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Found 198 results

  1. I receive a lot of inquiries to my account. I'm going to try to share them with the community in the hope that any information that is shared can help many others. A member recently contacted me and asked the following: "Do you have any experience in dicom images by TUI mode in Voluson E10, for print 3d fetus models" Unfortunately, I don't personally have experience with 3D printing ultrasound images. I'm not sure how the slice-by-slice registration will work as ultrasound images are not in fixed orthographic planes. However, I know it must be possible since there is a company that is 3D printing fetuses. http://www.3ders.org/articles/20160118-3d-printed-fetuses-the-hottest-parenting-trend-of-2016.html Anyone in the community have experience with converting ultrasound to STL?
  2. I receive a lot of inquiries to my account. I'm going to try to share them with the community in the hope that any information that is shared can help many others. A member recently contacted me and asked the following: "I am a Biomaterials and Tissue Engineer by profession and recently got into 3d printing of medical implants. I would be greatly obliged if you could please advice me on designing 'cranial mesh' My task is to design titanium based cranial mesh. I would like to know if you can suggest me any tutorial on the same." Another member asks, " I am a resident in neurosurgery in Brazil and I have a dream to allow cheap cranioplasty for those in need that depend on Brazilian public health system. If you have some sort of tutorial using free software to make those prosthetic cranial grafts of a cheap way to make a mold out of it I will be glad to hear from you. I am planning on buying the ultimaker 2 printer which allows direct PEEK print and also PLA print for mold to go through autoclave." I must admit that I have limited experience with craniofacial implants. I know that the physicians at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Bethesda Maryland are doing pioneering work in the field. Regarding making titanium-based implants I am unaware of any tutorials, but a search on Pubmed has yielded a few helpful articles. Here is one https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073471/ From what I have seen most of these implants are designed using the Mimics system by Materialise. Regarding the low-cost solution for cranial implants, I'm not familiar with any freeware software that specifically does implants. From the hardware perspective, you may want to consider a Form 2 stereolithographic printer in addition to the Ultimaker 2 (FYI, there is a new Ultimaker 3 printer out). Formlabs, the makers of the Form 2 have a tutorial on using their printer to make molds for casting. https://formlabs.com/blog/3d-printing-for-injection-molding/ Formlabs has a dental biocompatible resin that I know some hospitals (Mayo Clinic) are using for in-surgery cutting guides. I heard them talk about that at a conference I recently attended. Whatever you do, make sure you follow the health safety rules in your country and take all necessary steps for patient safety.
  3. It's been a while since I posted some of the things I've been up to. Here is a model of a project we just completed to design 3D printable abdominal organ and vessel models for medical device testing. These were each custom designed, printed in sintered nylon, and professionally painted.
  4. I recently attending this conference in Scottsdale Arizona. A lot of great models were on display. Here are a few for your enjoyment.
  5. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This is a 3D printable STL medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 78-year old female that was presented by left thigh swelling( note the difference in contour between both sides), pathological examination revealed it to be malignant fibrous histiocytosis ( pleomorphic sarcoma) of high grade malignancy. The patient underwent MRI and PET scan 7 and 8 days after the pathological examination respectively. Her treatment plan was combined surgical excision and radiotherapy. 66 days later she developed regional recurrence. After 377 days of follow up, The patient was alive with disease. ( STS-020)

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This is a 3D printable STL file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 54-year old male patient that was presented by a left thigh swelling. Histopathological examination revealed it to be extra-skeletal Ewing sarcoma of high grade of malignancy. 10 days prior to the diagnosis, the patient underwent MRI. 21 days after the diagnosis had been made the patient underwent PET scan examination as a part of his metastatic workup.His treatment plan was a combined chemotherapy/surgical resection of the tumor. 525 days later, the patient developed lung metastasis. 265 days later, the patient died.(STS-017)

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 68-year old male presented by a swelling at the posterior aspect of the left pelvic region(notice the contour bulge at the posterior aspect of the left side). Histopathological examination revealed the swelling to be leiomyosarcoma of intermediate grade of malignancy. His work up included MRI and PET scan 3 and 24 days after the pathological examination respectively. His treatment plan was a combined radiotherapy/surgical resection of the tumor. 96 days later, the patient developed lung metastasis. He died after 607 days.(STS-018)

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is a 3D printable STL medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 78-year old female that was presented by left thigh swelling, Pathological examination revealed it to be malignant fibrous histiocytosis ( pleomorphic sarcoma) of high grade malignancy. The patient underwent MRI and PET scan 7 and 8 days after the pathological examination respectively. The patient underwent combined surgical excision/radiotherapy. 66 days later the patient developed regional recurrence. After 377 days of follow up, The patient was alive with disease. ( STS-020)

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This is a 3D printable medical file of a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 48-year old female that was presented by right hand swelling, pathological examination revealed it to be undifferentiated malignant fibrous histiocystosis of high grade of malignancy. 28 days prior to the pathological examination, the patient underwent MRI. 30 days after the diagnosis had been made, the patient underwent PET scan. Her treatment plan was combined surgical excision/radiotherapy. after 1082 days of follow up, the patient showed no evidence of disease.(STS_019)

    Free

  10. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    The ankle joint is a hinged synovial joint with primarily up-and-down movement (plantarflexion and dorsiflexion). However, when the range of motion of the ankle and subtalar joints (talocalcaneal and talocalcaneonavicular) is taken together, the complex functions as a universal joint. The bony architecture of the ankle consists of three bones: the tibia, the fibula, and the talus. The articular surface of the tibia is referred to as the plafond. The medial malleolus is a bony process extending distally off the medial tibia. The distal-most aspect of the fibula is called the lateral malleolus. Together, the malleoli, along with their supporting ligaments, stabilize the talus underneath the tibia. The bony arch formed by the tibial plafond and the two malleoli is referred to as the ankle "mortise" (or talar mortise). The mortise is a rectangular socket. The ankle is composed of three joints: the talocrural joint (also called talotibial joint, tibiotalar joint, talar mortise, talar joint), the subtalar joint (also called talocalcaneal), and the Inferior tibiofibular joint. The joint surface of all bones in the ankle are covered with articular cartilage. This a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 75-year old female.

    Free

  11. Researchers at UC San Diego have successfully 3D printed a network of blood vessels. This is an important step towards 3D printing an entire organ. Read the full story here.
  12. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    The bones of the leg and foot form part of the appendicular skeleton that supports the many muscles of the lower limbs. These muscles work together to produce movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping. At the same time, the bones and joints of the leg and foot must be strong enough to support the body’s weight while remaining flexible enough for movement and balance. The tibia and fibulaare the bones that support the leg. The larger tibia or shinebone is located medial to the fibula and bears most of the weight. At the superior (proximal) end of the tibia, a pair of flattened condyles articulate with the rounded condyles at the distal end of the femur to form the knee joint joint. The tibia and fibula articulate at two sites. At the knee, a superior (proximal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lateral tibial condyle and head of the fibula. At the ankle, an inferior (distal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lower fibula and a lateral concavity (notch) on the lower tibia. The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping. The feet are divided into three sections: -The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals). -The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone. -The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot. This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan dicom dataset of a 75-year female.

    Free

  13. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    The ankle joint is a hinged synovial joint with primarily up-and-down movement (plantarflexion and dorsiflexion). However, when the range of motion of the ankle and subtalar joints (talocalcaneal and talocalcaneonavicular) is taken together, the complex functions as a universal joint. The bony architecture of the ankle consists of three bones: the tibia, the fibula, and the talus. The articular surface of the tibia is referred to as the plafond. The medial malleolus is a bony process extending distally off the medial tibia. The distal-most aspect of the fibula is called the lateral malleolus. Together, the malleoli, along with their supporting ligaments, stabilize the talus underneath the tibia. The bony arch formed by the tibial plafond and the two malleoli is referred to as the ankle "mortise" (or talar mortise). The mortise is a rectangular socket. The ankle is composed of three joints: the talocrural joint (also called talotibial joint, tibiotalar joint, talar mortise, talar joint), the subtalar joint (also called talocalcaneal), and the Inferior tibiofibular joint. The joint surface of all bones in the ankle are covered with articular cartilage. This a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 75-year old female.

    Free

  14. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    The bones of the leg and foot form part of the appendicular skeleton that supports the many muscles of the lower limbs. These muscles work together to produce movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping. At the same time, the bones and joints of the leg and foot must be strong enough to support the body’s weight while remaining flexible enough for movement and balance. The tibia and fibulaare the bones that support the leg. The larger tibia or shinebone is located medial to the fibula and bears most of the weight. At the superior (proximal) end of the tibia, a pair of flattened condyles articulate with the rounded condyles at the distal end of the femur to form the knee joint joint. The tibia and fibula articulate at two sites. At the knee, a superior (proximal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lateral tibial condyle and head of the fibula. At the ankle, an inferior (distal) tibiofibular joint is formed by the lower fibula and a lateral concavity (notch) on the lower tibia. The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping. The feet are divided into three sections: -The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals). -The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone. -The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the bilateral lower extremity muscle rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape, and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on the grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  16. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the right thigh muscle rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape, and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on the grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  17. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the right thigh skin rendering of a 49-year-old male with a right medial thigh undifferentiated pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have a high-grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. Metastases to his lungs were also found at diagnosis. The patient is still living with the disease at 2 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Undifferentiated pleomorphic MFH has more recently been classified as Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. This is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in late adulthood, commonly occurring between 55 to 80 years old and most commonly in Caucasian males. Clinically, it presents as a slowly growing mass in the extremities. Biopsy of the lesion demonstrates, as its name implies, an undifferentiated and pleomorphic appearance. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape, and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. “Undifferentiated” means that the tissue does not appear like an identifiable tissue structure. Treatment consists of wide resection and radiation. Chemotherapy is added in cases of metastasis, most commonly to the lung. Five-year survival is between 35-60% depending on the grade of tumor and metastases. This model was created from the file STS_021.

    Free

  18. Version 1.0.0

    4 downloads

    The knee is the largest joint and one of the most important joints in the body. It plays an essential role in movement related to carrying the body weight in horizontal (running and walking) and vertical (jumping) directions. The knee joint joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two articulations: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint). The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation. The knee joint is vulnerable to injury and to the development of osteoarthritis. The knee is composed of three functional compartments: the patellofemoral articulation, consisting of the patella, or "kneecap", and the patellar groove on the front of the femur through which it slides; and the medial and lateral tibiofemoral articulations linking the femur, or thigh bone, with the tibia, the main bone of the lower leg. The joint is bathed in synovial fluid which is contained inside the synovial membrane called the joint capsule. This is a 3D-printable medical STL file of normal right knee joint converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 75-year old female patient(STS-016).

    Free

  19. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    This is a case of left thigh posterior mass in a 75-year old female patient. Pathological examination of the specimen revealed spindle shaped cells suggestive of liposarcoma with intermediate grade of malignancy. MRI was done for this patient 33 days before taking the biopsy, and a week after confirming the diagnosis a PET scan was done as a part of the metastatic workup. After performing surgical resection of the tumor followed by radiotherapy, the patient showed no evidence of recurrence for 760 days of follow up. This is a 3D printable medical STL file converted from the real CT scan DICOM dataset of this patient(STS-016).

    Free

  20. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    This model is the bilateral thigh skin rendering of a 56 year old male with a pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the anterior compartment of the right thigh. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. However, the tumor metastasized to his lungs, and the patient died 2.5 years after diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Leiomyosarcomas are aggressive soft tissue malignancies that are thought to arise from the smooth muscle cells lining small blood vessels. Pleomorphism is the pathologic description of cells and nuclei with variability in size, shape and staining, which is characteristic of a malignant neoplasm. Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive form of leiomyosarcoma, accounting for approximately 10% of these tumors. The mean age of occurrence is 58 years old, with a range from 31-89 years. These usually occur in the extremities, but may also present in the retroperitoneum/abdominal cavity, chest/abdominal wall, and, occasionally, the scalp. On biopsy, the definition of pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma is the presence of pleomorphic cells in at last two-thirds of the cut section and at least one section of positive staining for smooth muscle. Treatment is early wide resection of the primary lesion and neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Tumors may metastasize to the lung. A large primary tumor and presence in the retroperitoneal cavity are poor predictive factors, and about 65% of patients succumb to the disease. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  21. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is the normal right foot and ankle bone model of a 56 year old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The ankle is a hinge (or ginglymus) joint made of the distal tibia (tibial plafond, medial and posterior malleoli) superiorly and medially, the distal fibula (lateral malleolus) laterally and the talus inferiorly. Together, these structures form the ankle “mortise”, which refers to the bony arch. The normal range of motion is 20 degrees dorsiflexion and 50 degrees plantarflexion. Stability is provided by the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) laterally, and the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments medially. The ankle is one of my most common sites of musculoskeletal injury, including ankle fractures and ankle sprains, due to the ability of the joint to invert and evert. The most common ligament involved in the ATFL. The foot is commonly divided into three segments: hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. These sections are divided by the transverse tarsal joint (between the talus and calcaneus proximally and navicular and cuboid distally), and the tarsometatarsal joint (between the cuboids and cuneiforms proximally and the metatarsals distally). The first tarsometatarsal joint (medially) is termed the “Lisfranc” joint and is the site of the Lisfranc injury seen primarily in athletic injuries. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  22. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is the normal left foot and ankle muscle model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The primary motions of the ankle are dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion. However, with the addition of midfoot motion (adduction, and abduction), the foot may supinate (inversion and adduction) or pronate (eversion and abduction). In order to accomplish these motions, muscles outside of the foot (extrinsic) and muscles within the foot (intrinsic) attach throughout the foot, crossing one or more joints. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  23. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is the normal right foot and ankle skin model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon, as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy, may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible on the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  24. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    This is the normal right foot and ankle skin model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon, as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy, may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible on the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free

  25. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    This is the normal right foot and ankle muscle model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The primary motions of the ankle are dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion. However, with the addition of midfoot motion (adduction, and abduction), the foot may supinate (inversion and adduction) or pronate (eversion and abduction). In order to accomplish these motions, muscles outside of the foot (extrinsic) and muscles within the foot (intrinsic) attach throughout the foot, crossing one or more joints. Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot. The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively. This model was created from the file STS_014.

    Free