventricular, system, 3d, model, printable, printing, .stl,


  6. Version 1.0.0


    I generated this model for cardiosurgical training simulator. I used the Obelix dataset from the Osirix dicom library. Those are the the raw 3d models of the thorax and the heart. I used those to add two mini invasive accesses to the right and a table for pig hearts in the mediastinum with the shape of the diaphragmatic of the heart. I took 2 kg. of PLA and more than 200 hours of print, sliced into 10 separate pieces and glued with cyanacrilate glue. It's quite resilient, the floating ribs are quite breakable and I don't recommend to print them. I'm adding here the raw files, because I don't know what kind of access you need on the thorax. The printed thorax can be covered with vinyl or leather for extra realism. anatomy, thorax, 3d, printing, simulator, chest, .stl, 3d, model, printable, ribs, sternum, cartilage, dorsal, spine, transverse, body, intervertebral, disc, bone, ventricle, auricle, mediastinum


  7. Selami

    Tumor Male8

    Version 1.0.0


    Fbx file is good for preview (not included lung). 8 stl files included, which can be seen screenshots rendered from those stl files fixed. .stl, 3d, model, printable, sternum, bone, cardiovascular, ventricle, auricle, bronchi, lung, vessels, great, aorta, cava, superior, dorsal, spine, ribs, anatomy,


  8. Version 1.1.0


    The paranasal sinuses model for 3d printing. CT scan, 0,7mm slides, bone window. The model is without scaffolds and you should add some with your slicing software. Link to sketchfab: Paranasal sinuses frontal, sphenoidal, ethmoidal, skull, head, paranasal sinuses, anatomy, 3d , model, .stl, printable


  9. Version 1.0.0


    Aortic arch with visible left and right carotid artery branching from a single trunk (Bicarotid Trunk) and a right aberrant subclavian artery also known as arteria Lusoria. You can see it here: https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/aortic-arch-with-arteria-lusoria-0070ed336d4f424fbb258536d4ee4bb6 Thyrocervical trunk, Common carotid artery, Vertebral artery, Subclavian artery, Brachiocephalic trunk, Aortic arch, Ascending aorta, Descending aorta, Aortic bulb, 3d, model, .stl, printable,


  10. Version 1.0.0


    This is my best selling model for 2019. Download, print, assemble, enjoy. Merry Christmas Originally modded as an engagement ring box, it became really popular birthday gift for the colleague from heart-related departments. I'm selling one of those models for 35$ I'm always bringing few, when I'm going on conference. Really nice gift. I'm printing those with Silk PLA. The metalic colors looks fantastic. I'm using several support blockers for the atrii, because this negates the artefacts and makes the whole upper part hollow. It requires some experience... Slice thickness: 0,15mm Infill: 30% gyroid Circular bottom fill pattern. Six neodymium magnets, 8x2mm. If you use too powerful magnets, the parts are closing so strong, that they can hurt someone. N50 are fine. cyanacrilic glue. Make sure you're gluing the magnets with the right poles!


  11. Version 1.0.0


    Anatomical female breasts model with common diseases. The Breast Cross Section Model shows the following: cysts, adenocarcinoma structures such as suspensory ligaments, fat tissue, lobules ,muscles and ribs. The base of the model is inclined to ensure that all the parts stay fixed. Size 200mm*150*100mm. The model has been simplified and optimized for 3d printing. To be used for educational purposes and 3d printing applications. Ideal for use in medical teaching environments. Please contact us for any inquiries and modifications.


  12. Version 1.0.0


    Test CTA Head for 1st time, axial, dicom, .stl, 3d, model, printable, printing, medicine, medical, brain, cerebellum, arteries, anatomy, anterior, media, posterior, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, hemisphere, cisterns, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, bone, base, skull, foramina, foramen, petrous, ridge, paranasal, sinuses, sphenoid, ethmoid, cells, mastoid, head, muscle, pterygoid, process, pharynx, larynx, trachea, sternocleidomastoid, ct, scan, with, contrast, hard, palate, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, teeth, tooth, dental, dentistry, zygomatic, arch, maxillary, sinus, lower, turbinates, coronoid, angle, ramus, body,


  13. Tonia


    Version 1.0.0


    Adult life size pancreas segmented from a CT scan pancreas, abdomen, gland, anatomy, head, tail, body, neck, 3d, model, printing, printable,


  14. Version 1.0.0


    Single adult vertebra, vertebra, vertebra, spine, body, .stl, 3d, model, printable, spinous, process, transverse, lumbar, plate, joint, anatomy, bone


  15. Alfredo70


    Version 1.0.0


    Prueba2. MRI, without, contrast, .stl, 3d, model, head, brain, T1, T2, frontal, parietal, occipital, lobe, cerebellum, brainstem, mastoid, process, bone, orbit, eyeball, nasal, maxillofacial, mandible, angle, maxilla, mandible, angle, ramus, MRI, tongue, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, muscle, neck, lips, anatomy, dicom, printing, medicine, medical, white, matter, grey, eye, eyelid, lower, turbinates,


  16. Alfredo70


    Version 1.0.0


    Prueba1., MRI, without, contrast, .stl, 3d, model, head, brain, T1, T2, frontal, parietal, occipital, lobe, cerebellum, brainstem, mastoid, process, bone, orbit, eyeball, nasal, maxillofacial, mandible, angle, maxilla, mandible, angle, ramus, MRI, tongue, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, muscle, neck, lips, anatomy, dicom, printing, medicine, medical, white, matter, grey, eye, eyelid, lower, turbinates,


  17. Version 1.0.0


    medical, printing, printable, .stl, 3d, model, auricle, septum, ventricle, heart, vascular, valves, aorta, pulmonary, trunk, anatomy, medicine, class, university Heart using for University class


  18. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    Canine Complete Abdomen - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. canine, k9, .stl, 3d, model, printable, abdomen, anatomy, animal, veterinary, dorsal, spine,


  19. Version 1.0.0


    Canine Complete Abdomen - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. canine, k9, .stl, 3d, model, printable, abdomen, anatomy, animal, veterinary, dorsal, spine,


  20. Version 1.0.0


    test vessels, vessels, .stl, 3d, model, printable, branches, anatomy, test,


  21. Version 1.0.0


    This is a Chest CT. the target is check patient's heart function. ct without contrast, stl, 3d, model, chest, mediastinum, axial, dicom, heart, diaphragm, .stl, printable, medical, thorax, ribs, bone, dorsal, spine, intervertebral, ct, with, contrast, ventricle, auricle, septum, muscle, lung, trachea, bronchi, pulmonary, trunk, coronary, vessels, aorta, ascendent, arch, descendent, vascular, anatomy,


  22. Hello My recent anatomy projects forced me to start importing my 3d models into 3d pdf documents. So I'll share with you some of my findings. The positive things about 3d pdf's are: 1. You can import a big sized 3d model and compress it into a small 3d pdf. 40 Mb stl model is converted into 750 Kb pdf. 2. You can run the 3d pdf on every computer with the recent versions of Adobe Acrobat Reader. Which means literally EVERY computer. 3. You can rotate, pan, zoom in and zoom out 3d models in the 3d pdf. You can add some simple animations like spinning, sequence animations and explosion of multi component models. 4. You can add colors to the models and to create a 3d scene. 5. You can upload it on a website and it can be viewed in the browser (if Adobe Acrobat Reader is installed). The negative things are: 1. Adobe Reader is a buggy 3d viewer. If you import a big model (bigger than 50 Mb) and your computer is business class (core I3 or I5, 4 Gb ram, integrated video card), you'll experience some nasty lag and the animation will look terrible. On the same computer regular 3d viewer will do the trick much better. 2. You can experience some difficulties with multi component models. During the rotation, some of the components will disappear, others will change their color. Also the model navigation toolbar is somewhat hard to control. 3. The transparent and wireframe polygon are not as good as in the regular 3d viewers. The conclusion: If you want to demonstrate your models to a large audience, to sent it via email and to observe them on every computer, 3d pdf is your format. For a presentation it's better to use a regular 3d viewer, even the portable ones will do the trick. But if the performance is not the goal, 3d pdf's are a good alternative. Here is a model of atlas and axis as 3d pfg: https://www.dropbox.com/s/2gm7occq5ur50um/vertebra.pdf?dl=0 Best regards, Peter
  23. I decided to give my Prusa MK3 printer a real challenge, so I cut my best skull model, I added some slots for neodymium magnets and I started to print the parts. I'm done with the half of them and I'll update my post when I'm done.
  24. 3D-Printable Files of the Sinus Anatomy and Skull With hay fever season rapidly approaching in the northern hemisphere, embodi3D® is tackling the topic of the paranasal sinuses and portions of the upper skull. It's an autumnal celebration — embodi3D® style. Granted, we take on a number of arguably more interesting topics in our posts, and nasal and sinus anatomy should be fairly straightforward, right? After all, aren't these just openings and passageways in the skull that allow us to take in fresh air and exhale carbon dioxide? Not quite. This is human anatomy we're talking about, so nothing is ever as simple as one would assume, and the paranasal sinuses are certainly not an exception to this rule. The paranasal sinuses have six primary parts, including the frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, and mucus membrane. These features allow us to efficiently take in air from the environment. But, as outlined in in a study titled CT of Anatomic Variants of the Paranasal Sinuses and Nasal Cavity: Poor Correlation With Radiologically Significant Rhinosinusitis but Importance in Surgical Planning, there are certain conditions that complicate breathing and prevent the paranasal sinuses from operating efficiently. These include Agger nasi cells, nasal septal deviation (deviated septum), and a condition in which the sphenoid sinuses extend into the posterior nasal septum. As these conditions can have chronic and significant impacts on a patient's quality of life, it's no wonder that paranasal sinus CT scans are among the most-request scans ordered by ENT outpatient departments. The study's authors were unable to find a difference that was statistically different among variations of patients with nasal cavity disease of paranasal sinus disease. This means that all those CT scans being ordered for cases of rhinitis or sinusitis are lacking in value unless a surgery is being planned. Some incredible files of a CT scan following superior maxillary surgery have been uploaded in the past. Could 3D-printed models using CT scans converted in STL files provide better results than CT scans alone? We'll let you decide. But, we're certain you'll form an opinion after viewing these excellent uploads to embodi3D®. Don't forget: to get the most out of these files and to create your own 3D-printed models. Register with embodi3D® today! It's free and takes just a few short minutes of your time. #1. A Half-Skull Available for Download in STL Format An incredible 3D model of an half skull in half size uploaded by Dr. Mike. The paranasal sinuses (“the sinuses”) are air-filled cavities located within the bones of the face and around the nasal cavity and eyes. Each sinus is named for the bone in which it is located. This example it´s perfect for teaching and as a discussion piece. #2. Anatomy of the Paranasal Sinuses This excellent 3D model uploaded by valchanov shows: Maxillary sinus- one sinus located within the bone of each cheek. Ethmoid sinus- located under the bone of the inside corner of each eye, although this is often shown as a single sinus in diagrams, this is really a honeycomb-like structure of 6-12 small sinuses that is better appreciated on CT scan images through the face. Frontal- one sinus per side, located within the bone of the forehead above the level of the eyes and nasal bridge. Sphenoid- one sinus per side, located behind the ethmoid sinuses; the sphenoid is not seen in a head-on view but is better appreciated looking at a side view. #3. An Anatomically Precise 3D-Printed Nasal Cavity with Paranasal Sinuses The pink-hued membranes lining the sinuses make mucus that is cleared out of the sinus cavities and drains into the nasal passage. The right and left nasal passages are separated in the middle by a vertical plate of cartilage and bone called the nasal septum. The sidewall of each nasal passage is lined by three ridges of tissue, and each of these is called a turbinate or concha. Specifically they are designated as inferior, middle, or superior depending on whether one is referring to the lower, middle, or upper structure. Most of the sinuses drain from underneath the middle turbinate, into a region called the osteomeatal complex. When air flows through the nasal passage on each side, it streams through the crevices between the nasal septum and these turbinates. Both airflow and mucus ends up in a part of the throat called the nasopharynx (the very back of the nose, where it meets the rest of the mouth and throat). Air is then breathed into the windpipe and lungs, while the mucus is swallowed. #4. A CT Scan of Paranasal Sinuses Converted from a CT Scan DICOM Other interesting structures associated with the nasal and sinus tract: - Tear duct (called the nasolacrimal duct): drains tears from the inside corner of the eye into the nasal cavity. - Eustachian tube: this is the tube responsible for clearing air pressure in the ears; it opens into the back of the sidewall of the nasopharynx. - Adenoids: this is a collection of tonsil-like tissue that is found at the top of the nasopharynx beyond the very back of the nasal cavity. Although it can be large in children, this tissue usually goes away during puberty, although sometimes it does not and is then, at times, surgically removed for various reasons. #5. CT Scan of Chronic Sinusitis In this CT scan we can see maxillary sinuses with sclerotic thickened bone (hyperostosis) involving the sinus wall. Chronic sinusitis is one of the more prevalent chronic illnesses in the United States, affecting persons of all age groups. It is an inflammatory process that involves the paranasal sinuses and persists for 12 weeks or longer. The literature has supported that chronic sinusitis is almost always accompanied by concurrent nasal airway inflammation and is often preceded by rhinitis symptoms; thus, the term chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has evolved to more accurately describe this condition. Diagnostic Considerations - Problems to be considered include the following: - Temporomandibular joint syndrome - Asthma - Other chronic rhinitis - Nasal and sinus cavity tumors - Facial pain and headache attributable to other causes - Nasal polyp - Dental infection - Periodontal abscess - Antral-choanal polyp - Inverting papilloma - Aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivity - Chronic headache of other etiology #6. A CT Scan of the Paranasal Sinuses In the article mentioned above the most common anatomic variant of the sinonasal cavities was deviation of the nasal septum, which was present in 98.4% of the patients but was considered to be more than minimal in 61.4%. The second most common variant was Agger nasi cells, which were present in 83.3% of patients, falling within the wide range of 3–100% reported in previous studies . Agger nasi cells were also the second most common variant that occurred bilaterally in our study. The third most common variant was extension of the sphenoid sinuses into the posterior nasal septum resulting in some degree of pneumatization of the posterior nasal septum (76.0%). The fourth most common variant was sphenoid sinus pneumatization extending posterior to the floor of the sella turcica (68.8%), which was defined as air extending more than halfway beyond the middle of the sellar floor toward the dorsum sella. The prevalence of pneumatization of the anterior clinoid process in our study was 16.7%, which is commensurate with the prevalence of 4–29.3% described in the literature . The prevalences of concha bullosa at 26.0% in our study (14–67.5% previously reported), pneumatized lamina of the middle turbinate at 37.0% (9.6–46.2% previously reported) #7. An Excellent 3D Model of the Skull in a Sagittal View Identification of some anatomic variants is crucial in the planning of functional endoscopic sinus or other skull base surgery, because the presence of these variants may influence the surgical approach. Most notably, the presence of sphenoethmoidal (Onodi) cells is associated with increased risk of injury to the optic nerves or carotid arteries during functional endoscopic sinus surgery and with other transsphenoidal and skull base procedures. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is one of the most common procedures done by otolaryngologists, so achieving a certain competency level in performing this procedure is crucial during the residency program. Moreover, ESS is considered a challenging procedure, especially surgery in the frontal sinus and the frontal recess, which remains the most challenging region of sinus surgery due to the variability and very complex nature of the cellular patterns. To overcome these challenges, simulation technology has emerged as a reasonable approach. A 3D-printed simulator currently developed in a work titled Development and validation of a 3D-printed model of the ostiomeatal complex and frontal sinus for endoscopic sinus surgery training proved to have realistic haptic feedback, especially for the bony dissection. As for the physical appearance, the realism of the anatomy scored high and this is correlated with the ability of the model to enhance 3D learning as was reported by the participants. References 1. Shpilberg, K. A., Daniel, S. C., Doshi, A. H., Lawson, W., & Som, P. M. (2015). CT of anatomic variants of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: poor correlation with radiologically significant rhinosinusitis but importance in surgical planning. American Journal of Roentgenology, 204(6), 1255-1260. 2. Alrasheed, A. S., Nguyen, L. H., Mongeau, L., Funnell, W. R. J., & Tewfik, M. A. (2017, August). Development and validation of a 3D‐printed model of the ostiomeatal complex and frontal sinus for endoscopic sinus surgery training. In International forum of allergy & rhinology (Vol. 7, No. 8, pp. 837-841).
  25. 3D Printed Skull and the embodi3D® Top 10 Skull and Head Anatomy This week, embodi3D® brings you the best 3D anatomical models of the skull and head region, including several fascinating files that you can use to create a 3D printed skull. For medical professionals, students, and researchers, understanding the structure of the human skull is an important part of delivering an accurate diagnosis. Using tools such as democratiz3D® also helps medical professionals such as radiologists and surgeons to prepare for unique operations. Recently, a team of surgeons at at Boston Children's Hospital used 3D printing to plan for a young patient's surgery with great success. Citing this case, the Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons praised the training and surgical education benefits of 3D printing. After checking out this week's Top 10 list, you may also find Dr. Mike's entires on "Creating a 3D Printable Skull from a CT Scan in 5 Minutes Using Freeware" and "A Ridiculously Easy Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes." A 3D-printed skull shown with prominent fracture to the forehead. If you haven't already, be sure to register with embodi3D® to take advantage of all of the tools and conversion algorithms available to embodi3D® and democratiz3D® users. Registering is absolutely free and we have a number of tutorials available to help you get up and running as quickly as possible. 1. Excellent 3D-Printed Model of the Frontal Bone Colloquially known as the "forehead," the frontal bone comprises the squamus, orbital, and nasal parts of the skull. It is one of eight bones that form the cranium, or brain case. The frontal bone plays a vital role in supporting and protecting the delicate nervous tissue of the brain. It gives shape to the skull and supports several muscles of the head. At its inferior border, the frontal bone forms the roof of the orbits and the brow. The coronal suture forms the posterior boundary of the frontal bone where it meets the parietal bones. The primary functions of the frontal bone are the protection of the brain and the support of the structures of the head. The hard mineral matrix of the frontal bone provides protection for the soft brain tissue. Although the frontal bone follows the ridges of the brain very closely, a small gap between the frontal bone and brain houses the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid of the cranium. The pressure exerted by cerebrospinal fluid on the interior of the cranium holds the brain in place and prevents the brain from colliding with the skull. 2. A 3D Model of the Skull Base in Exquisite Detail A 3D model of the skull base with exquisite detail. The skull base forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from other facial structures. This anatomic region is complex and poses surgical challenges for otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons alike. Working knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the skull base is essential for effective surgical treatment of disease in this area. The 5 bones that make up the skull base are the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, paired frontal, and paired temporal bones. The skull base can be subdivided into 3 regions: the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae. (See the image below.) The petro-occipital fissure subdivides the middle cranial fossa into 1 central component and 2 lateral components. This article discusses each region, with attention to the surrounding structures, nerves, vascular supply, and clinically relevant surgical landmarks. 3. A 3D Model of the Paranasal Sinuses The paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the bones of the skull and facial bones. They are centered on the nasal cavity and have various functions, including lightening the weight of the head, humidifying and heating inhaled air, increasing the resonance of speech, and serving as a crumple zone to protect vital structures in the event of facial trauma. Four sets of paired sinuses are recognized: maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid (see the image below 4. Right Maxillary Bone Show in Anatomically Accurate Detail The maxilla consists of maxillary bones that form the upper jaw; together they are the keystone of the face, for all other immovable facial bones are connected to them. Portions of these bones make up the front of the roof of the mouth (hard palate), the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity. They also contain the sockets of the upper teeth. Inside the maxillae, on the sides the nasal cavity, are the maxillary sinuses (antrum of Highmore). These air-filled spaces are the largest of the sinuses, and they extend from the floor of the orbits to the roots of the upper teeth. 5. Create a 3D Printed Anatomical Sphenoid Bone The sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. It consists of a central part and two wing-like structures that extend sideways toward each side of the skull. This bone helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits (eye sockets). Along the middle, within the cranial cavity, a portion of the sphenoid bone rise. 6. A Mandible (Jawbone) 3D Printed from a CT Scan with democratiz3D® The mandible, or jawbone, is the only movable bone in the skull. It is the strongest and most massive bone in the face. The mandible plays a vital role in many common tasks, including chewing, speech, and facial expression. The mandible is one of the twenty-two bones that make up the skull and the only one of those bones that is not fused to its neighbors. It is often called the lower jawbone as it is located inferior to the maxillae, which contain the top row of teeth. Stretching from the left temporal bone to the right temporal bone, the mandible forms a flat arch with 16 teeth embedded in its superior surface. At the left and right temporal bones, the mandible begins as a pair of bony cylinders known as the condyles. The condyles form the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with the temporal bones before narrowing into the necks of the mandible. From the necks, the mandible widens considerably as it descends obliquely in the inferior and anterior directions to form the rami of the mandible. A large pointed projection, known as the coronoid process, extends superiorly from each ramus and is separated from the condyle by the mandibular notch. The mandibular foramina, a pair of holes for nerves and blood vessels to enter the mandible and support the teeth, perforate the rami on their medial surface just below the coronoid process. 7. A Highly Detailed, 3D Printer-Ready File of the Ethmoid Bone The ethmoid bone is located in front of the sphenoid bone. It consists of two masses, one on each side of the nasal cavity, which is joined horizontally by thin cribriform plates. These plates form part of the roof of the nasal cavity, and nerves (ethmoidal cells) associated with the sense of smell pass through tiny openings in them. Portions of the ethmoid bone also form sections of the cranial floor, eye sockets, and nasal cavity walls. A perpendicular plate projects downward in the middle from the cribriform plates to form the bulk of the nasal septum. Delicate scroll-shaped plates called superior and middle nasal conchae project inward from the sides of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate. These bones, which are called the turbinate bones, support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity. 8. A 3D-Printable Mandible (Jawbone) File This excellent 3D-printed mandible and the the 3D printer-ready file come by way of Dr. Marco Vettorello. As you likely know, the mandible forms the lower portion of the skull. This upload shows all the nuances of the CT scan-generated, anatomically accurate mandible. 9. Three-Dimensional Model of Labyrinthitis of the Inner Ear Labyrinthitis is an inflammatory disorder of the inner ear, or labyrinth. Clinically, this condition produces disturbances of balance and hearing to varying degrees and may affect one or both ears. Bacteria or viruses can cause acute inflammation of the labyrinth in conjunction with either local or systemic infections. Autoimmune processes may also cause labyrinthitis. Vascular ischemia may result in acute labyrinthine dysfunction that mimics labyrinthitis. ( 10. A 3D Printable Skull with Fracture (STL Format) A 3D printable STL file of a face and skull with bone fractures was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. Facial fractures occur for a variety of reasons related to sports participation: contact between players (eg, a head, fist, elbow); contact with equipment (eg, balls, pucks, handlebars); or contact with the environment, obstacles, or a playing surface (eg, wrestling mat, gymnastic equipment, goalposts, trees). Direct body contact accounts for the majority of sports-related injuries, and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck region. Sports like football, baseball, and hockey account for a high percentage of facial injuries among young adults. Forces that are required to produce a fracture of the facial bones are as follows: Nasal fracture – 30 g Zygoma fractures – 50 g Mandibular (angle) fractures – 70 g Frontal region fractures – 80 g Maxillary (midline) fractures – 100 g Mandibular (midline) fractures – 100 g Supraorbital rim fractures – 200 g References 1. Human Anatomy: Learn All About the Human Body at InnerBody.com. (2018). InnerBody. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from http://www.innerbody.com/ 2. Medscape Reference - Comprehensive peer-reviewed medical condition, surgery, and clinical procedure articles with symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, drugs and medications, prognosis, follow-up, and pictures. (2018). Reference.medscape.com. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from https://reference.medscape.com/ 3. Kim, H., Roh, H., & Lee, I. (2016). Craniosynostosis : Updates in Radiologic Diagnosis. Journal Of Korean Neurosurgical Society, 59(3), 219. doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.3.219
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