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  1. Very few infectious diseases in recent years have commanded the kind of attention and concern that Zika Virus has. Although Zika outbreaks have been reported in Africa, Southeast Asia and other parts of the world since the 1952, recent announcement by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirming its link with microcephaly has forced everyone to sit up and take notice. The CDC estimates that the current pandemic is widespread with at least 50 countries reporting active Zika transmissions at this time. Most people with Zika virus infection will not have any symptoms though some may experience mild fever, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, and headaches. The virus is primarily transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. However, pregnant women may pass the infection to their babies, which may lead to microcephaly, a neurological condition associated with an abnormally small brain in the infant. The condition can lead to birth defects ranging from hearing loss to poor vision and impaired growth. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infections in pregnant women can, nonetheless, lower the risk of microcephaly to a great extent. Researchers have, therefore, put in a lot of time, money and effort to find a solution, and as always, three-dimensional (3D) medical printing and bioprinting technologies are leading the way. Understanding the Disease To begin with, 3D printing has played a crucial role in conclusively establishing the link between Zika virus and microcephaly. Researchers at John Hopkins Medicine used 3D bioprinting technology to develop realistic models of brain that revealed how the virus infects specialized stem cells in the outer layers of the organ, also known as the cortex. The bioprinted models allowed researchers to study the effects of Zika exposure on fetal brain during different stages of pregnancy. The models are also helping the scientists with drug testing, which is the obvious next stage of their research. Zika Test Kit Engineers at Penn’s School of Engineering and Applied Science, under the leadership of Professor Changchun Liu and Professor Haim Bau, have developed a simple genetic testing device that helps detect Zika virus in saliva samples. It consists of an embedded genetic assay chip that identifies the virus and turns the color of the paper in the 3D printed lid of the device to blue. This can prompt healthcare professionals to send the patient for further testing and to initiate treatment. Unlike other Zika testing techniques, this screening method does not require complex lab equipment. Each device costs about $2, making Zika screening accessible to pregnant women from the poorest parts of the world. Treating Microcephaly The scientists at the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos (UAEM) in Mexico are relying on the additive printing technology to create a microvalve that may help treat microcephaly in infants. The valve reduces the impact of the neurological disease and slows its progression by draining out excessive cerebrospinal fluid associated with this disorder. It can be inserted into the infant brain through a small incision to relieve fluid pressure and provide space for normal development. Researchers estimate the device will be available for patient use by 2017. These examples clearly demonstrate the impact of 3D printing on every aspect of the fight against Zika virus from diagnosing the disease to treating it. The results have been extremely promising, and both researchers and healthcare professionals are immensely hopeful that additive printing technology will help them overcome the infection quickly and effectively.
  2. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    There are four STL files for 3D printing demonstrating a moderate secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and a mild coarctation. An atrial septal defect is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers of the heart (atria). A hole can vary in size and may close on its own or may require surgery. If one of these openings does not close, a hole is left, and it is called an atrial septal defect. The hole increases the amount of blood that flows through the lungs and over time, it may cause damage to the blood vessels in the lungs. Damage to the blood vessels in the lungs may cause problems in adulthood, such as high blood pressure in the lungs and heart failure. Other problems may include abnormal heartbeat, and increased risk of stroke. MRI obtained for evaluation of distal arch and pulmonary veins due to findings of pulmonary overcirculation out of proportion to typical ASD pathophysiology. The MRI provided a complete anatomic overview and quantified the right sided enlargement from the 2:1 shunt through the ASD. Due to saturation band nulling of blood returning through the right sided pulmonary veins, there was excellent definition of the ASD due to the "dark" blood mixing with the "bright" blood and outlining the borders of the ASD which transfers to the model very well. Please keep in mind, that the model represents a heart in end-systole rather than diastole. Disclaimer: The available model has been validated to demonstrate the case’s pathologic features on a Z450 3D printer, (3DSystems, Circle Rock Hill, South Carolina)(or other printer as appropriate). While the mask applied to the original DICOM images accurately represents the anatomic features, some anatomic detail may be lost due to thin walled structures or inadequate supporting architecture; while other anatomic detail may be added due to similar limitations resulting in bleeding of modeling materials into small negative spaces. However, intracardiac structures, relationships, and pathologic features represent anatomic findings to scale and in high detail. Credit: The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives. It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    These congenital heart defect STL files demonstrate Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (PAPVR). In PAPVR, one or two of the pulmonary veins returns blood to the right atrium instead of the left atrium. This causes oxygen-rich blood to flow back to the lungs instead of on to the rest of the body. Because some oxygen-rich blood is continually flowing between the lungs and the right atrium, the right chambers of the heart may become dilated. Over time, this may cause an abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia). In addition, too much blood flow to the lungs may increase the pressure in the lung's blood vessels, leading to a condition called pulmonary hypertension. If only one of the pulmonary veins is affected by the disorder, there may not be any symptoms. If two of the veins are affected, there may be shortness of breath during heavy exercise. Aortic coarctation is also present. Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, the main blood vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the organs of the body. Coarctation occurs most commonly in a short segment of the aorta just beyond where the arteries to the head and arms take off, as the aorta arches inferiorly toward the chest and abdomen. There are three STL files for 3D printing this model in slices. A whole model STL file is also available for 3D printing. Demonstrated is a bicuspid aortic valve and history of coarctation repair within the first week of life by end to end anastomosis. MRI obtained for evaluation of distal arch. MRI findings: • PAPVR of left upper lobe to innominate vein: Qp:Qs of 1.4:1 • Mild residual narrowing of second transverse segment of the aortic arch. • Moderate post-stenotic dilation of aorta MRI images obtained at end-systole due to tachycardic heart rate during exam. RV End-systolic volume is 36.3 ml. LV End-systolic volume is 30.06 ml. MRI methods: A GE 1.5T HDxt system was used for the 3D HEART sequence which used a 3D respiratory-navigated balanced SSFP (steady state free precession) multi-slab sequence with T2 preparation that provides whole heart coverage with high contrast-to-noise ratio between vessels and myocardium. Due to the relatively fast heart rate of 122 bpm, the fat saturation was turned off to decrease the time needed for the prepatory pulse brining the acquisition window earlier into the cardiac cycle so that it could be centered on the quiescent stage of end systole. The sequence was run with the following parameters: TR 3.4, TE 1.4, Freq 224, Phase 160, RR 8, and fat sat off. Learning: The MRI identified previously un-diagnosed partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. However, the Qp:Qs fell within acceptable left to right shunting of < 1.5:1 and there was insignificant RV, RA enlargement. The MRI evaluation of the coarctation repair revealed a good repair with only mild narrowing, which appeared more severe by echo due to the post-stenotic dilation. Disclaimer: The available model has been validated to demonstrate the case’s pathologic features on a Z450 3D printer, (3DSystems, Circle Rock Hill, South Carolina)(or other printer as appropriate). While the mask applied to the original DICOM images accurately represents the anatomic features, some anatomic detail may be lost due to thin walled structures or inadequate supporting architecture; while other anatomic detail may be added due to similar limitations resulting in bleeding of modeling materials into small negative spaces. However, intracardiac structures, relationships, and pathologic features represent anatomic findings to scale and in high detail. Credit: The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives. It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.

    Free

  4. Please note the democratiz3D service was previously named "Imag3D" In this tutorial you will learn how to quickly and easily make 3D printable bone models from medical CT scans using the free online service democratiz3D. The method described here requires no prior knowledge of medical imaging or 3D printing software. Creation of your first model can be completed in as little as 10 minutes. You can download the files used in this tutorial by clicking on this link. You must have a free Embodi3D member account to do so. If you don't have an account, registration is free and takes a minute. It is worth the time to register so you can follow along with the tutorial and use the democratiz3D service. >> DOWNLOAD TUTORIAL FILES AND FOLLOW ALONG << Both video and written tutorials are included in this page. Before we start you'll need to have a copy of a CT scan. If you are interested in 3D printing your own CT scan, you can go to the radiology department of the hospital or clinic that did the scan and ask for the scan to be put on a CD or DVD for you. Figures 1 and 2 show the radiology department at my hospital, called Image Management, and the CDs that they give out. Most radiology departments will have you sign a written release and give you a CD or DVD for free or with a small processing fee. If you are a doctor or other healthcare provider and want to 3D print a model for a patient, the radiology department can also help you. There are multiple online repositories of anonymized CT scans for research that are also available. Figure 1: The radiology department window at my hospital. Figure 2: An example of what a DVD containing a CT scan looks like. This looks like a standard CD or DVD. Step 1: Register for an Embodi3D account If you haven't already done so, you'll need to register for an embodi3d account. Registration is free and only takes a minute. Once you are registered you'll receive a confirmatory email that verifies you are the owner of the registered email account. Click the link in the email to activate your account. The democratiz3D service will use this email account to send you notifications when your files are ready for download. Step 2: Create an NRRD file with Slicer If you haven't already done so, go to slicer.org and download Slicer for your operating system. Slicer is a free software program for medical imaging research. It also has the ability to save medical imaging scans in a variety of formats, which is what we will use it for in this tutorial. Next, launch Slicer. Insert your CD or DVD containing the CT scan into your computer and open the CD with File Explorer or equivalent file browsing application for your operating system. You should find a folder that contains numerous DICOM files in it, as shown in Figure 3. Drag-and-drop the entire DICOM folder onto the Slicer welcome page, as shown in Figure 4. Click OK when asked to load the study into the DICOM database. Click Copy when asked if you want to copy the images into the local database directory. Figure 3: A typical DICOM data set contains numerous individual DICOM files. Figure 4: Dragging and dropping the DICOM folder onto the Slicer application. This will load the CT scan. Once Slicer has finished loading the study, click the save icon in the upper left-hand corner as shown in Figure 5. One of the files in the list will be of type NRRD. make sure that this file is checked and all other files are unchecked. click on the directory button for the NRRD file and select an appropriate directory to save the file. then click Save, as shown in Figure 6. Figure 5: The Save button Figure 6: The Save File box The NRRD file is much better for uploading then DICOM. Instead of having multiple files in a DICOM data set, the NRRD file encapsulates the entire study in a single file. Also, identifiable patient information is removed from the NRRD file. The file is thus anonymized. This is important when sending information over the Internet because we do not want identifiable patient information transmitted. Step 3: Upload the NRRD file to Embodi3D Now go to www.embodi3d.com, click on the democratiz3D navigation menu and select Launch App, as shown in Figure 7. Drag and drop your NRRD file where indicated. While NRRD file is uploading, fill in the "File Name" and "About This File" fields, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 7: Launching the democratiz3D application Figure 8: Uploading the NRRD file and entering basic information To complete basic information about your NRRD file. Do you want it to be private or do you want to share it with the community? Click on the Private File button if the former. If you are planning on sharing it, do you want it to be a free or a paid (licensed) file? Click the appropriate setting. Also select the License Type. If you are keeping the file private, these settings don't matter as the file will remain private. Make sure you accepted the Terms of Use, as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9: Basic information fields about your uploaded NRRD file Next, turn on democratiz3D Processing by selecting the slider under democratiz3D Processing. Make sure the operation CT NRRD to Bone STL is selected. Leave the default threshold of 150 in place. Choose an appropriate quality. Low quality produces small files quickly but the output resolution is low. Medium quality is good for most applications and produces a relatively good file that is not too large. High quality takes the longest to process and produces large output files. Bear in mind that if you upload a low quality NRRD file don't expect the high quality setting to produce a stellar bone model. Medium quality is good enough for most applications. If you wish, you have the option to specify whether you want your output file to be Private or Shared. If you're not sure, click Private. You can always change the visibility of the file later. If you're happy with your settings, click Save & Submit Files. This is shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Entering the democratiz3D Processing parameters. Step 4: Review Your Completed Bone Model After about 10 to 20 minutes you should receive an email informing you that your file is ready for download. The actual processing time may vary depending on the size and complexity of the file and the load on the processing servers. Click on the link within the email. If you are already on the embodied site, you can access your file by going to your profile. Click your account in the upper right-hand corner and select Profile, as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Finding your profile. Your processed file will have the same name as the uploaded NRRD file, except it will end in "– processed". Renders of your new 3D model will be automatically generated within about 6 to 10 minutes. From your new model page you can click "Download this file" to download. If you wish to share your file with the community, you can toggle the privacy setting by clicking Privacy in the lower right-hand corner. You can edit your file or move it from one category to another under the File Actions button on the lower left. These are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: Downloading, sharing, and editing your new 3D printable model. If you wish to sell your new file, you can change your selling settings under File Actions, Edit Details. Set the file type to be Paid, and specify a price. Please note that your file must be shared in order for other people to see it. This is shown in Figure 13. If you are going to sell your file, be sure you select General Paid File License from the License Type field, or specify your own customized license. For more information about selling files, click here. Figure 13: Making your new file available for sale on the Embodi3D marketplace. That's it! Now you can create your own 3D printable bone models in minutes for free and share or sell them with the click of a button.If you want to download the STL file created in this tutorial, you can download it here. Happy 3D printing!
  5. Physicians across the globe have relied on surgical interventions for centuries to treat complex illnesses and injuries. High quality surgical instruments have played an important role in their success. Nonetheless, healthcare professionals are constantly looking for tools that would improve patient outcomes and minimize the risk of unwanted complications. In recent times, three-dimensional (3D) medical printing and bioprinting technologies have allowed doctors and engineers to develop innovative tools that help perform invasive procedures with greater ease. Robotic Surgical Tools Mechanical engineering students at Brigham Young University (BYU), under the guidance of their professors Barry Howell, Spencer Magleby, and Brian Jensen, combined additive printing technology and the ancient art of Origami to create surgical tools that can fit through 3mm wide incisions. Inside the body, the tools can unfold and expand into complex devices such as D-core tools. Minute incisions allow for quick healing eliminating the need for sutures and scars. The tools are highly precise and effective as well. Researchers at BYU are now collaborating with California-based Intuitive Surgicals to manufacture their products. The company is using 3D printing to develop both the prototypes and the actual tools. The 3D printing technology is also helping Intuitive Surgicals to create instruments with fewer parts making the entire process more cost-effective and stable. The Pathfinder ACL Guide Orthopedic surgeon Dr. Dana Piasecki of the OrthoCarolina Sports Medicine has developed a 3D printed surgical tool to conduct ACL surgeries with improved success. Currently, most surgeons drill a hole in the patient’s tibia to remove the torn anterior cruciate ligament and replace it with a graft. The procedure is painful, and the graft often fails to anchor properly. The Pathfinder ACL Guide, created by Dr. Piasecki in collaboration with Strasys Direct Manufacturing, has a 95 percent chance of placing the graft at the right position and helping it withstand the stress associated with extensive movement. The surgical tool is made from a biocompatible and flexible metal and is significantly cheaper than the existing devices. The Pathfinder ACL Guide has been registered with the FDA as a class I medical device and can now help thousands of amateur and professional athletes to continue playing their game in spite of an ACL tear. Eyelid Wands and Forceps Similarly, Dr. Bret Kotlus, a New York-based cosmetic surgeon, has used 3D printing technology to create customized tools for eyelid surgeries. His stainless steel Eyelid Wand helps surgeons lift excess eyelid skin and point it to various facial structures as per the needs of the patient. The handle of the tool consists of a ruler for accurate measurements. Dr. Kotlus has also developed 3D printed Pinch Blepharoplasty Marking Forceps that allow surgeons to mark excessive skin with a gentle ink. It comes with a round tip and a built-in ruler handle for additional patient comfort. These tools also add some sophistication to the doctor’s office at an affordable price. Close to 50 million surgical inpatient procedures are performed across the United States each year. While recent times have seen a significant improvement in the way these interventions are carried out, a lot can be done to make the process more efficient and safe. This is where 3D printing is bound to make a huge impact in the near future. Sources: Johnson & Johnson Adopts Cutting Edge 3D Printing for the Future of Medical Devices 3d printed eyelid instrument designed by Dr. Kotlus 3D Printed Tool Offers New Option for ACL Surgery Researchers Combine Origami, 3D Printing in Quest for Smaller Surgical Tools
  6. Hello. I own a 3D Printing Service Bureau (imtyris.com). The out put of our 3D printer is a paper model, either plain white, or in millions of colors. I'm looking for someone to work with to develop CT or MRI data into a full color paper model. Dave Jahnz Imtyris 858 354-4200
  7. Examples of historical medical 3D printing on display at RSNA. The green skull is from 1985! We've come a long way since then.
  8. Please note that any references to “Imag3D” in this tutorial should be replaced with “democratiz3D” In this tutorial we will discuss how to share, sell, organize, and reprocess 3D printable medical models you make using the free online Imag3D service from embodi3D. Imag3D is a powerful tool that automatically converts a medical CT scan into a 3D printable file in minutes with minimal user input. It is no longer necessary to master complicated desktop software and spend hours manually segmenting to create a 3D printable model. Learn how to make high quality medical 3D models with Imag3D by following my introductory guide to creating medical 3D printing files and my more advanced 3D printing file processing tutorial. Once you create your medical masterpiece, you can share, sell, organize, or tweak your model to make it perfect. This tutorial will show you how. Resubmit your CT Scan for Reprocessing into Bone STL If you are trying to learn the basics of how to convert CT scans into 3D printable STL models, please see my earlier tutorials on basic creation of 3D printable models and more advanced multiprocessing. If you are not 100% satisfied with the quality of your STL model, you can resubmit the input scan file for repeat processing. To do this, go to the page for your input NRRD file. IMPORTANT: this is the NRRD file you originally uploaded to the website, NOT the STL file that was generated for you by the online service. Since both the original NRRD file and the processed STL file have similar titles, you can tell the difference by noting that the NRRD file you uploaded won't have any thumbnails, Figure 1. In most cases, the processed file will have the word "processed" appended to the file name. Figure 1: Choose the original NRRD file, not the generated STL file. You can find your files underneath your profile, as shown in Figure 2. That will show you your most recent activity, including recently uploaded files. Figure 2: Finding your files under your profile. If you uploaded the file long ago or contribute a lot of content to the site, your uploaded NRRD file may not be among the first content item shown. You can search specifically for your files by clicking on See My Activity under your Profile, and selecting Files from the left hand now bar, as shown in Figures 3 and 4. Figure 3: Showing all your activity. Figure 4: Showing the files you own. Once you have found your original NRRD file, open the file page and select File Actions on the lower left-hand corner, as shown in Figure 5. Choose Edit Details as shown in Figure 6. Figure 5: File Actions – start making changes to your file Figure 6: Edit Details Scroll down until you reach the Imag3D Processing section. Make sure that the Imag3D Processing slider is turned ON. Then, make whatever adjustments you want to the processing parameters Threshold and Quality, as shown in Figure 7. Threshold is the value in Hounsfield units to use when performing the initial segmentation. Quality is a measure of the number of polygons in the output mesh. Low quality is quick to process and generates a small output file. Low quality is suitable for small and geometrically simple structures, such as a patella or single bone. High quality takes longer to process and produces a very large output file, sometimes with millions of polygons. This is useful for very large structures or complex anatomy, such as a model of an entire spine where you wish to capture every crack and crevice of the spine. Medium quality is a good balance and suitable in most cases. Figure 7: Changing the processing parameters. When you're happy with your parameter choices, click Save. The file will now be submitted for reprocessing. In 5 to 15 minutes you should receive an email saying that your file is ready. From this NRRD file, an entirely new STL file will be created using your updated parameters and saved under your account. Sharing your 3D Printing File on embodi3D.com Sharing your file with the embodi3D community is easy. You can quickly share the file by toggling the privacy setting on the file page underneath the File Information box on the lower right, as shown in Figure 8. If this setting says "Shared," then your file is visible and available for download by registered members of the community. If you wish to have more detailed control over how your file is shared, you can edit your file details by clicking on the File Actions button on the lower left-hand side of the file page, also shown in Figure 8. Click on the Edit Details menu item. This will bring you to the file editing page which will allow you to change the Privacy setting (shared versus private), License Type (several Creative Commons and a generic paid file license are available), and file Type (free versus paid). These are shown in detail in Figure 9. Click Save to save your settings. Figure 8: Quick sharing your file, and the File Actions button Figure 9: Setting the file type, privacy, and license type for your file. Sell your Biomedical 3D Printing File and Generate Income If you would like to sell your file and charge a fee for each download, you may do so by making your file a Paid File. If you have a specialized model that there is some demand for, you can generate income by selling your file in the marketplace. From the Edit Details page under File Actions, as shown in Figure 8, scroll down until you see Type. Choose Paid for the Type. Choose the price you wish to sell your file for in the Price field. This is in US dollars. Buyers will use PayPal to purchase the file where they can pay with Paypal funds or credit card. Make sure that the privacy setting is set to Shared. If you list your file for sale but keep it private and invisible to members, you won't sell anything. Finally, make sure you choose an appropriate license for users who will download your file. The General Paid File License is appropriate and most instances, but you have the option to include a customized license if you wish. This is shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Configuring settings to sell your file The General Paid File License contains provisions appropriate for most sellers. It tells the purchaser of your file that they can download your file and create a single 3D print, but they can't resell your file or make more than one print without paying you additional license fees. All purchasers must agree to the license prior to download. If you wish to have your own customized license terms, you can select customized license and specify your terms in the description of the file. Organize your file by moving it to a new category If you share your file, you should move the file into an appropriate file category to allow people to find it easily. This is quite simple to do. From the file page, select File Actions and choose the Move item, as shown in Figure 11. You will be able to choose any of the file categories. Choose the one that best fits your particular file. Figure 11: Moving your file to a new category. That's it! Now you can share your amazing 3D printable medical models with the world.
  9. Note: This tutorial accompanies a workshop I presented at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting. The workflow and techniques presented in this tutorial and the conference workshop are identical. In this tutorial we will be using two different ways to create a 3-D printable medical model of a head and neck which will be derived from a real contrast-enhanced CT scan. The model will show detailed anatomy of the bones, as well as the veins and arteries. We will independently create this model using two separate methods. First, we will automatically generate the model using the free online service embodi3D.com. Next, we will create the same file using free desktop software programs 3D Slicer and Meshmixer. If you haven't already, please download the associated file pack which contains the files you'll need to follow along with this tutorial. Following along with the actual files used here will make learning these techniques much easier. The file pack is free. You need to be logged into your embodi3D account to download, but registration is also free and only takes a minute. Also, you'll need an embodi3D.com account in order to use the online service. Registration is worth it, so if you haven't already go ahead and register now. >> DOWNLOAD THE FILE PACK NOW << Online Service: embodi3D.com Step 1: Go to the embodi3D.com website and click on the democratiz3D menu item in the naw bar. Click on the "Launch democratizD" link, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Opening the free online 3D model making service service democratiz3D. Step 2: Now you have to upload your imaging file. Drag and drop the file MANIX Angio CT.nrrd from the File Pack, as shown in Figure 2. This contains the CT scan of the head and neck in NRRD file format. If you are using a file other NRRD that provided by the file pack, please be aware the file must contain a CT scan (NOT MRI!) and the file must be in NRRD format. If you don't know how to create an NRRD file, here is a simple tutorial that explains how. Figure 2: Dragging and dropping the NRRD file to start uploading. Step 3: Type in basic information on the file being uploaded, including File name, file description, and whether you want to share the file or keep it private. Bear in mind that this information pertains to the uploaded file, not the file that will be generated by the service. Step 4: Type in basic parameters for file processing. Turn on the processing slider. Here you will enter in basic information about how you would like the file to be processed. Under Operation, select CT NRRD to Bone STL Detailed, as shown in Figure 3. This will convert a CT scan in NRRD format to a bone STL with high detail. You also have the option to create muscle and skin STL files. The standard operation, CT NRRD to Bone STL sacrifices some detail for a smoother output model. Leave the default threshold at 150. Figure 3: Selecting an operation for file conversion. Next, choose the quality of your output file. Low-quality files process quickly and are appropriate for structures with simple geometry. High quality files take longer to process and are appropriate for very complex geometry. The geometry of our model will be quite complex, so choose high quality. This may take a long time to process however, sometimes up to 40 minutes. If you don't wish to wait so long, you can choose medium quality, as shown in Figure 4, and have a pretty decent output file in about 12 minutes or so. Figure 4: Choosing a quality setting. Finally, specify whether you want your processed file to be shared with the community (encouraged) or private and accessible only to you. If you do decide to share you will need to fill out a few items, such as which CreativeCommons license to share under. If you're not sure, the defaults are appropriate for most people. If you do decide to share thanks very much! The 3D printing community thanks you! Click on the submit button and your file will be submitted for processing! Now all you have to do is wait. The service will do all the work for you! Step 5: Download your file. In 5 to 40 minutes you should receive an email indicating that your file is done and is ready for download. Follow the link in the email message or, if you are already on the embodi3D.com website, click on your profile to view your latest activity, including files belonging to you. Open the download page for your file and click on the "Download this file" button to download your newly created STL file! Figure 5: Downloading your newly completed STL file. Desktop software If you haven't already, download 3D Slicer and Meshmixer. Both of these programs are available on Macintosh and Windows platforms. Step 1: Create an STL file with 3D Slicer. Open 3D Slicer. Drag and drop the file MANIX Angio CT.nrrd from the file pack onto the 3D Slicer window. This should load the file into 3D Slicer, as shown in Figure 6. When Slicer asks you to confirm whether you want to add the file, click OK. Figure 6: Opening the NRRD file in 3D Slicer using drag-and-drop. Step 2: Convert the CT scan into an STL file. From within Slicer, open the Modules menu item and choose All Modules, Grayscale Model Maker, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 7: Opening the Grayscale Model Maker module. Next, enter the conversion parameters for Grayscale Model Maker in the parameters window on the left. Under Input Volume select MANIX Angio CT. Under Output Geometry choose "Create new model." Slicer will create a new model with the default name such as "Output Geometry. If you wish to rename this to something more descriptive, choose Rename current model under the same menu. For this tutorial I am calling the model "RSNA model." For Threshold, set the value to 150. Under Decimate, set the value to 0.75. Double check your settings to make sure everything is correct. When everything is filled in correctly click the Apply button, as shown in Figure 8. Slicer will process for about a minute. Figure 8: Filling in the Grayscale Model Maker parameters. Step 3: Save the new model to STL file format. Now it is time to create an STL file from our digital model. Click on the Save button on the upper left-hand corner of the Slicer window. The Save Scene pop-up window is now shown. Find the row that corresponds to the model name you have given the model. In my case it is called "RSNA model." Make sure that the checkbox next to this row is checked, and all other rows are unchecked. Next, under the File Format column make sure to specify STL. Finally, specify the directory that the new STL file is to be saved into. Double check everything. When you are ready, click Saved. This is all shown in Figure 9. Now that you've created an STL file, we need to postprocessing in Meshmixer. Figure 9: Saving your file to STL format. Step 4: Open Meshmixer, and drag-and-drop the newly created STL file onto the Meshmixer window to open it. Once the model opens, you will notice that there are many red dots scattered throughout the model. These represent errors in the mesh and need to be corrected, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Errors in the mesh as shown in Meshmixer. Each red dot corresponds to an error. Step 5: Remove disconnected elements from the mesh. There are many disconnected elements in this model that we do not want in our final model. An example of unwanted mesh are the flat plates on either side of the head from the pillow that was used to secure the head during the CT scan. Let's get rid of this unwanted mesh. First use the select tool and place the cursor over the four head of the model and left click. The area under the cursor should turn orange, indicating that those polygons have been selected, as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Selecting a small zone on the forehead. Next, we are going to expand the selection to encompass all geometry that is attached to the area that we currently have selected. Go to the Modify menu item and select Expand to Connected. Alternatively, you can use the keyboard shortcut and select the E key. This operation is shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: Expanding the selection to all connected parts. You will notice that the right clavicle and right scapula have not been selected. This is because these parts are not directly connected to the rest of the skeleton, as shown in Figure 13. We wish to include these in our model, so using the select tool left click on each of these parts to highlight a small area. Then expand the selection to connected again by hitting the E key. Figure 13: The right clavicle and right scapula are not included in the selection because they are not connected to the rest of the skeleton. Individually select these parts and expand the selection again to include them. At this point you should have all the geometry we want included in the model selected in orange, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 14: All the desired geometry is selected in orange Next we are going to delete all the unwanted geometry that is currently unselected. To start this we will first invert the selection. Under the modify menu, select Invert. Alternatively, you can use the keyboard shortcut I, as shown in Figure 15. Figure 15: Inverting the selection. At this point only the undesired geometry should be highlighted in orange, as shown in Figure 16. This unwanted geometry cannot be deleted by going to the Edit menu and selecting Discard. Alternatively you can use the keyboard shortcut X. Figure 16: Only the unwanted geometry is highlighted in orange. This is ready to delete. Step 6: Correcting mesh errors using the Inspector tool. Meshmixer has a nice tool that will automatically fix many mesh errors. Click on the Analysis button and choose Inspector. Meshmixer will now identify all of the errors currently in the mesh. These are indicated by red, blue, and pink balls with lines pointing to the location of the error. As you can see from Figure 17, there are hundreds of errors still within our mesh. We can attempt to auto repair them by clicking on the Auto Repair All button. At the end of the operation most of the errors have been fixed, but if you remain. This can be seen in Figure 18. Figure 17: Errors in the mesh. Most of these can be corrected using the Inspector tool. Figure 18: Only a few errors remain after auto correction with the Inspector tool. Step 7: Correcting the remaining errors using the Remesh tool. Click on the select button to turn on the select tool. Expand the selection to connected parts by choosing Modify, Expand to Connected. The entire model should now be highlighted and origin color. Next under the edit menu choose Remesh, or use the R keyboard shortcut, as shown in Figure 19. This operation will take some time, six or eight minutes depending on the speed of your computer. What remesh does is it recalculates the surface topography of the model and replaces each of the surface triangles with new triangles that are more regular and uniform in appearance. Since our model has a considerable amount of surface area and polygons, the remesh operation takes some time. Remesh also has the ability to eliminate some geometric problems that can prevent all errors from being automatically fixed in Inspector. Figure 19: Using the Remesh tool. Step 8: Fixing the remaining errors using the Inspector tool. Once the remesh operation is completed we will go back and repeat Step 6 and run the Inspector tool again. Click on Analysis and choose Inspector. Inspector will highlight the errors. Currently there are only two, as shown in Figure 20. These two remaining errors can be easily auto repair using the Auto Repair All button. Go ahead and click on this. Figure 20: running the Inspector tool again. At this point the model is now completed and ready for 3D printing as shown in Figure 21. The mesh is error-free and ready to go! Congratulations! Figure 21: The final, error-free model ready for 3D printing. Conclusion Complex bone and vascular models, such as the head and neck model we created in this tutorial, can be created using either the free online service at embodi3D.com or using free desktop software. Each approach has its benefits. The online service is easier to use, faster, and produces high quality models with minimal user input. Additionally, multiple models can be processed simultaneously so it is possible to batch process multiple files at once. The desktop approach using 3D Slicer and Meshmixer requires more user input and thus more time, however the user has greater control over individual design decisions about the model. Both methods are viable for creating high quality 3D printable medical models. Thank you very much for reading this tutorial. Please share your medical 3D printing designs on the embodi3D.com website. Happy 3D printing!
  10. In this brief tutorial we will go over how to use Meshmixer to create a hollow shell from a medical 3D printable STL file. Hollowing out the shell, as shown in the pictures below, can allow you to 3D print the model using much less material that printing a solid piece. The print will take less time and cost less money. For this tutorial we will use a head that we created from a real medical CT scan in a prior tutorial, " Easily Create 3D Printable Muscle and Skin STL Files from Medical CT Scans" If you haven't seen the prior tutorial, please check it out. To follow along with the tutorial, please download the accompanying file. This will enable you to replicate the process exactly as it is shown in the tutorial. >> DOWNLOAD THE TUTORIAL FILE NOW <<
  11. What kind of 3D printers work best for printing from CT scans? In terms of resolution, what have others experienced and what sort of resolutions are needed for the models to actually be used for surgical planning?
  12. UPDATED TUTORIAL: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes Hello, it's Dr. Mike here again with another tutorial and video on medical 3D printing. In this tutorial we're going to learn how to take a DICOM-based medical imaging scan, such as a CT scan, and convert into an STL file in preparation for 3D printing. We will use the free, open-source software program Osirix to do this. Once the file is converted into STL format, we will use the free software packages Blender and Meshmixer to prepare the file for 3D bioprinting. If mastered, this material should easily allow you to make a high-quality 3D printed medical model in less than 30 minutes using free software. Expensive, proprietary software is not needed. This tutorial is designed primarily for Macintosh users since Osirix is a Macintosh-only program. If you use Windows or Linux, please stay tuned for my upcoming tutorial on using free, open-source 3D Slicer to create medical and anatomic models. If you haven't already done so, please see my tutorial on selecting the best medical scan to create a 3D printed model. If you start your 3D printed model project with the wrong kind of scan, your model will not turn out well. Selecting the right kind of scan is critically important and will save you a lot of frustration. Take a few minutes to look over this brief tutorial. It will be well worth your time. Before you start, DOWNLOAD THE FILE PACK that accompanies this video so you can follow along on your own computer. When you finish the tutorial, you will have your very own 3D printable skull STL file. Download is free for members, and registration for membership is also free and only takes a minute. Video 1: The video version of this tutorial. It takes you from start to finish in 30 minutes. The written version here has more detail though. A Few Brief Definitions What is Osirix? Osirix is a Macintosh-only software package for reading medical imaging scans (Figure 1). There are several versions. There is an FDA-approved version designed for doctors reading scans in clinics and hospitals, a 64-bit version for research and other nonclinical activities, and a free, 32-bit version. The main difference between the free 32-bit version and the paid 64-bit version is the 64-bit version can open very large imaging studies, such as MRI exams with thousands of images. The 32-bit version is limited to about 500 images. Additionally, there is a performance boost with the paid versions. If you are just getting into 3D bioprinting, the free, 32-bit version is a great place to start. It can be downloaded at the Osirix website here. Figure 1: An example of Osirix being used to read a CT scan. What is DICOM? DICOM stands for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine. It is the standard file format for most medical imaging scans, such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Residence Imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and x-ray imaging studies. What is STL? STL, or STereoLithography format , is an engineering file format created by 3D Systems for use with Computer Aided Design software (CAD). The file format is primarily used in engineering, and has become the standard file format for 3D printing. The Problem with 3D Printing Anatomic Structures The major problem with trying to 3D print anatomic structures from medical scans is that the medical scan data is in DICOM format and 3D printers require files in STL format. The two formats are incompatible. There are very expensive, proprietary software packages that can perform the conversion between DICOM and STL. A little-known secret is that this can also be done using free, open-source software. Osirix is the best solution for Macintosh. 3D Slicer is the best solution for Windows and Linux. I will discuss 3D Slicer in an upcoming tutorial. If you haven't already, please download the DICOM data set we will be using in this tutorial. This data set is from a high quality CT scan of the brain and skull. It has been anonymized and has been put in the public domain for research by the US National Cancer Institute. Also included with the download packet are other files we will use for this tutorial, including the final STL file of the skull. The download is free for members, and registration for membership is also free and only takes a minute. From the Macintosh Finder navigate to the folder with the downloaded tutorial file pack and double-click on the file TCGA-06-5410 sharp.zip. Opening the CT scan with Osirix Open Osirix. From the File menu, click Import, Import Files. Click Open. (Figure 2) Figure 2: Importing the CT scan into Osirix Navigate to the folder that contains your DICOM data set. Click the Open button. Osirix will ask you if you want to copy the DICOM files into the Osirix database, or only copy the links to these files. Click "Copy Files." Osirix will begin to copy the files into the database. A progress bar will be shown on the lower left-hand corner. When the data is imported you'll see a small orange circle with a "+" in it. This orange circle will eventually go away when Osirix is finished analyzing the study, but you can open the study and work with it while Osirix does some cleanup postprocessing. Left click on the study. You will see an icon with a label "FIDUCIALS 1.0 SPO cor, 216 Images." This is a CT scan of the head with coronal slices at 1 mm intervals. Double-click on this icon, Figure 3. Figure 3: The study when opened Osirix will remind you that you're not supposed to be using it for diagnostic scan reading on real patients unless you are using the more expensive FDA approved version, Osirix MD we're just using it to create a 3D model, so click "I agree." At this point, the study will load. Use the mouse wheel or the bar on the top of the screen to scroll. You can see that this is a pretty decent CT scan of the head for 3D printing. There is not much artifact from metallic dental implants because the maxilla and mandible have been cut off. Segmenting the bony skull and creating a new series We can measure the density of the bony structures using the Region Of Interest or ROI tool. This measures the Hounsfield density, or CT density, of the target area. Select the oval tool from the drop-down menu, Figure 4. Figure 4: The ROI tool. Choose a region of bone using the oval tool. You will see that information about this region is displayed. What we are interested in is the mean density, which in this case is 1753.194, Figure 5. Figure 5: Density measurement using ROI tool. The mean density is 1753.194, as shown in maroon field. Use the ROI tool to select another region in the brain. You will see that the mean attenuation, or density, is much less, in this case 1059.137, Figure 6. Figure 6: Density measurement of the brain tissue. Finally, use the oval tool to choose an area in the air adjacent to the head. You can see that the mean attenuation of this region is 38.514, Figure 7. Figure 7: Density measurement of air. In this scan the Hounsfield attenuation numbers have been shifted. In a typical scan, air measures about -1000, soft tissue between 30 and 70, and bone typically greater than 300. In this scan those numbers have been increased by 1000. Since we were thorough enough to check the Hounsfield attenuation before moving on, we can easily correct for this shift. Under ROI menu select Grow Region 2D/3D Segmentation, Figure 8. Figure 8: The Grow Region tool In the Segmentation Parameters window that pops up, set the following: Lower Threshold 1150 Upper Threshold 3000. Generate a new series with: Inside pixels 1000 Outside pixels 0 Be sure to check the checkbox next to the Set Inside Pixels, and Set Outside Pixels fields, Figure 9. Figure 9: Setting up the Segmentation Parameters window. Next, make sure you select a starting point for the algorithm. Left click on one of the skull bones. Green crosshairs will show. All of the bone that is contiguous with point you clicked will now be highlighted in green, Figure 10. Figure 10: Setting the starting point for segmentation. The target region turns green. Click the Compute button Osirix will generate a new series with the bones being a single white color with a value of 1000, and everything else being a black color with a value of zero, Figure 11. Creating a separate series just for 3D printing purposes is the secret to getting good 3D models from Osirix. Trying to generate a 3D surface model directly from the 3D Surface Rendering function underneath the 3D Viewer menu is tempting to use, however it will not work well for generating STL files. This is not obvious, and the source of much frustration for beginners trying to use Osirix for 3D printing. Figure 11: The new bitmapped series shown on right of screen. This series has only two colors, black and white. It is idea for conversion to and STL surface model. Generating an STL file from the new bitmapped series Now we are ready to create our 3D surface model. Make sure that your new bitmapped series is highlighted. Click on the 3D viewer menu and select 3D Surface Rendering, Figure 12. Leave the settings set to their default values. Click OK as shown in Figure 13. Figure 12: Selecting 3D Surface Rendering Figure 13: Setting 3D surface rendering settings Osirix will then think for a few moments as it prepares the surface. You can see that a relatively good approximation of the skull has been generated. Use of the left mouse button to rotate the 3D model. Next were going to export the 3D surface model to an STL file. Click Export 3D-SR and choose Export as STL as show in Figure 14. Type the file name "skull file." Click Save. Figure 14: Exporting model to STL file format. Cleaning up the 3D model in Blender You can see from the 3D rendering that there are many small islands of material that have been included with the STL file. Also, the skull has a very pixelated appearance. It does not have the smooth surface that would be expected on a real skull. In order to fix these problems, we're going to do a little postprocessing in Blender, a free open-source 3D software program. If you don't already have Blender on your computer, you can download it free from blender.org. Blender is available for Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. Select your operating system, preferred installation method, and download mirror. Once Blender is installed on your computer, open it. In the default scene there will be a cube. We don't need this. Right click on the cube to select it. Then delete it using the delete key on a full keyboard or the X key on a laptop keyboard. Blender will ask you to confirm you want to delete the object. Click Delete as shown in Figure 15. Figure 15: Deleting the default cube. Next, we are going to import the skull STL file. From the File menu select Import, STL, as shown in Figure 16. Navigate to the skull STL file you saved from Osirix, and double-click it. Blender will think for a few seconds and then return to what appears to be an empty scene, as shown in Figure 17. Where is your skull? To find your skull, use the mouse scroll wheel to zoom out. If you zoom out far enough you will see the skull. The skull appears to be gigantic, as shown in Figure 18. This is because the default unit of measurement in the skull is 1 mm. In Blender, an arbitrary unit of measurement called a "blender unit" is used. When the skull was imported, 1 mm of real size was translated into 1 blender unit. Thus the skull appears to be hundreds of blender units large, and appears very big. Figure 16: Importing the STL file into Blender Figure 17: The "empty" scene. Where is the skull? Figure 18: Zoom out and the skull appears! The skull is also offset from the origin. We are going to correct that. Make sure that the skull is still selected by right clicking on it. If it is selected it will have a orange halo. In the lower left corner of the window click on the Object menu. Select Transform, Geometry to Origin as shown in Figure 19. The skull is now centered on the middle of the scene. Figure 19: Centering the skull in the scene. Deleting Unwanted Mesh Islands First, let's get rid of the extra mesh islands. There is a menu in the lower left-hand corner of the window that says Object Mode. Click on this and go to Edit Mode, as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Entering Edit mode in Blender. Now we are in Edit Mode. In this mode we can edit individual edges and vertices of the model. Right now the entire model is selected because everything is orange. In edit mode you can select vertices, edges, or faces. This is controlled by the small panel of buttons on the bottom toolbar. Make sure that the leftmost or vertex selection mode is highlighted and then right click on a single vertex on the model, as shown in Figure 21. That vertex should become orange and everything else should become gray, because only that single vertex is now selected, Figure 22. Figure 21: Vertex selection mode Figure 22: Select a single vertex by right clicking on it. Under the Select menu, click Linked, as shown in Figure 23. Alternatively, you can hit Control-L. This selects every vertex that is connected to the initial vertex you selected. All the parts of the model that are contiguous with that first selection are now highlighted in orange. You can see that the many mesh islands we wish to get rid of are not selected. Figure 23: Selecting all linked vertices. We are next going to invert the selection. Do this by again clicking on the Select menu and choosing Inverse, Figure 24. Alternatively, you can hit Control-I. Now, instead of the skull being selected, all of the unwanted mesh islands are selected, as shown in Figure 25. Now we can delete them. Hit the delete key, or alternatively the X key. Blender asks you what you want to delete. Click Vertices, Figure 26. Now all of those unwanted mesh islands have been deleted. Figure 24: Inverting the selection. Figure 25: The result after inverting the selection. Only the unwanted mesh islands are selected! Figure 26: Deleting the unwanted mesh islands. Repairing Open Mesh Holes We can see that on the top of the skull there is a large hole where the skull was cut off by the scanner. Because the bone surface was cut off, Osirix left a gaping defect, Figure 27. Before 3D printing, this will have to be corrected. This is what is called a manifold mesh defect. It is an area where the surface of the model is not intact. A 3D printer will not know what to do with this, such as whether it should be filled in or left hollow. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to correct. Figure 27: A large open mesh hole at the top of the skull. Using the Select menu in the lower left-hand corner, click on Non-Manifold. This will select all of the non-manifold mesh defects in your model. You can see that the edge of our large hole at the top of the skull has been selected and turned orange. This confirms that this defect has to be fixed. Unselect by hitting the A key. Then, go to Edge select mode by clicking on the Edge Select button along the lower toolbar. Holding down the Alt key, right-click on one of the edges of the target defect, in this case the top of the skull. That familiar orange ring has formed. Your selection should look like Figure 28. Let's fill in this hole by creating a new face. Hit the F key. This creates a new face to close this hole, Figure 29. Figure 28: The edge of the hole is selected, as indicated by the orange color. Figure 29: The hole when filled with a new face. Due to the innumerable polygons along the edges, the face is actually quite a complex polygon itself. Let's convert it to a simpler geometry. With the face still selected hit Control T. You can alternatively go to the Mesh menu and select Faces, Triangulate Faces as shown in Figure 30. This will convert the complicated face into simpler triangles. As you can see, some of these triangles are quite large relative to the other triangles along the skull surface. These large triangles may become apparent when smoothing algorithms are applied or 3D printing is performed. Let's reduce their size. Hit the W key and then select Subdivide Smooth, as shown in Figure 31. The triangles are now subdivided. Let's repeat that operation again so that they are even smaller. Hit the W key and again select Subdivide Smooth. Figure 30: Converting all faces into triangles. ] Figure 31: Subdividing and smoothing the selected faces. Smoothing the Model Surface Next let's get rid of that pixelated appearance of the model surface. First, we need to convert all of the polygons in the model to triangles. The smoothing algorithms just work better with triangles. Staying in Edit mode, hit the A key. The A key toggles between selecting all and unselecting all. If you need to, hit the A key a second time until the entire model is orange, thus indicating that it is selected. Hit Control-T, or alternatively use the Mesh menu, Faces, Trangulate Faces. This will convert any remaining complex polygons to triangles. Go back to Object mode by hitting the tab button or selecting Object Mode from the bottom toolbar. We are now going to apply a smoothing function, called a modifier, to the skull. Along the right of the screen you'll see a series of icons, one of which is a wrench, as shown in Figure 32. Click on that. This brings up the modifier panel, a series of tools that Blender uses to manipulate digital objects. Click on the Add Modifier button and select the Smooth modifier. Do not select the Laplacian Smooth modifier. That is different. We just want the regular Smooth modifier, as shown in Figure 33. Leaving the Factor value at 0.5, increase the Repeat factor until you are satisfied with the surface appearance of your model. For me, a factor of 20 seemed to work, Figure 34. At this point the modifier is only temporary, and has not been applied to the model. Click on the Apply button. Now the smoothing function has been applied to the model. Figure 32: The Modifiers toolbar on the right. Figure 33: The Smooth modifier Figure 34: Setting the Smooth modifier to repeat 20 times. Rotating and Adjusting the Model Orientation When the model was originally exported from Osirix and opened in Blender, it was at a strange orientation. We can correct to this easily. Click on the View menu from the left portion of the lower now bar and select Front. This orients the model from the frontal view, and you can see that in this orientation we are looking at the top of the skull. To correct this, we will rotate the model along the X axis. First, make sure that the cursor is inside the model window. Then, Hit the R key and then the X key, and type "180." This will rotate the model on the X axis by 180°. Hit the return key to confirm the modification. Don't worry if the skull isn't facing the correct way right now, we will fix that later. Now we are ready to export our cleaned up skull model. Go to the File menu, click Export, STL. Navigate to your desired folder and save your STL file. Since I corrected several defects in this mesh file, I called the file "skull file corrected.stl" Performing a Final Inspection Using Meshmixer If you haven't already done so, go to the Autodesk Meshmixer website at http://www.meshmixer.com/download.html and download and install Meshmixer. The software is free. Once installed open the program and select Import. Navigate to your STL file and double-click it. Meshmixer has a variety of nice features, and one of them is a mesh correction function. Once your file is open click on the Analysis button along the left nav bar. Click on Inspector as shown in Figure 35. Meshmixer will now analyze the STL file for obvious mesh defects. Anything that is detected will be highlighted by red, pink, or blue lines. You can see that our skull model appears to be defect free. Click on the done button and quit Meshmixer. Figure 35: Running the inspector tool in MeshMixer Your STL file of the skull is now ready for 3D printing! Conclusion In this tutorial you have learned how to take a DICOM data set from a CT scan and use it to create a 3D printable STL file using free software. First we used the Osirix to segment a CT scan and convert it to an STL file. Then we performed cleanup operations on the STL file using the Blender and Meshmixer, both free programs. For additional information on how to select an appropriate CT or MRI scan for 3D printing please see my previous tutorial. If you want to learn more about using Blender to fix more extensive defects in bone models, you can view to other tutorials I have created: 3D Printing of Bones from CT Scans: A Tutorial on Quickly Correcting Extensive Mesh Errors using Blender and MeshMixer Preparing CT Scans for 3D Printing. Cleaning and Repairing STL Files from Bones using Blender, an advanced tutorial A variety of useful tutorials for 3D printing is available on the Tutorials page. If you are planning on attending the 2015 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting in Chicago this November, look for my hands-on course "3D Printing and 3D Modeling with Free and Open-Source Software." I will give more tips and tricks for creating great 3D printed medical models using freeware. I hope you find this tutorial helpful in creating your own medical and anatomic models for 3D printing. Please stay tuned for my next tutorial on using the free, open-source program 3D Slicer to create medical 3D models on Windows and Linux platforms. If you are creating your own 3D printed medical models, please share your models with the Embodi3D community in the File Vault. If you have questions or comments, please leave a comment below or start a discussion thread in the Forums. Sample free downloads A Collection of Free Downloadable STL Skulls for you to 3D print yourself. 3D printable human heart in stackable slices, shows amazing internal anatomy. A Collection of Spine STL files to download and 3D print. Follow Embodi3D on social media Twitter | Facebook | LinkedIn | YouTube | Google+
  13. I was wondering if anybody has found a 3D printing material that works well for fracture studies. I am aware of Sawbones, but would like to explore the possibility of using CT scans to generate 3D printed bones of different size/age/sex for fracture/trauma studies. Thanks! Terrie
  14. Since the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) medical printing and bioprinting technologies have been influencing almost every aspect of the human life. Most people are, however, surprised at the kind of impact additive printing is having in the field of medicine. The technology is helping diagnose and treat complex illnesses ranging from cancer and heart disease to arthritis and infections. In recent months, several innovative 3D tools have also been created to overcome obesity. More than two-thirds of adults in the United States are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the last 30 years. This has increased the risk of Type II diabetes, cancer and other serious conditions in men and women of all ages and abilities. Both government agencies and nonprofit organizations have spent millions of dollars creating awareness about the issue. Consequently, many people now understand the importance of healthy diet and exercise. They, however, lack resources that will help them accomplish such goals. Physicians are also looking for tools that will assist them in treating morbid obesity more effectively. Thankfully, 3D printing technology is offering some novel solutions to everyone, and researchers believe that it will ultimately bolster the efforts aimed at reducing weight and enhancing fitness levels. Liposuction Tools BioSculpture Technology, under the leadership of New York Downtown Hospitals and the Presbyterian New York affiliated plastic surgeon Robert Cucin, is relying on 3D printing to develop an innovative line of surgical instruments to perform liposuction. The technology is also allowing surgeons to create exact replicas of the patient’s organs and practice the procedure before the actual intervention. Together, these products are making liposuction more accessible and safe. Liposuction is an invasive procedure that involves removal of excess fat from various parts of the body and is commonly used treat obesity. Close to 400,000 people underwent this surgery in 2015, as per the American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Tracking Devices Exertion Games Lab in Melbourne, Australia, has created a simple device that can print 3D models of the user’s physical activity time, sleep time, and heart rate during the week to motivate and encourage them to set new challenges. Unlike smartphones and pedometers, the Exertion Games Lab device caters to the needs of children as it helps them grasp complex fitness-related information with ease. Children can also hold these models in their hands and share their enthusiasm with their peers. The Potential These examples just form the tip of the iceberg. The impact of 3D printing on the fight against obesity is expected to go beyond creating mechanical devices and surgical instruments. Tamara Nair, a Research Fellow at the Centre for Non-traditional Security (NTS) Studies in the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), believes that the technology can also be used to create food products with higher nutritional value. Such foods may help obese and overweight individuals manage calorie intake according to their activity level. The 3D printing technology can also make nutritious foods more palatable, says Nair. These potential benefits may appear like science fiction to some readers. Nonetheless, if the recent advances in the 3D printing and bioprinting technologies are anything to go by, they may turn into reality very soon.
  15. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the torso, neck, and arms was derived from a real medical CT scan and shows anatomic structures in great detail. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  16. Muscles of the torso and arms

    Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the torso and arms was derived from a real medical CT scan in high detail. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  17. Muscles of the chest and back

    Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the muscles of the chest and back was derived from a real medical CT scan. The pectoralis, latissimus dorso, scalene and other muscles are shown in great detail. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  18. Muscles of the right shoulder

    Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the right shoulder was derived from a real medical CT scan. It shows the pectoralis, deltoid, biceps, and triceps muscles, as well as musculature of the chest wall. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  19. Muscles of the left shoulder

    Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the left shoulder was derived from a real medical CT scan. It shows the deltoid, pectoralis, triceps, and biceps muscles in great detail. Also, the muscles of the chest wall and ribs are also shown. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  20. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the torso, including the spine, shoulders and arms, pelvis, and proximal legs. It was derived from a real medical CT scan. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  21. Skull base to hips

    Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model was derived from a real medical CT scan. It includes all of the bony anatomy from the skull base to the hips, including the spine, pelvis, rib cage and arms This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  22. Pelvis bones

    Version 1.0.0

    11 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the bones of the pelvis and sacrum was derived from a real medical CT scan. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service.

    Free

  23. Skull base and jaw

    Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the skull base was derived from a real medical CT scan. Some artifact from dental fillings is present. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free

  24. Cervical spine

    Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the cervical spine was derived from a real medical CT scan. This model was created using the embodi3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003

    Free