Jump to content

Search the Community

Showing results for tags 'STL'.



More search options

  • Search By Tags

    Type tags separated by commas.
  • Search By Author

Content Type


Blogs

  • Embodi3d Test Blog
  • 3D Printing in Medicine
  • Cool Medical 3D-Printing
  • 3D Bio Printing by Paige Anne Carter
  • SSchoppert's Blog
  • Additive Manufacturing in Medicine
  • biomedical 3D printing
  • Bryce's Blog
  • Chris Leggett
  • 3D Models Help Improve Surgical Precision, Reduce Operating Time
  • Desktop 3D Printing in Medical Imaging
  • 3D Printing: Radiology corner
  • The Embodi3D.com Blog
  • descobar3d's Blog
  • 3D Printing in Anthropology
  • Learn to 3D Print: Basic Tools from software to printers
  • 3D printing for bio-medicine
  • 3D Biomedical Printing - by Jacob M.
  • Valchanov's Blog
  • Deirdre_Manion-Fischer's Blog
  • Matt Johnson's Biomedical 3D Printing Blog
  • Devarsh Vyas's Biomedical 3D Printing Blogs
  • Devarsh Vyas's Biomedical 3D Printing Blogs
  • Mike at Medical Models
  • Best embodi3d.com Medical and Anatomic Files

Forums

  • Biomedical 3D Printing
    • Hardware and 3D Printers
    • democratiz3D®
    • Software
    • Clinical applications
    • 3D Printable Models
    • Medical Imaging: CT, MRI, US
    • Science and Research
    • News and Trending Topics
    • Education, Conferences, Meetings, Events
  • General
    • Announcements
    • Questions and Answers
    • Suggestions and Feedback
    • Member Lounge (members only)
  • Classifieds, Goods and Services
    • General Classifieds - members post free
    • Services needed
    • Services offered
    • Stuff for sale/needed
    • Post a Job
    • Looking for work - visible only to members

Categories

  • democratiz3D® Processing
  • Bones
    • Skull and Head
    • Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial
    • Spine and Pelvis
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm)
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg)
    • Thorax and Ribs
    • Whole body
    • Skeletal tumors, fractures and bony pathology
  • Muscles
    • Head and neck muscles
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg) Muscles
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm) Muscles
    • Thorax and Ribs Muscles
    • Abdomen and Pelvis muscles
    • Whole body Muscles
    • Muscular tumors and sarcomas
  • Cardiac and Vascular
    • Heart
    • Congenital Heart Defects
    • Aorta
    • Mesenteric and abdominal arteries
    • Veins
  • Organs of the Body
    • Brain and nervous system
    • Kidneys
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Other organs
  • Skin
  • Veterinary
    • Dogs
    • Cats
    • Other
  • Science and Research
    • Paleontology
    • Anthropology
    • Misc Research
  • Miscellaneous
    • Formlabs
    • Anatomical Art
  • Medical CT Scan Files
    • Skull, Head, and Neck CTs
    • Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial CTs
    • Thorax and Ribs CTs
    • Abdomen and Pelvis CTs
    • Extremity, Upper (Arm) CTs
    • Extremity, Lower (Leg) CTs
    • Spine CTs
    • Whole Body CTs
    • MRIs
    • Ultrasound
    • Veterinary/Animals
    • Other

Product Groups

  • Premium Services
  • Physical Print Quotes

Find results in...

Find results that contain...


Date Created

  • Start

    End


Last Updated

  • Start

    End


Filter by number of...

Joined

  • Start

    End


Group


Name


Secondary Email Address


Interests

Found 2,074 results

  1. 3D Free Scapula, Clavicle, and Humerus Models in 3D-Printable STL Format Shoulders are comprised of three main bones. These include humerus (bone in the upper arm), scapula (shoulder blade), and the clavicle, which we commonly refer to as the "collarbone." Bones of the shoulder work together with the transverse humeral ligament, synovial membrane of the bicep, bursa sac, and the superior transverse ligament to perform a complex range of motions. In fact, the shoulder has the most extended pivot range of any joint within the body. Your glenohumearal joint (shoulder) is a ball-and-socket joint that is able to move in so many positions due to the relatively small size of the glenoid fossa, as well as the laxity ("wiggle room") of the joint capsule. But, these features also make the shoulder prone to overuse injuries, subluxation, dislocation, and ligament tears. In this week's embodi3D® Top Ten, we are bringing you some of the best 3D scapula, clavicle, and humerus models which comprise the majority of the human shoulder joint. Before you dive into this week's Top 10 and start printing your own 3D anatomical models, you must first register with embodi3D®. It's absolutely free to sign up and you can take advantage of many of the features found on the embodi3D® website, including standard resolution democratiz3D® conversions. Register with embodi3D® today! Technologies like these were recently featured in the journal Société Internationale de Chirurgie Orthopédique et de Traumatologie (SICOT), where models of a 3D scapula, humerus, and soft tissues are being used in preoperative planning. If you are interested in uploading your CT scans and converting these to 3D-printable STL format, the democratiz3D® Quick Start Guide will help you to quickly get up and running. How Shoulders Achieve Their Range of Motion Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. * Flexion: Pectoralis major, deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps muscles * Extension: Deltoid & teres major muscles. – If against resistance, also latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major. * Abduction: Deltoid & supraspinatus muscles. – Subscapularis, infraspinatus, & teres minor exert downward traction – Supraspinatus contribution controversial * Medial rotation: Pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, & teres major muscles. – Subscapularis when arm at side * Lateral rotation: Infraspinatus, deltoid, & teres minor muscles. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Shoulder in STL Format This articulation is maintained by overlying soft tissue structures. The posterosuperior acromion process of the scapula provides one half of the AC joint. It also forms most of the osseous portion of the coracoacromial arch, the roof over the rotator cuff. The acromion process is connected to the body of the scapula by the spine. The osseous structures of the shoulder girdle are the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Medially, the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint. This joint serves as the only true articulation between the shoulder girdle and the axial skeleton. Laterally, the clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint #2. STL File Showing Scapular Notch and Shoulder Variations in the shape of the clavicle are considered normal and are not usually pathologic. These variations may range from an almost straight bone to one with exaggerated curves. Another variation of the clavicle that is present in 6-10% of the population is termed the canalis nervi supraclavicularis. In this variation, a foramen forms through the clavicle, and the medial supraclavicular nerve passes through this accessory osseous canal. The scapular notch varies in size and shape. The notch is bridged by the superior transverse scapular ligament. This ligament ossifies in 10% of patients, producing a bony foramen for the suprascapular nerve. #3. A 3D Model of the Shoulders of the Muscle Rotator cuff: 4 muscles arising on scapula and inserting on humerus * Supraspinatus: From supraspinatus fossa of scapula to greater tuberosity – Abducts humerus, also depresses humeral head. * Infraspinatus: From posterior surface of scapula to greater tuberosity. – Externally rotates humerus * Teres minor: From lateral border of scapula to greater tuberosity – Externally rotates humerus * Subscapularis muscle: From anterior surface of scapula to lesser tuberosity – Superficial fibers extend across to anterior margin of greater tuberosity as part of transverse ligament – Internally rotates, adducts humerus #4. 3D Model (STL Format) of the Muscles Connecting the Arm to Axial Skeleton 4. Various muscles also serve to connect the arm to the axial skeleton. Anteriorly, the pectoralis major and minor muscles extend from the sternum and clavicle to the proximal humeral shaft. Posteriorly, the latissimus dorsi muscle arises from the thoracic cage to attach onto the proximal humeral shaft. The great range of motion provided for by the glenohumeral joint is executed in large part by the muscles of the rotator cuff. The supraspinatus muscle arises superior to the scapular spine and attaches to the superior facet of the greater tuberosity. The more posterior infraspinatus muscle arises below the spine and inserts onto the posterior facet of the greater tuberosity. The teres minor muscle originates and inserts just caudal to the infraspinatus. The subscapularis muscle arises from the anterior scapular body to insert onto the lesser tuberosity. The long head of the biceps originates at the superior glenoid rim, passes through the rotator cuff interval at the anterosuperior glenohumeral joint, and then follows the bicipital groove between the tuberosities into the upper arm. The deltoid muscle has a broad origination along the lateral aspect of the acromion from anterior to posterior. It covers the lateral portion of the upper arm before inserting on to the lateral proximal humeral shaft at the deltoid tuberosity. #5. 3D Model of the Skin around the Shoulder, Arm, and Upper Chest A 3D model of the skin of the shoulder where the soft tissue of the shoulder and arm are shown. Trapezius: is responsible for the smooth contour of the lateral side of the neck and over the superior aspect of the shoulder. It can be seen and felt throughout its entirety when the shoulder girdles are retracted against resistance; the superior part can be palpated when the shoulders are elevated against resistance. Posterior axillary fold: is formed by the latissimus dorsi winding around the lateral border of the teres major muscle. Latissimus dorsi forms much of the muscle mass underlying the posterior axillary fold extending obliquely upward from the trunk to the arm. Teres major passes from the inferior angle of the scapula to the upper humerus and contributes to the fold laterally. Both muscles can be palpated on resisted shoulder adduction. Pectoralis major: can be seen and felt throughout its entire extent when it is contracted against resistance as in pressing the palm together in front of the body. Clavicular fibers can be felt if the shoulder is flexed against resistance to a position midway between flexion and extension, while the sternocostal fibers can be felt if the shoulder is extended against resistance starting in a flexed position. The inferior border of the pectoralis major muscle forms the anterior axillary fold. Deltoid: forms the muscular eminence inferior to the acromion and around the glenohumeral joint. The anterior, middle, and posterior fibers of the deltoid can be palpated. When the arm is abducted against resistance, the anterior border of the deltoid can be felt. The clavipectoral triangle (deltopectoral triangle) is the depressed area just inferior to the lateral part of the clavicle, bounded by the clavicle superiorly, the deltoid laterally, and the clavicular head of the pectoralis major medially. #6. CT Scan Showing a Fracture in the Proximal Humeral A computed tomography (CT) is recommended for complex fracture situations although those situations were not clearly defined. Therefore, precise indications for CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. #7. Connection of Scapula, Humerus, and Clavicle Shown in 3D STL File The scapula is a spade-shaped bone comprised of a thin triangular body and a semi-ovoid cavity known as the glenoid fossa (glenoid cavity). The glenoid fossa faces lateral and slightly anterior and cranial. A bony spine runs across the dorsal surface of the scapular body and terminates in the acromion. The scapula articulates with two bones, the humerus and clavicle. The scapula does not directly contact the bony rib cage: the two structures are separated by muscle and other soft tissue. #8. Right Shoulder Injury Revealed by CT Scan On CT acute trauma may result of bony, labral, ligamentous or musculotendinous damage. The shoulder may be injured following repetitive injury or as part of systemic inflammatory conditions or infection. Moreover, the bones around the shoulder may be affected by benign or malignant bony lesions, and associated pathological fracture. #9. Right Shoulder with Pleomorphic Spindle Cell Sarcoma (3D-Printable STL File) Pleomorphic sarcoma composed of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and histiocyte-like cells. Historically considered the most common adult soft tissue sarcoma. Usually older adults (age 50+ years) with slight male predominance; more common in lower extremities, rarely retroperitoneum, head and neck, breast. Large and deep-seated with progressive enlargement. Sarcomas adjacent to orthopedic implants or post-radiation are usually osteosarcoma or MFH. #10. 3D-Printable Model of Right Shoulder Bones The humerus is the large single bone of the upper arm. Proximally, it articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula forming the glenohumeral joint. The humeral head is large and globular. Just ventral to the articular surface is the lesser tubercle, where the subscapularis attaches. Lateral to the articular surface is the greater tubercle. The rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder insert on the proximal humerus. References 1. Manaster, B. J., & Crim, J. R. (2016). Imaging Anatomy: Musculoskeletal E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2. Bahrs, C., Rolauffs, B., Südkamp, N. P., Schmal, H., Eingartner, C., Dietz, K., ... & Helwig, P. (2009). Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography. BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 10(1), 33. 3. Duke University Medical School - Anatomy. (2018). Web.duke.edu. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://web.duke.edu/anatomy/ 4. Shoulder Joint Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy. (2018). Emedicine.medscape.com. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1899211-overview#a1 5. The Radiology Assistant : Shoulder MR - Anatomy. (2012). Radiologyassistant.nl. Retrieved 4 August 2018, from http://www.radiologyassistant.nl/en/p4f49ef79818c2/shoulder-mr-anatomy.html
  2. Top 10 Free Downloadable CT Angiogram (CTA) 3D Printable Models on embodi3D.® For several years now, surgeons, radiologists, and others in the medical profession have used 3D-printed vascular simulation models from CT angiograms (CTAs) to practice complex procedures, as well as for research and educational purposes. The growth has been fueled by the development of high resolution imaging studies merging with the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, and the development of new printing materials. These advances have resulted in reductions in the costs associated with creating high resolution medical models. As noted in the journal RadioGraphics (Radiological Society of North America), CT angiogram-derived 3D-printed models are quickly being embraced by those in the medical field. The evolution of this disruptive technology is expected to revolutionize medical practices over the years to come. And, tools such as democratiz3D® are making it easy for medical professionals to create ultra-resolution 3D models. A human skull and collarbone, created by a CT Angiogram. Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are focal dilatations of the abdominal aorta that are 50% greater than the proximal normal segment or >3 cm in maximum diameter. The prevalence of AAAs increases with age. Males are much more commonly affected than females, with a ratio of 4:1. They are the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world. Approximately 10% of individuals older than 65 have an AAA. This week we would like to share the best 3d models of a CT angiogram (CTA). Don’t forget to register in order to download the images, you can do it clicking here: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) An excellent 3D model an abdominal CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) showing the location infrarrenal. When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include : - size and shape - sac dimensions (outer surface to outer surface) - luminal diameter if mural thrombus is present - fusiform or saccular - size of vessel proximal and distal to aneurysm - characteristics of wall - mural calcification - presence of mural thrombus - location and relationship to involved branches/structurerenal arteries - involvement of the origins of the renal arteries - presence of accessory renal arteries and where they arise splanchnic arteries great vessels from the arch characterisation of possible aetiology - true or false - possibility of mycotic aetiology - complications: leak, rupture, proximity to bowel, aortocaval fistula, other relevant vesselsthoracic aortic aneurysms - the size and dominance of vertebral arteries should be included if the aneurysm is close to the left subclavian artery presence of carotid disease is important, as significant stenosis may predispose the patient to strokes during any period of reduced flow/hypotension AAA 2. Model of Abdominal Vessels Ready for 3D Printing A 3D model of the abdominal vessels with detail. In addition to great vessel pathology, 3D printing has also been used in the treatment of other visceral vessel diseases. 3D modeling was used to plan the optimal combination of guide catheter and microcatheter to successfully treat a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms. The team was able to preserve splenic function and minimize the need for repeat angiograms. 3D printing has also been described as an intraoperative reference for robotic resection of a celiac trunk aneurysm. Modeling other visceral vessel aneurysms has been described, including left gastric, right epigastric, gastroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms. If this model is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a heart and pulmonary artery tree CT angiogram 3D model uploaded by health_physics, who used the democratiz3D® tool. 3. CT Angiogram of the Brain and Neck A brain and neck CTA example. 4. Vascular Simulation Model The use of 3D modeling for vascular simulations can provide training and education in either normal or complex anatomy. . It can also provide the haptic feedback which may be lacking in virtual reality simulations and has been shown to improve anatomical knowledge in students. In addition to provider education, 3D models have been demonstrated as a useful tool for preoperative patient education. 5. External Carotid Artery (ECA) CT Angiogram External Carotid artery ( ECA): arises from the CCA bifurcation and has 8 branches: 1) Superior thyroid artery- 1st branch of the ECA 2) Lingual artery- arises between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery; supplies tongue with blood supply 3) Facial artery- arises just above the lingual artery & courses along the lower mandible, across the cheek to the angle of the mouth. It continues to course superior along the side of the nose to the inner canthus of the eye; supplies tongue, lips, nose, and lachrymal sac with a blood supply; AKA- Angular artery 4) Occipital artery- arises from the posterior portion of the ECA opposite the facial artery and is an important communicating artery with the muscular branches of the vertebral artery 5) Posterior Auricle artery- arises from the ECA above the digastric & styo-hoid muscles opposite the apex of the styloid process. It has 3 branches which supply the membranous tympani, back of ear, and muscle 6) Ascending Pharyngeal artery- usually arises at the level of the carotid bifurcation and the smallest branch. It has 4 branches that supply the longus muscle, coli muscle, lymph glands, palate, typani, and dura matter 7) Superficial Temporal artery- arises between the neck, lower jaw, and external auditory meatus. It is the smaller of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It bifurcates into the anterior temporal and posterior temporal arteries providing a blood supply to the supraorbital rim and facial muscles. It is used to help identify the ICA from the ECA 8) Maxillary artery- arises at the level of the parotid gland opposite the neck of the condoyle of the lower jaw. It is the larger of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It is divided into 3 segments: 1st is the maxillary segment 2nd is the pterygoid segment 3rd is the spheno-maxillary segment One of its terminating branches is the infraorbital artery It anastomoses with the ophthalmic artery It is collateral for brain circulation (Pre-Willisian anastomosis) 6. CTA of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms probably represent the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention. Recent advances in imaging techniques have raised new possibilities in medical imaging regarding aneurysmal disease making size recordings more accurate and reproducible than ever. Here we show an excellent example of a AAA CTA. 7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a CT Angiogram-Created 3D Model A 3D reconstruction of an AAA. 3D printing has become a useful tool to many clinicians and researchers. A variety of applications currently employ 3D printing for the treatment of aortic vascular disease, including pre-procedural planning, training, and creation of personalized aortic grafts. Advances in the accessibility of 3D printing, as well as continued research in 3D-printed vascular networks, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of aortic diseases. 8. Stunning 3D Model of Human "Bovine Arch" Aorta The term “bovine arch” is widely used to describe a common anatomic variant of the human aortic arch branching. This so-called bovine aortic arch has no resemblance to the bovine aortic arch. A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. A related variant, also known as truncus bicaroticus, is the origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic artery but not sharing a true common origin, which occurs in ~9% of the population. Sometimes this can be difficult to distinguish from a common origin because the left common carotid artery arises within 1cm of the origin of the brachiocephalic artery. Clinical presentation: This common variant is asymptomatic most of the time. In rare cases of head and neck surgery, e.g. tracheostomy, it can be a risk factor for injury and cause complications 4. In combination with an aberrant right subclavian artery it can cause a dysphagia lusoria. 9. CT Scan of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intraluminal Trombus A CT scan of an AAA with an intraluminal trombus. The pathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) shows several hallmarks of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic disease, but comprises an additional, predominant feature of proteolysis resulting in the degradation and destabilization of the aortic wall. 10. CTA of a Human Head and Neck An excellent example of a neck and head CTA showing the neck vessels. 3D model printing has the potential to become an essential preoperative investigation for surgery on arteriovenous malformations. References: 1. Collins J, Stern EJ. Chest radiology, the essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781763142. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon 2. Atar E, Belenky A, Hadad M et-al. MR angiography for abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms: assessment before endovascular repair in patients with impaired renal function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (2): 386-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.0449 - Pubmed citation 3. Hangge, P., Pershad, Y., Witting, A. A., Albadawi, H., & Oklu, R. (2018). Three-dimensional (3D) printing and its applications for aortic diseases. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 8(Suppl 1), S19.
  3. Top 10: Free Downloadable 3D Knee Model and Other STL Files As a complex joint and one of the largest joints in the body, the knee joint is a fascinating feature of the human form. This joint not only has the task of joining the femur (thigh bone), tibia (shin bone), and patella (knee cap), but also remaining flexible enough to allow for compound movements, such as running, jumping, dancing, kicking a soccer ball — the list goes on. The knee joint may have the greatest range of motion thanks to its non-interlocking form, but the muscles, joint, tendons, ligaments, menisci, capsule, and tendons must all work together to give the leg the rigidity it needs to support nearly the entire human bodyweight. Have you guessed this week's Top 10 featured uploads from the embodi3D® community? That's right, we're highlighting the marvel that is the human knee joint — bones, tissues, and all. Within the following sections you see stunning images and STL files of a 3D knee model (several, actually), as well as a number of other STL models of the lower limbs that you can download and create using your 3D printer. If this topic is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a recent article in the online trade journal Manufacturing Tomorrow highlighting the use of 3D-printed knee models in pre-operative preparation. And, don't forget to check out our Extremity, Lower Leg library for more 3D-printable STL files like these! But, before you can make use of all the amazing tools offered on the embodi3D® website you need to register with embodi3D®. This community is absolutely free to join and members can upload, download, convert, and sell their CT-converted STL files. The Radiologist's Difficult Task of Imaging Knee Joints There are a number of pitfalls and challenges when it comes to getting a stable image of the knee area, including: • Variants: Multiple osseous and soft tissue normal variants • Loose bodies on MR: Easily missed • Partial voluming over convex surfaces: Morphology of trochlea, femoral condyles, and patella makes them particularly difficult to evaluate in 3 standard planes • Imaging cartilage ○ T2 underestimates cartilage thickness since cortex and cartilage have similar signal ○ PD may have similar signal for cartilage and adjacent joint fluid, obscuring defects; fat saturation solves this. #1. 3D Knee Model Showing the Muscles (in 3D-Printable STL Format) Muscles acting on knee joint: Extensors (4 parts of quadriceps femoris) ○ Rectus femoris (crosses both hip and knee joints, flexing hip and extending knee), ○ Vastus lateralis , ○ Vastus medialis ○ Vastus intermedius ( Extends knee) Muscles acting on knee joint: Flexors ○ Biceps femoris (Flexes knee and also rotates tibia laterally; long head also extends hip joint) ○ Sartorius (Crosses both hip and knee joints, flexes both hip and knee joints, rotating thigh laterally to bring limbs into position adopted by cross-legged tailor) ○ Gracilis (Adducts thigh, flexes knee, and rotates flexed leg medially) ○ Semitendinosus (Crosses both hip and knee joints, extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates flexed leg) ○ Semimembranosus (Crosses both hip and knee joints, extends hip, flexes knee, medially rotates flexed knee) ○ Popliteus (Flexes knee and medially rotates tibia at beginning of flexion) – Innervation: Tibial nerve Muscles acting on knee joint: Superficial flexors of knee ○ Gastrocnemius: (Flexes knee and plantar flexes ankle) ○ Plantaris (Flexes knee and plantar flexes ankle) Muscles acting on knee joint: Internal rotators of leg ○ Popliteus, gracilis, sartorius, semitendinosus, semimembranosus Muscles acting on knee joint: External rotator of leg ○ Biceps femoris • Extensor mechanism ○ Quadriceps tendon and retinacula converge to inferior patellar tendon #2. A Remarkable STL Model of the Skin Surface of the Knee This detailed STL file was converted from a CT scan through democratiz3D® and uploaded to the community for the benefit of all. #3. 3D Model of the Bones within the Knee (Femur, Tibia, Fibula, and Patella) The knee is composed of 4 bones: the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. All these bones are functional in the knee joint, except for the fibula. The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The tibia lies distal to the femur and medial to the fibula. The proximal end consists of medial and lateral condyles, an intercondylar area, and the tibial tuberosity that articulates with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur. Distally, the tibia articulates with the ankle. The distal and proximal ends of the tibia articulate with the fibula. In addition, the shaft of the tibia and fibula are connected with an interosseous membrane to form a syndesmosis joint. The fibula does not articulate with the femur or patella. Furthermore, the fibula is not directly involved in weight transmission. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. This bone is flat, proximally curved, and distally tapered; however, the shape can vary. The posterior patella articulates with the femur, but the apex sits proximal to the line of the knee joint. The tendon of the quadriceps femoris completely encompasses the patella. #4. CT Scan of the Knee Showing Articulations of the Condylar Joints The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation. #5. Fracture of the Tibial Plateau (Converted into STL, 3D-Printable Format) Fx of tibial plateau due to axial loading, ± rotational injury, ± valgus angulation. Most tibial plateau fx involve lateral plateau ○ "Split" component of fx describes fx line extending from articular surface to margin of metaphyseal cortex ○ "Depressed" component is displaced below level of remainder of articular surface. I-III involve lateral plateau only ○ Schatzker I: Split fx with no depression (usually younger patients) ○ Schatzker II: Lateral split/wedge fx with depression of weight-bearing portion (usually older patients with osteoporosis) ○ Schatzker III: Focal depression of articular surface, no associated split (elderly, osteoporotic patients) ○ Schatzker IV: Any medial plateau fx: Split, ± depression; may involve tibial spines; associated soft tissue injuries and poor prognosis – Lateral plateau fx line that extends to medial articular surface adjacent to tibial spines but without depression or extension to metaphyseal cortex not considered to involve medial plateau for classification purposes – Commonly associated with lateral collateral ligament complex or posterolateral corner injuries or proximal fibula fx ○ Schatzker V: Split fx of both medial and lateral plateau (bicondylar) ± depression – Up to 1/2 have meniscal injuries, 1/3 anterior cruciate ligament avulsions ○ Schatzker VI: Bicondylar or unicondylar split fx with dissociation of metaphysis from diaphysis by transverse fx component #6. CT Scan of the Knee Showing an LTP Fracture Findings of this CT scan include: • Assists in diagnosis of radiographically occult fx • Confirms anatomic relationship of fx fragments in complex cases ○ Describe number, size, and location for fragments and fx lines ○ Accurate measurement of size and extent of plateau fragment depression • Surgical planning for either elevation of depressed fragments or for Schatzker type IV-VI fxs #7. An MRI of the Menisci of the Knee (History of Injury) These MRIs highlight a patient with a history of injury to the area. We can clearly see the menisci and its analysis include: Lateral meniscus ○ Overall configuration: Semicircular ○ Shape: Uniform, minimally and gradually enlarging from anterior to posterior ○ Normal recess: Peripheral, inferior at anterior horn Medial meniscus ○ Overall configuration: Semilunar (C-shaped) ○ Shape nonuniform: Anterior horn similar in size & shape to LM but midbody is small, approximating an equilateral triangle; MM posterior horn is largest portion of MM, nearly 2x as long as anterior horn ○ Normal recess: Peripheral, superior at posterior horn Meniscal "flounce": Buckling of a portion of meniscus, perhaps related to femorotibial subluxation Signal • Generally uniformly low signal throughout • Exceptions ○ Children and adolescents may have normal increased intrameniscal signal that does not extend to surface (due to rich vascular supply) ○ Adults may develop central degenerative changes seen as linear or globular signal that does not extend to surface and does not represent a tear ○ Various high signal clefts and dots can normally be seen in anterior horn LM at and near its root attachment, due to immediate adjacency of origin of ACL and divergence of longitudinal fibers at root; do not misinterpret as tear ○ Peripheral portion of meniscus is quite vascular – Outer meniscal margin as seen by MR is usually not true periphery of structure: Meniscus signal in its peripheral vascular portion (10-30%) blends in with gray signal of the capsule ○ "Magic angle" may affect signal in posterior horn of LM in region of intercondylar notch #8. Knee Ligaments and Muscles in a 3D-Printable Model (STL File) This extraordinarily detailed 3D model of a 64-year-old male's knee shows the exquisite details of the muscles and ligaments. #9. Printable STL File of a Right Leg Bone Model Fibrohistiocytic tumors represent a highly heterogeneous group of soft tissue neoplasms composed of cells exhibiting fibroblastic and histiocytic features. The extremities are the most common site followed by the trunk, the pelvis, the head and neck region and the genital area. The differential diagnosis should exclude benign myxoid neoplasms, epitheloid types of MFS, carcinoma, melanoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma and pleomorphic rabdomyosarcoma. #10. Total Knee Arthroplasty Completed with 3D-Printed Metal Condyles Total knee arthroplasty (TKA): Replacement of femoral, tibial, and patellar articular surfaces DIAGNOSTIC CHECKLIST: • Keep in mind shape of polyethylene components; lucency of this shape in wrong location is hint of dislocation • Periprosthetic fractures are easily missed; include them in your search pattern ○ Increased risk for periprosthetic fracture with osteoporosis &/or tibial tubercle transfer. Complications, other than malalignment ○ Patellar button dislocation from cement or metal backing. ○ Tibial polyethylene may dislocate from metal tray ○ Stress shielding: Occurs in anterior and mid femoral metaphysis, seen on lateral radiograph – Does not predict component failure ○ Loosening: Change in position (tilt or subsidence) – Patellar button usually subsides superiorly. - Tibial component subsides inferiorly, usually with medial trabecular compression ○ Infection – Rare radiographic findings of serpiginous destruction – MR: Lamellated hyperintense synovitis differentiates infectious from noninfectious synovitis References 1. Manaster, B. J., & Crim, J. R. (2016). Imaging Anatomy: Musculoskeletal E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2. Castronovo, C., Arrese, J. E., Quatresooz, P., & Nikkels, A. F. (2013). Myxofibrosarcoma: a diagnostic pitfall. Rare tumors, 5(2), 60-61. 3. Blankenbaker, D. G., & Davis, K. W. (2016). Diagnostic Imaging: Musculoskeletal Trauma E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  4. The upper extremity is connected to the axial skeleton and thoracic cage by the shoulder girdle. The unique arrangement of the skeletal and soft tissue structures of the shoulder allows for the greatest range of motion of any joint in the human body. For these same reasons, the shoulder joint is the least stable of all joints making it prone to dislocation and instability. The glenohumearal joint has a greater range of motion than any other joint in the body. The small size of the glenoid fossa and the relative laxity of the joint capsule renders the joint relatively unstable and prone to subluxation and dislocation. Range of motion: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial rotation, and lateral rotation. * Flexion: Pectoralis major, deltoid, coracobrachialis, & biceps muscles * Extension: Deltoid & teres major muscles. – If against resistance, also latissimus dorsi & pectoralis major. * Abduction: Deltoid & supraspinatus muscles. – Subscapularis, infraspinatus, & teres minor exert downward traction – Supraspinatus contribution controversial * Medial rotation: Pectoralis major, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, & teres major muscles. – Subscapularis when arm at side * Lateral rotation: Infraspinatus, deltoid, & teres minor muscles. 1. 2. The osseous structures of the shoulder girdle are the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. Medially, the clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint. This joint serves as the only true articulation between the shoulder girdle and the axial skeleton. Laterally, the clavicle articulates with the acromion process of the scapula at the acromioclavicular (AC) joint 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
  5. Version 1.0.0

    455 downloads

    This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. This model is an improvement over a prior version (here). It shows the heart with slices cut in the anatomical transverse plane. If you are interested in a heart with short-axis slices, check out my short-axis stackable slice model here. Notches have been added to ensure the slices fit together and do not slide against each other. The model demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. It has been validated as printable on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer. Technical parameters: manifold STL (watertight) vertices: 462576 triangles: 925800 dimensions: 15.1 x 15.2 x 10.5 cm

    $39.99

  6. Claudio

    Columna

    Version 1.0.0

    47 downloads

    RM de culumna lumbar. Lumbago en estudio. Discopatías L4-5 y L5-S1 Hernia discal L4-5 levemente descendida posterolateral izquerda que determina conflicto de espacio radicular. Cambios regresivos interfacetarios lumbares bajos. Diagnostico e informe validado por Dr. Pablo Andres Rodriguez Covili, Medico Neurorradiólogo Integramédica, Santaigo, Chile. 06-03-2015 Paciente Claudio Solis Carrazana espalda, columna, lumbar, spine, stl, dicom, mri without contrast

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    16 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the skull base was derived from a real medical CT scan. Some artifact from dental fillings is present. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003 .stl, 3d, printing, model, skull, base, jaw, mandible, artifact, base, foramina, .stl, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, mastoid, process, cervical, lordosis, atlas, axis,

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Porras medium bones detalled - processed, bone, 3d, model, stl, maxilla, mandible, teeth, arch, cervical, spine, vertebrae, sphenoid, hard, palate, medulla

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa - processed bone, 3d, model, temporal, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid, nasal, pterygoid, nasal, palate, upper, paranasal, sinuses, foramina, foramen, magnum, clivus, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, teeth, tooth, coronoid, process, arch, base, skull,

    Free

  10. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa22 - processed, bone, 3d, model, temporal, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid, nasal, pterygoid, nasal, palate, upper, paranasal, sinuses, foramina, foramen, magnum, clivus, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, teeth, tooth, coronoid, process, arch,

    Free

  11. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    First 3D model aneurism, vessels, 3dmodel, stl, 3dmodel, stl, head, vessels, posterior, willis, polygon, media,

    Free

  12. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    porra - processed, teeth, 3d, model, bone, maxilla, cervical, spine, .stl, incisor, molar, canine, maxillofacial, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, coronoid, process, axial, atlas, bone,

    Free

  13. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    CT Bone- maxilla and mandible - processed .stl, 3d, model, bone, nasal, septum, vomer, maxilla, zygomatic, arch, head, skull,

    Free

  14. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    test - stl file processed, skull, .stl, bone, sphenoid, 3d, model, occipital, 3d, model, base, foramina, maxillofacial, maxilla, pterygoid, process,

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    test - stl file processed, .stl, 3d, model, bone, sphenoid, skull, occipital, .stl, 3d, model, printable, orbit, nasal, spine, foramina, zygomatic, arch, foramen, magnum,

    Free

  16. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    try - stl file processed, 3d, model, .stl, temporal, bone, sphenoid, nasal, .stl, spine, mandible, foramen, magnum, clivus, zygomatic, arch, ethmoid, vomer, palate, pterygoid,

    Free

  17. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    GSW to the face - stl file processed, bone, 3d, model, .stl, mandible, cervical, spine, maxilla, nasal, angle, ramus, body, atlas, axis, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid,

    Free

  18. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    kavita - stl file processed, maxilla, sinus, bone, 3d, model, .stl, eye, mandible, .stl, 3d, model, angle, ramus, body, nasal, head, skull,

    Free

  19. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    My first CT - stl file processed, maxilla, teeth, cervical, spine, 3d, model, bone, .stl, zygomatic, arch, body, coronoid, process, incisor, molar, canine, dental, dentistry, axis, atlas, clivus, 3d, model, printable,

    Free

  20. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    NEERD - stl file processed, sphenoid, bone, 3d, model, zygomatic, skull, .stl, maxilla, paranasal, sinuses, vomer, lower,

    Free

  21. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Riley_Skull_3 - stl file processed, animal, 3d, model, stl, mandible, jaw, skull, bone, printable, k9, dog, veterinary

    Free

  22. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    Andre Chen - stl file processed, stl, 3d model, mandible, maxilla, arch, teeth, canine, incisive, bone, 3d, model, printable, nasal, septum,

    Free

  23. A Foot 3D Model and Other Anatomical Models of the Lower Extremities Food 3D Model | embodi3D® This week we want to share some of the best representations of how embodi3D® members are using democratiz3D® conversions to create a foot 3D model and other skin, tissue, and skeletal features of the lower extremities. Successful 3D (three-dimensional) printing from radiologic images is multidisciplinary; accurate models that represent patient anatomy and pathologic processes require close interaction between radiologists and referring physicians. Preoperative 3D printing of bone structures has expanded planning and navigation of orthopedic procedures. Recently, the American Journal of Roentgenology published a research article on how a 3D printing was used to plan a femoracetabular impingement surgery. 3D printing is also contributing to novel surgical approaches for osteotomies, fracture fixation, and arthroplasties. Three-dimensional printing is an essential tool in the design and testing of complicated or innovative reconstructive surgeries. If you are Interested in lower limb 3D Printing here are some resources: Free downloads of hundreds of 3D printable lower limb models. Automatically generate your own 3D printable lower limb models from CT or CBCT scans. Have a question? Post a question or comment in the forum. Dr. Mike has also put together a tutorial on how convert CT scans to 3D-printable bone STL files (in minutes), as well as creating multiple bone model STL files from a single CT scan. Be sure to check these out. We look forward to your uploads! 1. A CT DICOM Dataset Conversion Showing the Bones of the Feet An excellent example of lower extremity 3D model of bony anatomy and skin surface of the L and R feet, as extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 250 slices). 2. An Anatomically Precise 3D-Printed Talus Bone (Available for Free in STL Format) A 3D model human talus bone was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the talus bone -- a critical component of the ankle. In the attached thumbnails, the talus is shown in white with the rest of the foot bones in clear glass. 3. An Incredible 3D-Printed Leg model Showing Femur and Shaft Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the angle formed between the head and neck of the femur and its shaft (Mikulicz angle) is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees. Pathology It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechanism in congenital cases is a failure of medial growth of the physeal plate Classification One of the very early classifications proposed by Fairbank in 1928, is often considered most useful from a radiologic point of view. A slight modifcation of this system includes: idiopathic: congenital: mild or severe coxa vara, with associated congenital anomalies: see associations developmental: progressive, usually appearing between the ages of two and six years, with characteristic roentgenologic features rachitic: usually associated with active rickets adolescent: secondary to slipped capital femoral epiphysis traumatic: usually following fracture of the femoral neck (rare in children) inflammatory: secondary to tuberculosis or other infection secondary to other underlying bone diseases such as: osteogenesis imperfecta cretinism dyschondroplasia(s) Paget's disease osteoporosis capital coxa vara: occasionally seen in severe osteoarthritis and Legg-Perthes' disease 4. Use This STL File to 3D-Print an Ankle Bone This whole ankle was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the ankle bones. 5. View the Intricate Bones of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone) with this CT-Converted STL File This left calcaneus was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the heel and articular surfaces of the calcaneus in great detail. 6. 3D-Print a Left Knee Joint Model with this Excellent STL Upload (Converted from CT Scan) A 3D model of left knee, we can see that is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. 7. Colorized STL Files of the Uploader's Own Lower Leg This is an excellent 3D model of the segmented bones from a partial weight bearing CT scan of a healthy 25 year old male. There is also a model of the outer foot surface (skin) to have the full foot volume. All bones are separate as well as combined as a single file. Shoe size 10.5 for reference. 8. A 3D-Printable Distal Tibia Bone (Generated from CT Scan Data) This 3D printable distal tibia bone from the left leg was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of how the tibia articulates with the talus and distal fibula to form the ankle joint. In the thumbnails, the tibia is shown in white and the rest of the ankle bones in glass. 9. A CT-Converted Scan of the Feet, Showing the Intricate Bone Structure User mikefazz makes another appearance in our list with this CT scan of a 25-year-old healthy male (himself a few years back) partial weight bearing. 0.9766mm in plane and 0.5mm out of plane resolution. 10. Osteochondroma Detailed in a 3D-Printed Model of the Hip Bone A 3D model of a large osteochondroma on the posterior surface of the proximal femur. The popliteal artery is in close proximity to the osteochondroma. Osteochondroma, the most common benign bone lesion (representing about 45% of all benign bone tumors and 12% of all bone tumors) , is a cartilage- capped bony projection on the external surface of a bone. Usually diagnosed before the third decade, it most commonly involves the metaphyses of long bones, particularly around the knee and the proximal humerus. In general, the lower extremities are more often affected than the upper extremities. Malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma very rare, occurring in less than 1% of solitary lesions. Pain (in the absence of a fracture, bursitis, or pressure on nerves) and a growth spurt or continued growth of the lesion beyond skeletal maturity are highly suspicious for this complication. Variants of osteochondroma include subungual exostosis, turret exostosis, traction exostosis, bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), florid reactive periostitis, and dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (also known as intraarticular osteochondroma). References 1. Differential diagnosis of tumors and tumor-like lesions of bones and joints/Adam Greenspan and Wolfgang Remagen. 2007. 2. Marro, A., Bandukwala, T., & Mak, W. (2016). Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: a review of the methods and applications. Current problems in diagnostic radiology, 45(1), 2-9. 3. Mitsouras, D., Liacouras, P., Imanzadeh, A., Giannopoulos, A. A., Cai, T., Kumamaru, K. K., ... & Ho, V. B. (2015). Medical 3D printing for the radiologist. Radiographics, 35(7), 1965-1988.
  24. DICOM to STL Files and Other Medical Scans Uploaded to embodi3D® 3D printing is a technology that is constantly evolving, especially among medical professionals who are converting medical CT scans into 3D-printed anatomical models. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. In terms of research and education, 3D-printed anatomical models have proven to be a major benefit in helping students and researchers gain first-hand knowledge of specific conditions and the human anatomy. In a recent University of Pennsylvania research article ("From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models") there merits of DICOM to STL conversions are highlighted and this is a medical technology that will continue to grow in the coming years. As a manufacturing process, 3D printing is well suited for the generation of biomedical phantoms, which is essentially a low-volume process for patient-specific models. The relatively high tooling costs for alternative processes—such as lost-wax investment casting—make 3D printing a cost-effective choice. This week we want to share the top ten downloads of medical scans. 3D prnting technology can be aligned with the predefined educational need, as listed below. Teaching anatomy, patient education: To teach the anatomy and explain pathology, models constructed of hard materials are often sufficient. The low cost and most accessible method FDM is most certainly the best choice if there is no need for fine printing definition and if the size of the model is large, otherwise we would recommend SLA. Models obtained by SLA present more detail thus would be better for small printing models (eg, coronary arteries). However, in the case of the thoracic aortic model with root aneurysm we put the emphasis on the realism of the geometry by representing as much as details as possible which is why we needed to use one of the most accurate 3D printing method: PJ. It also allowed us to change easily the colours of the 3D printed model if desired. Surgical planning and review of procedure: Surgical planning and review of procedure do not necessarily require materials to have the same mechanical properties of the biological tissues. Hard material model can be well representative of the anatomical structure and once again, FDM and SLA might be your best options. Preprocedural planning: preprocedural planning models are more complicated to fabricate since they require materials mechanically representative to the biological tissues. Discussions on the matter are provided in the following section where all printing methods are eventually used. To see more CT scans, check out the embodi3D® Medical CT Scan Files library. Remember: to get the most out of embodi3D® you need to register on the embodi3D® website. It's completely free and will take only a few minutes of your time. Plus, you will gain access to many of our cutting-edge conversion tools and algorithms! 1. A Whole-Body CT Scan in DICOM and NRRD File Formats First place: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes which allows you to follow along with the tutorial. Included is an anonymized chest abdomen pelvis CT in both DICOM and NRRD formats. Take a look to this CT model of whole body. 2. An Incredible CT Scan of an Open Bite CT is indicated for implant site assessment in anatomically difficult cases or when extensive implant treatment is planned. In addition, bone quantity and quality, in the implantation area are evaluated in the CT scans. Classifications are based upon jaw shape (degree of resorption), bone quality (amount of compact bone) and bone density. Information about the location of vital structures, such as mandibular canal, mental foramen, incisive foramen, maxillary sinuses and nasal cavity can be evaluated. 3. Head and Neck CT Scan — Great Addition to our Top 10 Medical CT Scans! A source Head and Neck CT scan in NRRD file format for the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2017 course on Open-Source and Freeware Medical 3D Printing, RCA12 and RCA21, November 26 and 27, 2017. Be sure to view the full tutorial that uses this file here. https://meeting.rsna.org/program/index.cfm Search for "3D Printing Hands-on with Open Source Software: Introduction (Hands-on)" CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after intravenous contrast administration, the vessels become enhanced with contrast allow them to be differentiated from adjacent tissues. Following image acquisition, post-processing techniques are applied for better 3D visualization of the vessels and their abnormalities. 4. A Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan Showing a Chest Wall Tumor Tumors of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumors and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. - Benign: soft tissue , haemangioma: common, lymphangioma: common, lipoma: chest wall lipoma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma paraganglioma, skeletal (ribcage), fibrous dysplasia: common, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC): common, giant cell tumour (GCT), ossifying fibromyxoid tumour, chondromyxoid fibroma, osteochondroma, mesenchymal hamartoma of chest wall: sometimes even considered a developmental anomaly - Malignant: The most common malignant lesions are metastases. Lesions include: rhabdomyosarcoma: common, Ewing sarcoma: including Askin tumour (or pPNET), ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, skeletal (ribcage), chest wall metastases: common, myeloma, chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma, 5. CT Scan of the Brain and Structures (Without Contrast) This upload shows a CT scan of the human brain and related structures. This scan has not been contrast-enhanced. window: W:2800 L:600 Review the bones. This should always be performed, even when a bony algorithm hasn't been provided or where slice thickness is suboptimal. Note that if there is a history of trauma, then dedicated thin bony images are required to detect undisplaced fractures. Review the skull vault for any fractures or destructive lesions. Spend some time checking the base of the skull as the increased complexity of this region can make identification of abnormalities more difficult. Don't forget to ensure that both TMJs are normally aligned. Review the paranasal sinuses for evidence of fluid that may represent acute sinusitis or, in the correct setting, fractures. 6. Whole-Body NRRD File Showing the Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis A whole body NRRD file converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It includes a skin, bone and muscle 3D model. 7. Jawbone Implant as Shown in a 3D Model A 3D model of mandible implant with exquisite detail from a CT scan from planning. Current 3D-printers are easy to use and represent a promising solution for medical prototyping. The 3D printing will quickly become undeniable because of its advantages: information sharing, simulation, surgical guides, pedagogy. They allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 8. The Whole Body of a Female — Available in a 3D Printer-Ready Format A 3D model of female's whole body (with bone, muscle and skin 3D printing) 9. Head and Neck Scan from the Cancer Imaging Archives 62yo male skull from the Head-Neck Cetuximab collection of The Cancer Imaging Archives. 10. Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan of the Skull and Brain A brain CT scan with contrast showing all the structures of the skull and brain. References 1. Lekholm U, Zarb G. Patient selection and preparation. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb G, Albrektsson T, editors. Tissue-integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence; 1985 p. 199 – 209. 2. Wood MR, Vermilyea SG. A review of selected dental literature on evidence-based treatment planning for dental implants: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 92: 447 – 62. 3. Lindh C, Petersson A, Klinge B. Measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal in radiographs. Clin Oral Impl Res 1995; 6: 96 – 103. 4. Garcia, J., Yang, Z., Mongrain, R., Leask, R. L., & Lachapelle, K. (2018). 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(1), 27-40.
  25. Create a 3D-Printed Rib Cage and Thorax from STL Files As the second largest largest hollow cavity (largest space between bones), the thoracic cavity encases the lungs, trachea, pericardium, base and apex of the heart, esophagus, as well as all the vessels transporting blood between the lungs and heart. The ribs enclosing these vital organs also include skeletal features such as the sternum, vertebral column, and breastbone. The feature separating the thoracic cavity from the largest cavity in the body (abdominal cavity) is separated by the diaphragm, a muscular, membranous partition that is used to control respiration. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." As the technology behind medical 3D printing continues to advance, each iteration brings us closer to highly realistic simulations of thoracoscopic surgery, allowing surgeons to practice cutting, suturing, stapling, and a range of other thoracic surgical procedures. To get the most out of your time on the embodi3D® website (and use the many democratiz3D® medical 3D printing tools), you should register with embodi3D®. The process is free, easy, and will take just a few minutes of your time. And, it just might change the way you practice medicine. After you've browsed these STL files, you can also check out our growing CT scan collection showing various conditions of the thorax and ribs. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Chest Cavity Bones JCab uploaded this excellent 3D model of the bones of the rib cage without costochondral cartilage. The thoracic cavity has several functions. The first is to provide protection and support to the body’s vital organs. The thoracic cavity is surrounded by the rib cage and several layers of membranes, which help keep the organs protected from any dangers in the environment. #2. A 3D model of a Chance Fracture of T10 This 3D model created on embodi3D® features a fracture also known as flexion-distraction injury or seat belt fracture. Usually occurs from T11-L3 levels. – 78% occur between T12 and L2 levels * Occasionally at midthoracic spine * May have anterior injury at one level, posterior injury at adjacent one. Staging, Grading, & Classification • Osseous Chance fracture * Vertebral body fracture * Posterior element fractures: Pedicles, transverse processes, laminae, spinous process • Ligamentous Chance injury (uncommon) * Intervertebral disc * Facet dislocation * Ruptured interspinous ligaments • Osteoligamentous Chance injury * Variable combination of fracture and ligament injury #3. A 3D Model of the Sternum in STL Format This 3D model shows us the sternum also called breastbone, in the anatomy of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates), elongated bone in the centre of the chest that articulates with and provides support for the clavicles (collarbones) of the shoulder girdle and for the ribs. In mammals the sternum is divided into three parts, from anterior to posterior: (1) the manubrium, which articulates with the clavicles and first ribs; (2) the mesosternum, often divided into a series of segments, the sternebrae, to which the remaining true ribs are attached; and (3) the posterior segment, called the xiphisternum. In humans the sternum is elongated and flat; it may be felt from the base of the neck to the pit of the abdomen. The manubrium is roughly trapezoidal, with depressions where the clavicles and the first pair of ribs join. The mesosternum, or body, consists of four sternebrae that fuse during childhood or early adulthood. The mesosternum is narrow and long, with articular facets for ribs along its sides. The xiphisternum is reduced to a small, usually cartilaginous xiphoid (“sword-shaped”) process. The sternum ossifies from several centres. The xiphoid process may ossify and fuse to the body in middle age; the joint between manubrium and mesosternum remains open until old age. #4. A 3D Model Showing Rib Cage (Left Side) in STL The human skeleton has 12 pairs of ribs. Working from the top of the torso down, ribs 1 to 7 are considered "true ribs," as they connect directly from the spine to the sternum, Martinez says. Ribs 8 to 10 are called "false ribs" because they don't connect directly, but have cartilage that attaches them to the sternum. Ribs 11 and 12 are called "floating ribs" because they only connect to the spine in back. These, he says, "are much shorter." #5. Right Side of Ribs Shown in Medical 3D Model This incredible created on embodi3D® shows the right sided ribs with exquisite detail. The ribs allow chest expansion for breathing, Martinez explains. "They function similarly to the bucket handle on a bucket and swing upwards as we take a breath, allowing the thoracic cavity to expand." This increase in the thoracic cavity makes it easier to take a breath. #6. An Informative Tutorial on Showing Thoracic Cavity Arteries with STL Files This incredible chest and humerus was generated from a CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person- #7. STL File Showing a Three-Dimensional Model of a Clavicle The clavicle (collarbone) extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula. The clavicle has three main functions: - Attaches the upper limb to the trunk as part of the ‘shoulder girdle’. - Protects the underlying neurovascular structures supplying the upper limb. - Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton. #8. 3D Imaging of the Costal Cartilage Do you know that the sexual difference in pattern of human costal cartilages is statistically significant and thus highly predictive of sex determination? The first rib cartilages were not considered because there are no sex differences. The lower ribs exhibit sexual dimorphism. Mineralization and ossification changes appear at the end of puberty and their occurrence increases with age. #9. 3D Model of the Sternocostoclavicular Joint Many physicians are unfamiliar with the characteristics of the sternocostoclavicular joint (SCCJ). Disorders of the SCCJ, although common, frequently escape recognition. The most common SCCJ disorder is degenerative disease manifesting as osteoarthritis or as periarticular lesions causing antero-medial dislocation of the clavicle. Septic arthritis is the most severe disorder and can lead to mediastinitis. All inflammatory joint diseases, including spondyloarthropathies, can affect the SCCJ. SCCJ involvement is a typical component of the osteoarticular manifestations seen in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. #10. A 3D-Printable STL Medical File (Converted from CT Scan DICOM of Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage (rib cage) is the skeleton of the thoracic cavity. It is formed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum. Its main function is to give support and protection for the vital organs of the thorax. References 1. Rejtarová, O., Slizova, D., Smoranc, P., Rejtar, P., & Bukac, J. (2004). Costal cartilages–a clue for determination of sex. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 148(2), 241-243. 2. Le Loët, X., & Vittecoq, O. (2002). The sternocostoclavicular joint: normal and abnormal features. Joint Bone Spine, 69(2), 161-169. 3. Vertebral column | anatomy. (2018). Encyclopedia Britannica. 4. Giannopoulos, A. A., Steigner, M. L., George, E., Barile, M., Hunsaker, A. R., Rybicki, F. J., & Mitsouras, D. (2016). Cardiothoracic applications of 3D printing. Journal of thoracic imaging, 31(5), 253. 5. Ross, J. S., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Diagnostic Imaging: Spine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
×
×
  • Create New...