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Found 219 results

  1. 1. i preview it looked rough could they print it higher quality 2. if cost how much per model 3. how i pick right stuff PLA / AMS / ETC CAN SOMEONE HELP ME WITH SERVICES / I'M ROOKIE AT THIS STILL thank u, mike foote
  2. Hello. I own a 3D Printing Service Bureau (imtyris.com). The out put of our 3D printer is a paper model, either plain white, or in millions of colors. I'm looking for someone to work with to develop CT or MRI data into a full color paper model. Dave Jahnz Imtyris 858 354-4200
  3. 92 downloads

    This 3D printable jaw and maxilla was created from a CT scan. dental, teeth, ct, scan, jaw, mandible, maxilla, dentistry, 3d, printing, bone, 3d, model, printable, petrous, ridge, foramina, foramen, upper, lower, mastoid, process, nasal, spine, clivus, base, skull, head, angle, ramus, coronoid, pterygoid, Files are available in both STL and Blender formats. This model is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution license and was created by Prevue Medical and posted here.

    Free

  4. I decided to give my Prusa MK3 printer a real challenge, so I cut my best skull model, I added some slots for neodymium magnets and I started to print the parts. I'm done with the half of them and I'll update my post when I'm done.
  5. Vascular Training Models Venous Models: IVC Filter Deployment/Retrieval Model: VIVC01000M Iliac Vein Stenosis Extension Model: VIVC01E2SC Gonadal Vein Embolization Extension Model: VGON01000C Femoral Vein Extension Model: VFEM01000C Flexible SVC Extension Model: VSVC01000F Vascular Training Models Arterial Models: Extendable Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD02000C Upper and Lower Leg Extension Model: AALE01000C Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm EVAR Model: AAAA01000C Stand-Alone Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD01000C Description: The iliac vein stenosis model is a single piece that replaces Part E (common iliac veins) in the IVC filter model. This model contains a high grade stenosis in the proximal left common iliac vein, the classic position of the so-called May-Thurner stenosis. In May-Thurner syndrome, chronic compression and scarring of the proximal left common iliac vein, is caused by the crossing right common iliac artery. This results in stenosis of the left common iliac vein, slow blood flow, and eventually clotting and formation of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). After the DVT is cleared with anticoagulation or thrombectomy/thrombolysis, the iliac vein stenosis must be treated with venous stenting. Contact us for model information and prices This model has a 4 mm thick, 9 mm wide stenosis at the crossing point between the left common iliac vein and the right common iliac artery. It is perfect for practicing venous stenting and thrombectomy/ thrombolysis.
    Procedures that this model can teach or practice: venous stenting venous thrombectomy venous thrombolysis venous catheterization Compatibility: Gonadal vein embolization extension model (# VGON01000C) Femoral vein extension model (# VFEM01000C) Flexible SVC extension model (# VSVC01000F) Required models: This model should be used with the IVC filter deployment/ retrieval model (# VIVC01000M) For questions and pricing contact us. Please include the model name and number with your inquiry: Iliac Vein Stenosis Extension model (# VIVC01E2SC)
  6. 1,008 downloads

    -> IMPROVED VERSION OF THIS FILE IS AVAILABLE HERE <-- This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. The model comes in 4 slices, and demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. Download this model for free and 3D print the model yourself! If you find this and other free medical models available for download on Embodi3d.com useful, please give back to the community by uploading and sharing a medical model of your design.

    $19.99

  7. 103 downloads

    This is a .stl file produced from a CT scan of myself. I used 'InVesalius 3.0 free' to convert the 2D dicom images into the .stl file. I use either 3D Tool or Materialise's MiniMagics (free versions) to view and manipulate the 3D image. I have been told I had a severe hyperflexion injury to my c spine during an assault in 1988 and sustained a number of fractures and subluxations which were not diagnosed by a hospital as they discharged me from the ER in error before I had been examined by a Dr. It wasn't until I had a CT scan in 2011 and produced 3D images from it that I discovered various bony abnormalities that were subsequently identified as fractures & subluxations by experts. I understand the right transverse process of T1, tip of C6 spinous process and the left greater cornu of the hyoid bone are the most obvious old fractures that can be seen. cervical, spine, .stl, 3d, printing, .stl, bone, 3d, model, printable, vertebrae, spine, atlas, axis, body, intervertebral, space, laminae, facet, transverse, process, spinous, process, printable, 3d, model, ribs, clavicle,

    Free

  8. Version 2.0

    634 downloads

    Anatomically accurate full-size human lumbar vertebra created from a real CT scan. File in Collada format. bone, 3d, printing, ct, scan, vertebra, lumbar, transverse, spinous, process, body, 3d, model, printable, spine, laminae, facet, pedicle, See the video here: Copyright 2013 Embodi3d

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    16 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the skull base was derived from a real medical CT scan. Some artifact from dental fillings is present. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003 .stl, 3d, printing, model, skull, base, jaw, mandible, artifact, base, foramina, .stl, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, mastoid, process, cervical, lordosis, atlas, axis,

    Free

  10. A member recently messaged me with a question about a brain she printed from this file. I as posting the response here in the hope that it will help others in the community. QUESTION "I came across your 3D printable human brain model and was able to successfully print it. Thank you for sharing it! Now I need to post-process it and am wondering if you can explain how you post-processed your print? I have never done the post-processing before and am not sure the best approach to take. I have attached a picture of our printed brain for your reference. Thank you in advance for insight you can offer!" RESPONSE: Based on the picture you attached, it looks like you used a single extruder printer and printed both the supports and model in the same material, presumably PLA. You need to tear off the supports using pliers. This can be a time-consuming job as getting in every nook and cranny can be difficult. If you find the supports are stuck to much to the model, you may have to adjust some of the settings in your slicer software to compensate. There may be a rough surface where the supports touch the model that you can sand off. If you have a dual extrusion printer, you can print the supports using a water soluble material such as PVA, which makes the supports easy to remove by soaking in water. Dual extruders can be finicky and you will likely have to spend a lot of time trying out different settings to get the supports to work just right, including calibrating the XY offset of the second extruder, determining optimal print temperature for the PLA and support to work together, overhang speed, support infill percentage, etc. This process is very time consuming but gratifying once you get your printer dialed in. If you don't want to deal with the headache, embodi3D has a 3D printing service and can print and ship to you. Hope this helps. Dr. Mike
  11. Version 1.0.0

    245 downloads

    This is an anonymized CT scan DICOM dataset to be used for teaching on how to create a 3D printable models., tutorial, 3d, printing, model, dataset, ct, dicom, base, skull, head, petrous, ridge, mastoid, cells, clivus, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, neck, muscles, infrahyoid, suprahyoid, trachea, lower, turbinate, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, prevertebral, bone, 3d,

    Free

  12. Bones The main advantage of the orthopedical presurgical 3d printed models is the possibility to create an accurate model, which can be used for metal osteosynthesis premodelling - the surgeons can prepare (bend, twist, accommodate) the implants prior the operation. After a sterilisation (autoclaving, UV-light, gamma-ray etc etc), those implants can be used in the planned surgery, which will decrease the overall surgery time (in some cases with more than an hour) with all it's advantages, including a dramatic decreasing of the complication rates, the X-ray exposure for the patient and for the surgeons, the cost and the recovery rates etc etc. For this purpose, you need a smooth bone model, with clearly recognizable and realistic landmarks, realistic measurements and physical properties, close to the real bone. Traditionally, the orthopedical surgeons in my institution used polystyrene models, made by hand, now they have access to 3d printed models and they are better in any way. Here are some tips how to print that thing. 1. Method - FDM. The bone models are the easiest and the most forgiving to print. You can make them with literally every printer you can find. FDM is a strong option here and, in my opinion, the best method on choice.2. Matherial - PLA - it's cheap, it's easy to print, it's the bread and butter for the bone printing. Cool extruding temperature (195-200C) decrease the stringing and increases the details in the models.3. Layer heigh - 0,150mm. This is the best compromise between the print time, the quality and the usability of the models.3. Perimeters (shell thickness) - 4 perimeters. One perimeter means one string of 3d printed material. It's width depends on the nozzle diameter and the layer thickness. For Prusa MK3 with 0,4mm nozzle 1 perimeter is ~0,4mm. To achieve a realistic cortical bone, use 4 perimeters (1,7mm). The surgeons loves to cut stuff, including the models, in some cases I have to print several models for training purposes. 4 perimeters PLA feels like a real bone.4. Infill - 15% 3d infill (gyroid, cuboid or 3d honey comb). The gyroid is the best - it looks and feels like a spongy bone. It's important to provide a realistic tactile sensation for the surgeons, especially the trainees. They have to be able to feel the moment, when they pass the cortical bone and rush into the spongiosa.5. Color - different colors for every fracture fragment. If the model is combined with a 3D visualization, which colors corresponds with the colors of the 3d print, this will make the premodelling work much easier for the surgeons. Also, it looks professional and appealing. 6. Postprocessing - a little sanding and a touch of a acrylic varnish will make the model much better.7. Support material - every slicer software can generate support, based on the angle between the building platform and the Z axis of the model. You can control this in details with support blockers and support enforcers, which for the bones is not necessary, but it's crucial for the vessels and the heart.Conclusions - the bone models are easy to make, they look marvelous and can really change the outcome of every orthopedical surgery.
  13. The Coalition for Imaging and Bioengineering Research (CIBR) is a dedicated partnership of academic radiology departments, patient advocacy groups, and industry with the mission of enhancing patient care through advances in Biomedical Imaging. My good friend and colleague Dr. Beth Ripley and I recently participated in the sixth annual Medical Technology Showcase at Capitol Hill organized by CIBR, representing the Department of Radiology at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) where we emphasized the importance of 3D printing in healthcare. The annual Medical Technology showcase aims to bring examples of medical breakthroughs in imaging and bioengineering to members of congress and demonstrate how these advances are impacting patient care. In addition to educating policy makers and the public about innovative imaging technology, the event demonstrates the value of NIH funded academic research and the importance of collaborations between academia, industry and patient advocacy groups. Our display booth comprised of the Department of Radiology at BWH, the Lung Cancer Alliance, and Fujifilm was a hit among attendees and we were pleased to see the level of interest in medical 3D printing. We displayed 3D printed models that have been used for different clinical applications and our booth partners from Fujifilm demonstrated Synapse 3D, a software that allows conversion of 2D image data from CT/MRI into 3D printable files. Our goal was to demonstrate the importance of 3D printing in pre-surgical planning and how it can benefit patients by allowing surgeons to devise a patient specific treatment strategy and minimize post-surgical complications. Sheila Ross, a lung cancer survivor and patient advocate from the Lung Cancer Alliance emphasized how 3D printed models can give patients and their families a better understanding of the planned procedure. A lung model from Fujifilm demonstrating a nodule (green) and surrounding bronchioles The Lung & Brain cookies might have been slightly more popular than our 3D models It is our hope that more funding and resources will be allocated to investigate innovative medical technologies such as 3D printing, which can then be translated to impact patient care. In order to transform 3D printing from being a fad, to a mainstream tool that fosters precision medicine, evidence based benefits of its different applications will need to be demonstrated in clinical trials which will require funding. Tatiana Kelil, MD
  14. 172 downloads

    This anatomically accurate 3D printable sphenoid bone was created by Dr. Marco Vettorello, who has graciously given permission to share it here. The sphenoid bone forms the base of the skull. It houses the sella turcica, which protects the pituitary gland and the sphenoid air cells which are part of the paranasal sinus system. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. This file is also available here.

    Free

  15. Vascular Training Models Venous Models: IVC Filter Deployment/Retrieval Model: VIVC01000M Iliac Vein Stenosis Extension Model: VIVC01E2SC Gonadal Vein Embolization Extension Model: VGON01000C Femoral Vein Extension Model: VFEM01000C Flexible SVC Extension Model: VSVC01000F Vascular Training Models Arterial Models: Extendable Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD02000C Upper and Lower Leg Extension Model: AALE01000C Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm EVAR Model: AAAA01000C Stand-Alone Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD01000C Description: The gonadal vein embolization model is a two-part model that is compatible with the standard IVC filter deployment/ retrieval model. It consists of a modified IVC segment that snaps into place in the IVC position, and a distal gonadal vein segment. The pathologically dilated gonadal vein is from a real patient with severe pelvic congestion syndrome and consists of a dilated left gonadal vein that measures 11 mm in diameter. The abnormal vein can be accessed from the femoral or jugular approach and is perfect for deploying coils, occlusion devices, or foam. Once deployed the embolization devices can be easily removed. Contact us for model information and prices
    Procedures that this model can teach or practice: Gonadal vein embolization Renal vein sampling Adrenal vein sampling Compatibility: Iliac vein stenosis extension model (# VIVC01E2SC) Femoral vein extension model (# VFEM01000C) Flexible SVC extension model (# VSVC01000F) Required models: This model should be used with the IVC Filter Deployment and Retrieval Model (# VIVC01000M) For questions and pricing contact us. Please include the model name and number with your inquiry: Gonadal Vein Embolization Extension Model (# VGON01000C)
  16. Vascular Training Models Venous Models: IVC Filter Deployment/Retrieval Model: VIVC01000M Iliac Vein Stenosis Extension Model: VIVC01E2SC Gonadal Vein Embolization Extension Model: VGON01000C Femoral Vein Extension Model: VFEM01000C Flexible SVC Extension Model: VSVC01000F Vascular Training Models Arterial Models: Extendable Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD02000C Upper and Lower Leg Extension Model: AALE01000C Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm EVAR Model: AAAA01000C Stand-Alone Abdominal Aorta Model: AABD01000C Description: The IVC filter deployment/retrieval medical training model includes all the major venous structures in the human torso from the right jugular vein of the neck to the right and left common femoral veins at the level of the hips. The model allows for the education and training in a variety of venous and IVC filter related procedures. The model was created from a real CT scan so the vessel positions, diameters, and angles are all real. Entry points are present at the right jugular vein and brachiocephalic vein for upper body access, and the bilateral common femoral veins for lower body access. Attachments are present to make placement of a real vascular sheath easy. The model can be used to illustrate specific devices for the procedures listed and is used by medical device companies to demonstrate and teach the use of their products. The IVC model comes in a rugged and portable carrying case and is easily transportable. It assembles and disassembles in less than 20 seconds. A variety of extensions are available to expand the number of procedures that can be simulated. Contact us for model information and prices
    Procedures that this model can teach or practice: IVC filter placement, jugular or femoral approach Common iliac filter placement, jugular or femoral approach IVC filter retrieval Venous stenting IVC and iliac vein thrombectomy or thrombolysis Venous embolization Hepatic vein cannulation Compatibility: Iliac vein stenosis extension model (# VIVC01E2SC) Gonadal vein embolization extension model (# VGON01000C) Femoral vein extension model (# VFEM01000C) Flexible SVC extension model (# VSVC01000F) For questions and pricing contact us. Please include the model name and number with your inquiry: IVC Filter Deployment and Retrieval model (# VIVC01000M)
  17. I'm trying to 3d print my own skull just for fun and well I have the DCOM file but every time when I try and convert it the whole skull doesn't come out. Whenever I convert the DCOM file any of them it only gives me from the top do about the middle of the eye socket and i want the whole thing. Can someone please help me and tell me what i might be doing wrong.
  18. I receive a lot of inquiries to my account. I'm going to try to share them with the community in the hope that any information that is shared can help many others. A member recently contacted me and asked the following: "I am a Biomaterials and Tissue Engineer by profession and recently got into 3d printing of medical implants. I would be greatly obliged if you could please advice me on designing 'cranial mesh' My task is to design titanium based cranial mesh. I would like to know if you can suggest me any tutorial on the same." Another member asks, " I am a resident in neurosurgery in Brazil and I have a dream to allow cheap cranioplasty for those in need that depend on Brazilian public health system. If you have some sort of tutorial using free software to make those prosthetic cranial grafts of a cheap way to make a mold out of it I will be glad to hear from you. I am planning on buying the ultimaker 2 printer which allows direct PEEK print and also PLA print for mold to go through autoclave." I must admit that I have limited experience with craniofacial implants. I know that the physicians at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Bethesda Maryland are doing pioneering work in the field. Regarding making titanium-based implants I am unaware of any tutorials, but a search on Pubmed has yielded a few helpful articles. Here is one https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073471/ From what I have seen most of these implants are designed using the Mimics system by Materialise. Regarding the low-cost solution for cranial implants, I'm not familiar with any freeware software that specifically does implants. From the hardware perspective, you may want to consider a Form 2 stereolithographic printer in addition to the Ultimaker 2 (FYI, there is a new Ultimaker 3 printer out). Formlabs, the makers of the Form 2 have a tutorial on using their printer to make molds for casting. https://formlabs.com/blog/3d-printing-for-injection-molding/ Formlabs has a dental biocompatible resin that I know some hospitals (Mayo Clinic) are using for in-surgery cutting guides. I heard them talk about that at a conference I recently attended. Whatever you do, make sure you follow the health safety rules in your country and take all necessary steps for patient safety.
  19. Please note the democratiz3D service was previously named "Imag3D" In this tutorial you will learn how to quickly and easily make 3D printable bone models from medical CT scans using the free online service democratiz3D®. The method described here requires no prior knowledge of medical imaging or 3D printing software. Creation of your first model can be completed in as little as 10 minutes. You can download the files used in this tutorial by clicking on this link. You must have a free Embodi3D member account to do so. If you don't have an account, registration is free and takes a minute. It is worth the time to register so you can follow along with the tutorial and use the democratiz3D service. >> DOWNLOAD TUTORIAL FILES AND FOLLOW ALONG << Both video and written tutorials are included in this page. Before we start you'll need to have a copy of a CT scan. If you are interested in 3D printing your own CT scan, you can go to the radiology department of the hospital or clinic that did the scan and ask for the scan to be put on a CD or DVD for you. Figures 1 and 2 show the radiology department at my hospital, called Image Management, and the CDs that they give out. Most radiology departments will have you sign a written release and give you a CD or DVD for free or with a small processing fee. If you are a doctor or other healthcare provider and want to 3D print a model for a patient, the radiology department can also help you. There are multiple online repositories of anonymized CT scans for research that are also available. Figure 1: The radiology department window at my hospital. Figure 2: An example of what a DVD containing a CT scan looks like. This looks like a standard CD or DVD. Step 1: Register for an Embodi3D account If you haven't already done so, you'll need to register for an embodi3d account. Registration is free and only takes a minute. Once you are registered you'll receive a confirmatory email that verifies you are the owner of the registered email account. Click the link in the email to activate your account. The democratiz3D service will use this email account to send you notifications when your files are ready for download. Step 2: Create an NRRD file with Slicer If you haven't already done so, go to slicer.org and download Slicer for your operating system. Slicer is a free software program for medical imaging research. It also has the ability to save medical imaging scans in a variety of formats, which is what we will use it for in this tutorial. Next, launch Slicer. Insert your CD or DVD containing the CT scan into your computer and open the CD with File Explorer or equivalent file browsing application for your operating system. You should find a folder that contains numerous DICOM files in it, as shown in Figure 3. Drag-and-drop the entire DICOM folder onto the Slicer welcome page, as shown in Figure 4. Click OK when asked to load the study into the DICOM database. Click Copy when asked if you want to copy the images into the local database directory. Figure 3: A typical DICOM data set contains numerous individual DICOM files. Figure 4: Dragging and dropping the DICOM folder onto the Slicer application. This will load the CT scan. Once Slicer has finished loading the study, click the save icon in the upper left-hand corner as shown in Figure 5. One of the files in the list will be of type NRRD. make sure that this file is checked and all other files are unchecked. click on the directory button for the NRRD file and select an appropriate directory to save the file. then click Save, as shown in Figure 6. Figure 5: The Save button Figure 6: The Save File box The NRRD file is much better for uploading then DICOM. Instead of having multiple files in a DICOM data set, the NRRD file encapsulates the entire study in a single file. Also, identifiable patient information is removed from the NRRD file. The file is thus anonymized. This is important when sending information over the Internet because we do not want identifiable patient information transmitted. Step 3: Upload the NRRD file to Embodi3D Now go to www.embodi3d.com, click on the democratiz3D navigation menu and select Launch App, as shown in Figure 7. Drag and drop your NRRD file where indicated. While NRRD file is uploading, fill in the "File Name" and "About This File" fields, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 7: Launching the democratiz3D application Figure 8: Uploading the NRRD file and entering basic information To complete basic information about your NRRD file. Do you want it to be private or do you want to share it with the community? Click on the Private File button if the former. If you are planning on sharing it, do you want it to be a free or a paid (licensed) file? Click the appropriate setting. Also select the License Type. If you are keeping the file private, these settings don't matter as the file will remain private. Make sure you accepted the Terms of Use, as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9: Basic information fields about your uploaded NRRD file Next, turn on democratiz3D Processing by selecting the slider under democratiz3D Processing. Make sure the operation CT NRRD to Bone STL is selected. Leave the default threshold of 150 in place. Choose an appropriate quality. Low quality produces small files quickly but the output resolution is low. Medium quality is good for most applications and produces a relatively good file that is not too large. High quality takes the longest to process and produces large output files. Bear in mind that if you upload a low quality NRRD file don't expect the high quality setting to produce a stellar bone model. Medium quality is good enough for most applications. If you wish, you have the option to specify whether you want your output file to be Private or Shared. If you're not sure, click Private. You can always change the visibility of the file later. If you're happy with your settings, click Save & Submit Files. This is shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: Entering the democratiz3D Processing parameters. Step 4: Review Your Completed Bone Model After about 10 to 20 minutes you should receive an email informing you that your file is ready for download. The actual processing time may vary depending on the size and complexity of the file and the load on the processing servers. Click on the link within the email. If you are already on the embodied site, you can access your file by going to your profile. Click your account in the upper right-hand corner and select Profile, as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Finding your profile. Your processed file will have the same name as the uploaded NRRD file, except it will end in "– processed". Renders of your new 3D model will be automatically generated within about 6 to 10 minutes. From your new model page you can click "Download this file" to download. If you wish to share your file with the community, you can toggle the privacy setting by clicking Privacy in the lower right-hand corner. You can edit your file or move it from one category to another under the File Actions button on the lower left. These are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: Downloading, sharing, and editing your new 3D printable model. If you wish to sell your new file, you can change your selling settings under File Actions, Edit Details. Set the file type to be Paid, and specify a price. Please note that your file must be shared in order for other people to see it. This is shown in Figure 13. If you are going to sell your file, be sure you select General Paid File License from the License Type field, or specify your own customized license. For more information about selling files, click here. Figure 13: Making your new file available for sale on the Embodi3D marketplace. That's it! Now you can create your own 3D printable bone models in minutes for free and share or sell them with the click of a button.If you want to download the STL file created in this tutorial, you can download it here. Happy 3D printing!
  20. 683 downloads

    This anatomically accurate human heart was created by Dr. Marco Vettorello, who has graciously given permission to share it here. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP. This file is also available here.

    Free

  21. From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This is sheep heart model 3D printed in elastic for flow testing of implantable aortic valves. Note the custom manifold attachments. To learn more about our services, click this link. https://www.embodi3d.com/custom-3d-printing-for-medical-device-development/
  22. Hello the Biomedical 3D Printing community, it's Devarsh Vyas here writing after a really long time! This time i'd like to share my personal experience and challenges faced with respect to medical 3D Printing from the MRI data. This can be a knowledge sharing and a debatable topic and I am looking forward to hear and know what other experts here think of this as well with utmost respect. In the Just recently concluded RSNA conference at Chicago had a wave of technology advancements like AI and 3D Printing in radiology. Apart from that the shift of radiologists using more and more MR studies for investigations and the advancements with the MRI technology have forced radiologists and radiology centers (Private or Hospitals) to rely heavily on MRI studies. We are seeing medical 3D Printing becoming mainstream and gaining traction and excitement in the entire medical fraternity, for designers who use the dicom to 3D softwares, whether opensource or FDA approved software know that designing from CT is fairly automated because of the segmentation based on the CT hounsifield units however seldom we see the community discuss designing from MRI, Automation of segmentation from MRI data, Protocols for MRI scan for 3D Printing, Segmentation of soft tissues or organs from MRI data or working on an MRI scan for accurate 3D modeling. Currently designing from MRI is feasible, but implementation is challenging and time consuming. We should also note reading a MRI scan is a lot different than reading a CT scan, MRI requires high level of anatomical knowledge and expertise to be able to read, differentiate and understand the ROI to be 3D Printed. MRI shows a lot more detailed data which maybe unwanted in the model that we design. Although few MRI studies like the contrast MRI of the brain, Heart and MRI angiograms can be automatically segmented but scans like MRI of the spine or MRI of the liver, Kidney or MRI of knee for example would involve a lot of efforts, expertise and manual work to be done in order to reconstruct and 3D Print it just like how the surgeon would want it. Another challenge MRI 3D printing faces is the scan protocols, In CT the demand of high quality thin slices are met quite easily but in MRI if we go for protocols for T1 & T2 weighted isotropic data with equal matrix size and less than 1mm cuts, it would increase the scan time drastically which the patient has to bear in the gantry and the efficiency of the radiology department or center is affected. There is a lot of excitement to create 3D printed anatomical models from the ultrasound data as well and a lot of research is already being carried out in that direction, What i strongly believe is the community also need advancements in terms of MRI segmentation for 3D printing. MRI, in particular, holds great potential for 3D printing, given its excellent tissue characterization and lack of ionizing radiation but model accuracy, manual efforts in segmentation, scan protocols and expertise in reading and understanding the data for engineers have come up as a challenge the biomedical 3D printing community needs to address. These are all my personal views and experiences I've had with 3D Printing from MRI data. I'm open to and welcome any tips, discussions and knowledge sharing from all the other members, experts or enthusiasts who read this. Thank you very much!
  23. E-Nabling the Future is a volunteer organization dedicated to creating inexpensive 3D printable prosthetic hands and arms for children around the globe who are missing limbs. The movement has grown from an informal collaboration to a veritable movement, and they are now producing functional and inexpensive prosthetic limbs. Traditionally designed arm and hand prostheses can cost up to $40,000. According to 3Dprint.com, it is now possible to create an entire functional my electric arm for $350. Their most recent innovation uses electrical impulses from the bicep muscle to open and close the hand. This enabled a six-year-old boy named Alex who is missing his right arm to give his mother a big hug. The picture of Alex's myoelectric prosthetic right hand gave me a sense of déjà vu -- I swear I had seen something like this before. Then it hit me. The prosthetic is eerily similar to Luke's prosthetic hand in The Empire Strikes Back. Thanks to the volunteers at E-Nabling the Future, science fiction is becoming science fact, and children are the beneficiaries of this amazing movement. Please check out the E-Nabling the Future website, and if you are so inclined give a donation to this worthy cause. For updates on news and new blog entries, follow us on Twitter at @Embodi3D. Select images by Kt Crabb Photography
  24. I've been working on ways to artistically expand on 3D printed anatomic models beyond an exact replica of the anatomy. My first project is this Lace Skull. The skull is based on an anatomically accurate skull generated from a CT scan. I have made several of the earlier skull models available for download on the Embodi3D website here and here. Using a variety of methods, I have transformed the skull and given it a unique lace-like appearance. The overall surface contours are still anatomically accurate. The lace-like texture gives the model its unique aesthetic but also cuts down on printing material while maintaining mechanical strength. I have made the STL files available for FREE download in the File Vault section of the Embodi3D website. You can find the STL files here (HALF-SIZE | FULL-SIZE). If you 3D print this file, please report back regarding your outcome. I printed a half-size model using the "White, Strong & Flexible" nylon material on Shapeways. If you would rather have Shapeways print the model and ship it to you for a fee, you can go Shapeways to directly order the models here (HALF-SIZE | FULL-SIZE). I hope you enjoy this 3D printable model. Please report back on your experiences with printing the model. Also, please share your own 3D printable creations with the community in the File Vault section of the website.
  25. UPDATED TUTORIAL: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes Hello, it's Dr. Mike here again with another tutorial and video on medical 3D printing. In this tutorial we're going to learn how to take a DICOM-based medical imaging scan, such as a CT scan, and convert into an STL file in preparation for 3D printing. We will use the free, open-source software program Osirix to do this. Once the file is converted into STL format, we will use the free software packages Blender and Meshmixer to prepare the file for 3D bioprinting. If mastered, this material should easily allow you to make a high-quality 3D printed medical model in less than 30 minutes using free software. Expensive, proprietary software is not needed. This tutorial is designed primarily for Macintosh users since Osirix is a Macintosh-only program. If you use Windows or Linux, please stay tuned for my upcoming tutorial on using free, open-source 3D Slicer to create medical and anatomic models. If you haven't already done so, please see my tutorial on selecting the best medical scan to create a 3D printed model. If you start your 3D printed model project with the wrong kind of scan, your model will not turn out well. Selecting the right kind of scan is critically important and will save you a lot of frustration. Take a few minutes to look over this brief tutorial. It will be well worth your time. Before you start, DOWNLOAD THE FILE PACK that accompanies this video so you can follow along on your own computer. When you finish the tutorial, you will have your very own 3D printable skull STL file. Download is free for members, and registration for membership is also free and only takes a minute. Video 1: The video version of this tutorial. It takes you from start to finish in 30 minutes. The written version here has more detail though. A Few Brief Definitions What is Osirix? Osirix is a Macintosh-only software package for reading medical imaging scans (Figure 1). There are several versions. There is an FDA-approved version designed for doctors reading scans in clinics and hospitals, a 64-bit version for research and other nonclinical activities, and a free, 32-bit version. The main difference between the free 32-bit version and the paid 64-bit version is the 64-bit version can open very large imaging studies, such as MRI exams with thousands of images. The 32-bit version is limited to about 500 images. Additionally, there is a performance boost with the paid versions. If you are just getting into 3D bioprinting, the free, 32-bit version is a great place to start. It can be downloaded at the Osirix website here. Figure 1: An example of Osirix being used to read a CT scan. What is DICOM? DICOM stands for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine. It is the standard file format for most medical imaging scans, such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Residence Imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and x-ray imaging studies. What is STL? STL, or STereoLithography format , is an engineering file format created by 3D Systems for use with Computer Aided Design software (CAD). The file format is primarily used in engineering, and has become the standard file format for 3D printing. The Problem with 3D Printing Anatomic Structures The major problem with trying to 3D print anatomic structures from medical scans is that the medical scan data is in DICOM format and 3D printers require files in STL format. The two formats are incompatible. There are very expensive, proprietary software packages that can perform the conversion between DICOM and STL. A little-known secret is that this can also be done using free, open-source software. Osirix is the best solution for Macintosh. 3D Slicer is the best solution for Windows and Linux. I will discuss 3D Slicer in an upcoming tutorial. If you haven't already, please download the DICOM data set we will be using in this tutorial. This data set is from a high quality CT scan of the brain and skull. It has been anonymized and has been put in the public domain for research by the US National Cancer Institute. Also included with the download packet are other files we will use for this tutorial, including the final STL file of the skull. The download is free for members, and registration for membership is also free and only takes a minute. From the Macintosh Finder navigate to the folder with the downloaded tutorial file pack and double-click on the file TCGA-06-5410 sharp.zip. Opening the CT scan with Osirix Open Osirix. From the File menu, click Import, Import Files. Click Open. (Figure 2) Figure 2: Importing the CT scan into Osirix Navigate to the folder that contains your DICOM data set. Click the Open button. Osirix will ask you if you want to copy the DICOM files into the Osirix database, or only copy the links to these files. Click "Copy Files." Osirix will begin to copy the files into the database. A progress bar will be shown on the lower left-hand corner. When the data is imported you'll see a small orange circle with a "+" in it. This orange circle will eventually go away when Osirix is finished analyzing the study, but you can open the study and work with it while Osirix does some cleanup postprocessing. Left click on the study. You will see an icon with a label "FIDUCIALS 1.0 SPO cor, 216 Images." This is a CT scan of the head with coronal slices at 1 mm intervals. Double-click on this icon, Figure 3. Figure 3: The study when opened Osirix will remind you that you're not supposed to be using it for diagnostic scan reading on real patients unless you are using the more expensive FDA approved version, Osirix MD we're just using it to create a 3D model, so click "I agree." At this point, the study will load. Use the mouse wheel or the bar on the top of the screen to scroll. You can see that this is a pretty decent CT scan of the head for 3D printing. There is not much artifact from metallic dental implants because the maxilla and mandible have been cut off. Segmenting the bony skull and creating a new series We can measure the density of the bony structures using the Region Of Interest or ROI tool. This measures the Hounsfield density, or CT density, of the target area. Select the oval tool from the drop-down menu, Figure 4. Figure 4: The ROI tool. Choose a region of bone using the oval tool. You will see that information about this region is displayed. What we are interested in is the mean density, which in this case is 1753.194, Figure 5. Figure 5: Density measurement using ROI tool. The mean density is 1753.194, as shown in maroon field. Use the ROI tool to select another region in the brain. You will see that the mean attenuation, or density, is much less, in this case 1059.137, Figure 6. Figure 6: Density measurement of the brain tissue. Finally, use the oval tool to choose an area in the air adjacent to the head. You can see that the mean attenuation of this region is 38.514, Figure 7. Figure 7: Density measurement of air. In this scan the Hounsfield attenuation numbers have been shifted. In a typical scan, air measures about -1000, soft tissue between 30 and 70, and bone typically greater than 300. In this scan those numbers have been increased by 1000. Since we were thorough enough to check the Hounsfield attenuation before moving on, we can easily correct for this shift. Under ROI menu select Grow Region 2D/3D Segmentation, Figure 8. Figure 8: The Grow Region tool In the Segmentation Parameters window that pops up, set the following: Lower Threshold 1150 Upper Threshold 3000. Generate a new series with: Inside pixels 1000 Outside pixels 0 Be sure to check the checkbox next to the Set Inside Pixels, and Set Outside Pixels fields, Figure 9. Figure 9: Setting up the Segmentation Parameters window. Next, make sure you select a starting point for the algorithm. Left click on one of the skull bones. Green crosshairs will show. All of the bone that is contiguous with point you clicked will now be highlighted in green, Figure 10. Figure 10: Setting the starting point for segmentation. The target region turns green. Click the Compute button Osirix will generate a new series with the bones being a single white color with a value of 1000, and everything else being a black color with a value of zero, Figure 11. Creating a separate series just for 3D printing purposes is the secret to getting good 3D models from Osirix. Trying to generate a 3D surface model directly from the 3D Surface Rendering function underneath the 3D Viewer menu is tempting to use, however it will not work well for generating STL files. This is not obvious, and the source of much frustration for beginners trying to use Osirix for 3D printing. Figure 11: The new bitmapped series shown on right of screen. This series has only two colors, black and white. It is idea for conversion to and STL surface model. Generating an STL file from the new bitmapped series Now we are ready to create our 3D surface model. Make sure that your new bitmapped series is highlighted. Click on the 3D viewer menu and select 3D Surface Rendering, Figure 12. Leave the settings set to their default values. Click OK as shown in Figure 13. Figure 12: Selecting 3D Surface Rendering Figure 13: Setting 3D surface rendering settings Osirix will then think for a few moments as it prepares the surface. You can see that a relatively good approximation of the skull has been generated. Use of the left mouse button to rotate the 3D model. Next were going to export the 3D surface model to an STL file. Click Export 3D-SR and choose Export as STL as show in Figure 14. Type the file name "skull file." Click Save. Figure 14: Exporting model to STL file format. Cleaning up the 3D model in Blender You can see from the 3D rendering that there are many small islands of material that have been included with the STL file. Also, the skull has a very pixelated appearance. It does not have the smooth surface that would be expected on a real skull. In order to fix these problems, we're going to do a little postprocessing in Blender, a free open-source 3D software program. If you don't already have Blender on your computer, you can download it free from blender.org. Blender is available for Windows, Macintosh, and Linux. Select your operating system, preferred installation method, and download mirror. Once Blender is installed on your computer, open it. In the default scene there will be a cube. We don't need this. Right click on the cube to select it. Then delete it using the delete key on a full keyboard or the X key on a laptop keyboard. Blender will ask you to confirm you want to delete the object. Click Delete as shown in Figure 15. Figure 15: Deleting the default cube. Next, we are going to import the skull STL file. From the File menu select Import, STL, as shown in Figure 16. Navigate to the skull STL file you saved from Osirix, and double-click it. Blender will think for a few seconds and then return to what appears to be an empty scene, as shown in Figure 17. Where is your skull? To find your skull, use the mouse scroll wheel to zoom out. If you zoom out far enough you will see the skull. The skull appears to be gigantic, as shown in Figure 18. This is because the default unit of measurement in the skull is 1 mm. In Blender, an arbitrary unit of measurement called a "blender unit" is used. When the skull was imported, 1 mm of real size was translated into 1 blender unit. Thus the skull appears to be hundreds of blender units large, and appears very big. Figure 16: Importing the STL file into Blender Figure 17: The "empty" scene. Where is the skull? Figure 18: Zoom out and the skull appears! The skull is also offset from the origin. We are going to correct that. Make sure that the skull is still selected by right clicking on it. If it is selected it will have a orange halo. In the lower left corner of the window click on the Object menu. Select Transform, Geometry to Origin as shown in Figure 19. The skull is now centered on the middle of the scene. Figure 19: Centering the skull in the scene. Deleting Unwanted Mesh Islands First, let's get rid of the extra mesh islands. There is a menu in the lower left-hand corner of the window that says Object Mode. Click on this and go to Edit Mode, as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Entering Edit mode in Blender. Now we are in Edit Mode. In this mode we can edit individual edges and vertices of the model. Right now the entire model is selected because everything is orange. In edit mode you can select vertices, edges, or faces. This is controlled by the small panel of buttons on the bottom toolbar. Make sure that the leftmost or vertex selection mode is highlighted and then right click on a single vertex on the model, as shown in Figure 21. That vertex should become orange and everything else should become gray, because only that single vertex is now selected, Figure 22. Figure 21: Vertex selection mode Figure 22: Select a single vertex by right clicking on it. Under the Select menu, click Linked, as shown in Figure 23. Alternatively, you can hit Control-L. This selects every vertex that is connected to the initial vertex you selected. All the parts of the model that are contiguous with that first selection are now highlighted in orange. You can see that the many mesh islands we wish to get rid of are not selected. Figure 23: Selecting all linked vertices. We are next going to invert the selection. Do this by again clicking on the Select menu and choosing Inverse, Figure 24. Alternatively, you can hit Control-I. Now, instead of the skull being selected, all of the unwanted mesh islands are selected, as shown in Figure 25. Now we can delete them. Hit the delete key, or alternatively the X key. Blender asks you what you want to delete. Click Vertices, Figure 26. Now all of those unwanted mesh islands have been deleted. Figure 24: Inverting the selection. Figure 25: The result after inverting the selection. Only the unwanted mesh islands are selected! Figure 26: Deleting the unwanted mesh islands. Repairing Open Mesh Holes We can see that on the top of the skull there is a large hole where the skull was cut off by the scanner. Because the bone surface was cut off, Osirix left a gaping defect, Figure 27. Before 3D printing, this will have to be corrected. This is what is called a manifold mesh defect. It is an area where the surface of the model is not intact. A 3D printer will not know what to do with this, such as whether it should be filled in or left hollow. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to correct. Figure 27: A large open mesh hole at the top of the skull. Using the Select menu in the lower left-hand corner, click on Non-Manifold. This will select all of the non-manifold mesh defects in your model. You can see that the edge of our large hole at the top of the skull has been selected and turned orange. This confirms that this defect has to be fixed. Unselect by hitting the A key. Then, go to Edge select mode by clicking on the Edge Select button along the lower toolbar. Holding down the Alt key, right-click on one of the edges of the target defect, in this case the top of the skull. That familiar orange ring has formed. Your selection should look like Figure 28. Let's fill in this hole by creating a new face. Hit the F key. This creates a new face to close this hole, Figure 29. Figure 28: The edge of the hole is selected, as indicated by the orange color. Figure 29: The hole when filled with a new face. Due to the innumerable polygons along the edges, the face is actually quite a complex polygon itself. Let's convert it to a simpler geometry. With the face still selected hit Control T. You can alternatively go to the Mesh menu and select Faces, Triangulate Faces as shown in Figure 30. This will convert the complicated face into simpler triangles. As you can see, some of these triangles are quite large relative to the other triangles along the skull surface. These large triangles may become apparent when smoothing algorithms are applied or 3D printing is performed. Let's reduce their size. Hit the W key and then select Subdivide Smooth, as shown in Figure 31. The triangles are now subdivided. Let's repeat that operation again so that they are even smaller. Hit the W key and again select Subdivide Smooth. Figure 30: Converting all faces into triangles. ] Figure 31: Subdividing and smoothing the selected faces. Smoothing the Model Surface Next let's get rid of that pixelated appearance of the model surface. First, we need to convert all of the polygons in the model to triangles. The smoothing algorithms just work better with triangles. Staying in Edit mode, hit the A key. The A key toggles between selecting all and unselecting all. If you need to, hit the A key a second time until the entire model is orange, thus indicating that it is selected. Hit Control-T, or alternatively use the Mesh menu, Faces, Trangulate Faces. This will convert any remaining complex polygons to triangles. Go back to Object mode by hitting the tab button or selecting Object Mode from the bottom toolbar. We are now going to apply a smoothing function, called a modifier, to the skull. Along the right of the screen you'll see a series of icons, one of which is a wrench, as shown in Figure 32. Click on that. This brings up the modifier panel, a series of tools that Blender uses to manipulate digital objects. Click on the Add Modifier button and select the Smooth modifier. Do not select the Laplacian Smooth modifier. That is different. We just want the regular Smooth modifier, as shown in Figure 33. Leaving the Factor value at 0.5, increase the Repeat factor until you are satisfied with the surface appearance of your model. For me, a factor of 20 seemed to work, Figure 34. At this point the modifier is only temporary, and has not been applied to the model. Click on the Apply button. Now the smoothing function has been applied to the model. Figure 32: The Modifiers toolbar on the right. Figure 33: The Smooth modifier Figure 34: Setting the Smooth modifier to repeat 20 times. Rotating and Adjusting the Model Orientation When the model was originally exported from Osirix and opened in Blender, it was at a strange orientation. We can correct to this easily. Click on the View menu from the left portion of the lower now bar and select Front. This orients the model from the frontal view, and you can see that in this orientation we are looking at the top of the skull. To correct this, we will rotate the model along the X axis. First, make sure that the cursor is inside the model window. Then, Hit the R key and then the X key, and type "180." This will rotate the model on the X axis by 180°. Hit the return key to confirm the modification. Don't worry if the skull isn't facing the correct way right now, we will fix that later. Now we are ready to export our cleaned up skull model. Go to the File menu, click Export, STL. Navigate to your desired folder and save your STL file. Since I corrected several defects in this mesh file, I called the file "skull file corrected.stl" Performing a Final Inspection Using Meshmixer If you haven't already done so, go to the Autodesk Meshmixer website at http://www.meshmixer.com/download.html and download and install Meshmixer. The software is free. Once installed open the program and select Import. Navigate to your STL file and double-click it. Meshmixer has a variety of nice features, and one of them is a mesh correction function. Once your file is open click on the Analysis button along the left nav bar. Click on Inspector as shown in Figure 35. Meshmixer will now analyze the STL file for obvious mesh defects. Anything that is detected will be highlighted by red, pink, or blue lines. You can see that our skull model appears to be defect free. Click on the done button and quit Meshmixer. Figure 35: Running the inspector tool in MeshMixer Your STL file of the skull is now ready for 3D printing! Conclusion In this tutorial you have learned how to take a DICOM data set from a CT scan and use it to create a 3D printable STL file using free software. First we used the Osirix to segment a CT scan and convert it to an STL file. Then we performed cleanup operations on the STL file using the Blender and Meshmixer, both free programs. For additional information on how to select an appropriate CT or MRI scan for 3D printing please see my previous tutorial. If you want to learn more about using Blender to fix more extensive defects in bone models, you can view to other tutorials I have created: 3D Printing of Bones from CT Scans: A Tutorial on Quickly Correcting Extensive Mesh Errors using Blender and MeshMixer Preparing CT Scans for 3D Printing. Cleaning and Repairing STL Files from Bones using Blender, an advanced tutorial A variety of useful tutorials for 3D printing is available on the Tutorials page. If you are planning on attending the 2015 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) meeting in Chicago this November, look for my hands-on course "3D Printing and 3D Modeling with Free and Open-Source Software." I will give more tips and tricks for creating great 3D printed medical models using freeware. I hope you find this tutorial helpful in creating your own medical and anatomic models for 3D printing. Please stay tuned for my next tutorial on using the free, open-source program 3D Slicer to create medical 3D models on Windows and Linux platforms. If you are creating your own 3D printed medical models, please share your models with the Embodi3D community in the File Vault. If you have questions or comments, please leave a comment below or start a discussion thread in the Forums. Sample free downloads A Collection of Free Downloadable STL Skulls for you to 3D print yourself. 3D printable human heart in stackable slices, shows amazing internal anatomy. A Collection of Spine STL files to download and 3D print. Follow Embodi3D on social media Twitter | Facebook | LinkedIn | YouTube | Google+
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