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Found 2,076 results

  1. 3D Printed Skull and the embodi3D® Top 10 Skull and Head Anatomy This week, embodi3D® brings you the best 3D anatomical models of the skull and head region, including several fascinating files that you can use to create a 3D printed skull. For medical professionals, students, and researchers, understanding the structure of the human skull is an important part of delivering an accurate diagnosis. Using tools such as democratiz3D® also helps medical professionals such as radiologists and surgeons to prepare for unique operations. Recently, a team of surgeons at at Boston Children's Hospital used 3D printing to plan for a young patient's surgery with great success. Citing this case, the Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons praised the training and surgical education benefits of 3D printing. After checking out this week's Top 10 list, you may also find Dr. Mike's entires on "Creating a 3D Printable Skull from a CT Scan in 5 Minutes Using Freeware" and "A Ridiculously Easy Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes." A 3D-printed skull shown with prominent fracture to the forehead. If you haven't already, be sure to register with embodi3D® to take advantage of all of the tools and conversion algorithms available to embodi3D® and democratiz3D® users. Registering is absolutely free and we have a number of tutorials available to help you get up and running as quickly as possible. 1. Excellent 3D-Printed Model of the Frontal Bone Colloquially known as the "forehead," the frontal bone comprises the squamus, orbital, and nasal parts of the skull. It is one of eight bones that form the cranium, or brain case. The frontal bone plays a vital role in supporting and protecting the delicate nervous tissue of the brain. It gives shape to the skull and supports several muscles of the head. At its inferior border, the frontal bone forms the roof of the orbits and the brow. The coronal suture forms the posterior boundary of the frontal bone where it meets the parietal bones. The primary functions of the frontal bone are the protection of the brain and the support of the structures of the head. The hard mineral matrix of the frontal bone provides protection for the soft brain tissue. Although the frontal bone follows the ridges of the brain very closely, a small gap between the frontal bone and brain houses the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid of the cranium. The pressure exerted by cerebrospinal fluid on the interior of the cranium holds the brain in place and prevents the brain from colliding with the skull. 2. A 3D Model of the Skull Base in Exquisite Detail A 3D model of the skull base with exquisite detail. The skull base forms the floor of the cranial cavity and separates the brain from other facial structures. This anatomic region is complex and poses surgical challenges for otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons alike. Working knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the skull base is essential for effective surgical treatment of disease in this area. The 5 bones that make up the skull base are the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, paired frontal, and paired temporal bones. The skull base can be subdivided into 3 regions: the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae. (See the image below.) The petro-occipital fissure subdivides the middle cranial fossa into 1 central component and 2 lateral components. This article discusses each region, with attention to the surrounding structures, nerves, vascular supply, and clinically relevant surgical landmarks. 3. A 3D Model of the Paranasal Sinuses The paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the bones of the skull and facial bones. They are centered on the nasal cavity and have various functions, including lightening the weight of the head, humidifying and heating inhaled air, increasing the resonance of speech, and serving as a crumple zone to protect vital structures in the event of facial trauma. Four sets of paired sinuses are recognized: maxillary, frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid (see the image below 4. Right Maxillary Bone Show in Anatomically Accurate Detail The maxilla consists of maxillary bones that form the upper jaw; together they are the keystone of the face, for all other immovable facial bones are connected to them. Portions of these bones make up the front of the roof of the mouth (hard palate), the floors of the orbits, and the sides and floor of the nasal cavity. They also contain the sockets of the upper teeth. Inside the maxillae, on the sides the nasal cavity, are the maxillary sinuses (antrum of Highmore). These air-filled spaces are the largest of the sinuses, and they extend from the floor of the orbits to the roots of the upper teeth. 5. Create a 3D Printed Anatomical Sphenoid Bone The sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. It consists of a central part and two wing-like structures that extend sideways toward each side of the skull. This bone helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits (eye sockets). Along the middle, within the cranial cavity, a portion of the sphenoid bone rise. 6. A Mandible (Jawbone) 3D Printed from a CT Scan with democratiz3D® The mandible, or jawbone, is the only movable bone in the skull. It is the strongest and most massive bone in the face. The mandible plays a vital role in many common tasks, including chewing, speech, and facial expression. The mandible is one of the twenty-two bones that make up the skull and the only one of those bones that is not fused to its neighbors. It is often called the lower jawbone as it is located inferior to the maxillae, which contain the top row of teeth. Stretching from the left temporal bone to the right temporal bone, the mandible forms a flat arch with 16 teeth embedded in its superior surface. At the left and right temporal bones, the mandible begins as a pair of bony cylinders known as the condyles. The condyles form the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) with the temporal bones before narrowing into the necks of the mandible. From the necks, the mandible widens considerably as it descends obliquely in the inferior and anterior directions to form the rami of the mandible. A large pointed projection, known as the coronoid process, extends superiorly from each ramus and is separated from the condyle by the mandibular notch. The mandibular foramina, a pair of holes for nerves and blood vessels to enter the mandible and support the teeth, perforate the rami on their medial surface just below the coronoid process. 7. A Highly Detailed, 3D Printer-Ready File of the Ethmoid Bone The ethmoid bone is located in front of the sphenoid bone. It consists of two masses, one on each side of the nasal cavity, which is joined horizontally by thin cribriform plates. These plates form part of the roof of the nasal cavity, and nerves (ethmoidal cells) associated with the sense of smell pass through tiny openings in them. Portions of the ethmoid bone also form sections of the cranial floor, eye sockets, and nasal cavity walls. A perpendicular plate projects downward in the middle from the cribriform plates to form the bulk of the nasal septum. Delicate scroll-shaped plates called superior and middle nasal conchae project inward from the sides of the ethmoid bone toward the perpendicular plate. These bones, which are called the turbinate bones, support mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity. 8. A 3D-Printable Mandible (Jawbone) File This excellent 3D-printed mandible and the the 3D printer-ready file come by way of Dr. Marco Vettorello. As you likely know, the mandible forms the lower portion of the skull. This upload shows all the nuances of the CT scan-generated, anatomically accurate mandible. 9. Three-Dimensional Model of Labyrinthitis of the Inner Ear Labyrinthitis is an inflammatory disorder of the inner ear, or labyrinth. Clinically, this condition produces disturbances of balance and hearing to varying degrees and may affect one or both ears. Bacteria or viruses can cause acute inflammation of the labyrinth in conjunction with either local or systemic infections. Autoimmune processes may also cause labyrinthitis. Vascular ischemia may result in acute labyrinthine dysfunction that mimics labyrinthitis. ( 10. A 3D Printable Skull with Fracture (STL Format) A 3D printable STL file of a face and skull with bone fractures was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. Facial fractures occur for a variety of reasons related to sports participation: contact between players (eg, a head, fist, elbow); contact with equipment (eg, balls, pucks, handlebars); or contact with the environment, obstacles, or a playing surface (eg, wrestling mat, gymnastic equipment, goalposts, trees). Direct body contact accounts for the majority of sports-related injuries, and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck region. Sports like football, baseball, and hockey account for a high percentage of facial injuries among young adults. Forces that are required to produce a fracture of the facial bones are as follows: Nasal fracture – 30 g Zygoma fractures – 50 g Mandibular (angle) fractures – 70 g Frontal region fractures – 80 g Maxillary (midline) fractures – 100 g Mandibular (midline) fractures – 100 g Supraorbital rim fractures – 200 g References 1. Human Anatomy: Learn All About the Human Body at InnerBody.com. (2018). InnerBody. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from http://www.innerbody.com/ 2. Medscape Reference - Comprehensive peer-reviewed medical condition, surgery, and clinical procedure articles with symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, drugs and medications, prognosis, follow-up, and pictures. (2018). Reference.medscape.com. Retrieved 22 July 2018, from https://reference.medscape.com/ 3. Kim, H., Roh, H., & Lee, I. (2016). Craniosynostosis : Updates in Radiologic Diagnosis. Journal Of Korean Neurosurgical Society, 59(3), 219. doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.3.219
  2. Claudio

    Columna

    Version 1.0.0

    47 downloads

    RM de culumna lumbar. Lumbago en estudio. Discopatías L4-5 y L5-S1 Hernia discal L4-5 levemente descendida posterolateral izquerda que determina conflicto de espacio radicular. Cambios regresivos interfacetarios lumbares bajos. Diagnostico e informe validado por Dr. Pablo Andres Rodriguez Covili, Medico Neurorradiólogo Integramédica, Santaigo, Chile. 06-03-2015 Paciente Claudio Solis Carrazana espalda, columna, lumbar, spine, stl, dicom, mri without contrast

    Free

  3. Version 1.0.0

    16 downloads

    This 3D printable STL file contains a model of the skull base was derived from a real medical CT scan. Some artifact from dental fillings is present. This model was created using the democratiz3D free online 3D model creation service. QIN-HN-01-0003 .stl, 3d, printing, model, skull, base, jaw, mandible, artifact, base, foramina, .stl, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, mastoid, process, cervical, lordosis, atlas, axis,

    Free

  4. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    Porras medium bones detalled - processed, bone, 3d, model, stl, maxilla, mandible, teeth, arch, cervical, spine, vertebrae, sphenoid, hard, palate, medulla

    Free

  5. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa - processed bone, 3d, model, temporal, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid, nasal, pterygoid, nasal, palate, upper, paranasal, sinuses, foramina, foramen, magnum, clivus, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, teeth, tooth, coronoid, process, arch, base, skull,

    Free

  6. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa22 - processed, bone, 3d, model, temporal, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid, nasal, pterygoid, nasal, palate, upper, paranasal, sinuses, foramina, foramen, magnum, clivus, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, teeth, tooth, coronoid, process, arch,

    Free

  7. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    First 3D model aneurism, vessels, 3dmodel, stl, 3dmodel, stl, head, vessels, posterior, willis, polygon, media,

    Free

  8. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    porra - processed, teeth, 3d, model, bone, maxilla, cervical, spine, .stl, incisor, molar, canine, maxillofacial, 3d, model, printable, angle, ramus, body, coronoid, process, axial, atlas, bone,

    Free

  9. Version 1.0.0

    2 downloads

    CT Bone- maxilla and mandible - processed .stl, 3d, model, bone, nasal, septum, vomer, maxilla, zygomatic, arch, head, skull,

    Free

  10. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    test - stl file processed, skull, .stl, bone, sphenoid, 3d, model, occipital, 3d, model, base, foramina, maxillofacial, maxilla, pterygoid, process,

    Free

  11. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    test - stl file processed, .stl, 3d, model, bone, sphenoid, skull, occipital, .stl, 3d, model, printable, orbit, nasal, spine, foramina, zygomatic, arch, foramen, magnum,

    Free

  12. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    try - stl file processed, 3d, model, .stl, temporal, bone, sphenoid, nasal, .stl, spine, mandible, foramen, magnum, clivus, zygomatic, arch, ethmoid, vomer, palate, pterygoid,

    Free

  13. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    GSW to the face - stl file processed, bone, 3d, model, .stl, mandible, cervical, spine, maxilla, nasal, angle, ramus, body, atlas, axis, zygomatic, arch, sphenoid,

    Free

  14. Version 1.0.0

    0 downloads

    kavita - stl file processed, maxilla, sinus, bone, 3d, model, .stl, eye, mandible, .stl, 3d, model, angle, ramus, body, nasal, head, skull,

    Free

  15. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    My first CT - stl file processed, maxilla, teeth, cervical, spine, 3d, model, bone, .stl, zygomatic, arch, body, coronoid, process, incisor, molar, canine, dental, dentistry, axis, atlas, clivus, 3d, model, printable,

    Free

  16. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    NEERD - stl file processed, sphenoid, bone, 3d, model, zygomatic, skull, .stl, maxilla, paranasal, sinuses, vomer, lower,

    Free

  17. Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    Riley_Skull_3 - stl file processed, animal, 3d, model, stl, mandible, jaw, skull, bone, printable, k9, dog, veterinary

    Free

  18. Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    Andre Chen - stl file processed, stl, 3d model, mandible, maxilla, arch, teeth, canine, incisive, bone, 3d, model, printable, nasal, septum,

    Free

  19. A Foot 3D Model and Other Anatomical Models of the Lower Extremities Food 3D Model | embodi3D® This week we want to share some of the best representations of how embodi3D® members are using democratiz3D® conversions to create a foot 3D model and other skin, tissue, and skeletal features of the lower extremities. Successful 3D (three-dimensional) printing from radiologic images is multidisciplinary; accurate models that represent patient anatomy and pathologic processes require close interaction between radiologists and referring physicians. Preoperative 3D printing of bone structures has expanded planning and navigation of orthopedic procedures. Recently, the American Journal of Roentgenology published a research article on how a 3D printing was used to plan a femoracetabular impingement surgery. 3D printing is also contributing to novel surgical approaches for osteotomies, fracture fixation, and arthroplasties. Three-dimensional printing is an essential tool in the design and testing of complicated or innovative reconstructive surgeries. If you are Interested in lower limb 3D Printing here are some resources: Free downloads of hundreds of 3D printable lower limb models. Automatically generate your own 3D printable lower limb models from CT or CBCT scans. Have a question? Post a question or comment in the forum. Dr. Mike has also put together a tutorial on how convert CT scans to 3D-printable bone STL files (in minutes), as well as creating multiple bone model STL files from a single CT scan. Be sure to check these out. We look forward to your uploads! 1. A CT DICOM Dataset Conversion Showing the Bones of the Feet An excellent example of lower extremity 3D model of bony anatomy and skin surface of the L and R feet, as extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 250 slices). 2. An Anatomically Precise 3D-Printed Talus Bone (Available for Free in STL Format) A 3D model human talus bone was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the talus bone -- a critical component of the ankle. In the attached thumbnails, the talus is shown in white with the rest of the foot bones in clear glass. 3. An Incredible 3D-Printed Leg model Showing Femur and Shaft Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the angle formed between the head and neck of the femur and its shaft (Mikulicz angle) is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees. Pathology It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechanism in congenital cases is a failure of medial growth of the physeal plate Classification One of the very early classifications proposed by Fairbank in 1928, is often considered most useful from a radiologic point of view. A slight modifcation of this system includes: idiopathic: congenital: mild or severe coxa vara, with associated congenital anomalies: see associations developmental: progressive, usually appearing between the ages of two and six years, with characteristic roentgenologic features rachitic: usually associated with active rickets adolescent: secondary to slipped capital femoral epiphysis traumatic: usually following fracture of the femoral neck (rare in children) inflammatory: secondary to tuberculosis or other infection secondary to other underlying bone diseases such as: osteogenesis imperfecta cretinism dyschondroplasia(s) Paget's disease osteoporosis capital coxa vara: occasionally seen in severe osteoarthritis and Legg-Perthes' disease 4. Use This STL File to 3D-Print an Ankle Bone This whole ankle was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the ankle bones. 5. View the Intricate Bones of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone) with this CT-Converted STL File This left calcaneus was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the heel and articular surfaces of the calcaneus in great detail. 6. 3D-Print a Left Knee Joint Model with this Excellent STL Upload (Converted from CT Scan) A 3D model of left knee, we can see that is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. 7. Colorized STL Files of the Uploader's Own Lower Leg This is an excellent 3D model of the segmented bones from a partial weight bearing CT scan of a healthy 25 year old male. There is also a model of the outer foot surface (skin) to have the full foot volume. All bones are separate as well as combined as a single file. Shoe size 10.5 for reference. 8. A 3D-Printable Distal Tibia Bone (Generated from CT Scan Data) This 3D printable distal tibia bone from the left leg was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of how the tibia articulates with the talus and distal fibula to form the ankle joint. In the thumbnails, the tibia is shown in white and the rest of the ankle bones in glass. 9. A CT-Converted Scan of the Feet, Showing the Intricate Bone Structure User mikefazz makes another appearance in our list with this CT scan of a 25-year-old healthy male (himself a few years back) partial weight bearing. 0.9766mm in plane and 0.5mm out of plane resolution. 10. Osteochondroma Detailed in a 3D-Printed Model of the Hip Bone A 3D model of a large osteochondroma on the posterior surface of the proximal femur. The popliteal artery is in close proximity to the osteochondroma. Osteochondroma, the most common benign bone lesion (representing about 45% of all benign bone tumors and 12% of all bone tumors) , is a cartilage- capped bony projection on the external surface of a bone. Usually diagnosed before the third decade, it most commonly involves the metaphyses of long bones, particularly around the knee and the proximal humerus. In general, the lower extremities are more often affected than the upper extremities. Malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma very rare, occurring in less than 1% of solitary lesions. Pain (in the absence of a fracture, bursitis, or pressure on nerves) and a growth spurt or continued growth of the lesion beyond skeletal maturity are highly suspicious for this complication. Variants of osteochondroma include subungual exostosis, turret exostosis, traction exostosis, bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), florid reactive periostitis, and dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (also known as intraarticular osteochondroma). References 1. Differential diagnosis of tumors and tumor-like lesions of bones and joints/Adam Greenspan and Wolfgang Remagen. 2007. 2. Marro, A., Bandukwala, T., & Mak, W. (2016). Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: a review of the methods and applications. Current problems in diagnostic radiology, 45(1), 2-9. 3. Mitsouras, D., Liacouras, P., Imanzadeh, A., Giannopoulos, A. A., Cai, T., Kumamaru, K. K., ... & Ho, V. B. (2015). Medical 3D printing for the radiologist. Radiographics, 35(7), 1965-1988.
  20. DICOM to STL Files and Other Medical Scans Uploaded to embodi3D® 3D printing is a technology that is constantly evolving, especially among medical professionals who are converting medical CT scans into 3D-printed anatomical models. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. In terms of research and education, 3D-printed anatomical models have proven to be a major benefit in helping students and researchers gain first-hand knowledge of specific conditions and the human anatomy. In a recent University of Pennsylvania research article ("From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models") there merits of DICOM to STL conversions are highlighted and this is a medical technology that will continue to grow in the coming years. As a manufacturing process, 3D printing is well suited for the generation of biomedical phantoms, which is essentially a low-volume process for patient-specific models. The relatively high tooling costs for alternative processes—such as lost-wax investment casting—make 3D printing a cost-effective choice. This week we want to share the top ten downloads of medical scans. 3D prnting technology can be aligned with the predefined educational need, as listed below. Teaching anatomy, patient education: To teach the anatomy and explain pathology, models constructed of hard materials are often sufficient. The low cost and most accessible method FDM is most certainly the best choice if there is no need for fine printing definition and if the size of the model is large, otherwise we would recommend SLA. Models obtained by SLA present more detail thus would be better for small printing models (eg, coronary arteries). However, in the case of the thoracic aortic model with root aneurysm we put the emphasis on the realism of the geometry by representing as much as details as possible which is why we needed to use one of the most accurate 3D printing method: PJ. It also allowed us to change easily the colours of the 3D printed model if desired. Surgical planning and review of procedure: Surgical planning and review of procedure do not necessarily require materials to have the same mechanical properties of the biological tissues. Hard material model can be well representative of the anatomical structure and once again, FDM and SLA might be your best options. Preprocedural planning: preprocedural planning models are more complicated to fabricate since they require materials mechanically representative to the biological tissues. Discussions on the matter are provided in the following section where all printing methods are eventually used. To see more CT scans, check out the embodi3D® Medical CT Scan Files library. Remember: to get the most out of embodi3D® you need to register on the embodi3D® website. It's completely free and will take only a few minutes of your time. Plus, you will gain access to many of our cutting-edge conversion tools and algorithms! 1. A Whole-Body CT Scan in DICOM and NRRD File Formats First place: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes which allows you to follow along with the tutorial. Included is an anonymized chest abdomen pelvis CT in both DICOM and NRRD formats. Take a look to this CT model of whole body. 2. An Incredible CT Scan of an Open Bite CT is indicated for implant site assessment in anatomically difficult cases or when extensive implant treatment is planned. In addition, bone quantity and quality, in the implantation area are evaluated in the CT scans. Classifications are based upon jaw shape (degree of resorption), bone quality (amount of compact bone) and bone density. Information about the location of vital structures, such as mandibular canal, mental foramen, incisive foramen, maxillary sinuses and nasal cavity can be evaluated. 3. Head and Neck CT Scan — Great Addition to our Top 10 Medical CT Scans! A source Head and Neck CT scan in NRRD file format for the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2017 course on Open-Source and Freeware Medical 3D Printing, RCA12 and RCA21, November 26 and 27, 2017. Be sure to view the full tutorial that uses this file here. https://meeting.rsna.org/program/index.cfm Search for "3D Printing Hands-on with Open Source Software: Introduction (Hands-on)" CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after intravenous contrast administration, the vessels become enhanced with contrast allow them to be differentiated from adjacent tissues. Following image acquisition, post-processing techniques are applied for better 3D visualization of the vessels and their abnormalities. 4. A Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan Showing a Chest Wall Tumor Tumors of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumors and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. - Benign: soft tissue , haemangioma: common, lymphangioma: common, lipoma: chest wall lipoma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma paraganglioma, skeletal (ribcage), fibrous dysplasia: common, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC): common, giant cell tumour (GCT), ossifying fibromyxoid tumour, chondromyxoid fibroma, osteochondroma, mesenchymal hamartoma of chest wall: sometimes even considered a developmental anomaly - Malignant: The most common malignant lesions are metastases. Lesions include: rhabdomyosarcoma: common, Ewing sarcoma: including Askin tumour (or pPNET), ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, skeletal (ribcage), chest wall metastases: common, myeloma, chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma, 5. CT Scan of the Brain and Structures (Without Contrast) This upload shows a CT scan of the human brain and related structures. This scan has not been contrast-enhanced. window: W:2800 L:600 Review the bones. This should always be performed, even when a bony algorithm hasn't been provided or where slice thickness is suboptimal. Note that if there is a history of trauma, then dedicated thin bony images are required to detect undisplaced fractures. Review the skull vault for any fractures or destructive lesions. Spend some time checking the base of the skull as the increased complexity of this region can make identification of abnormalities more difficult. Don't forget to ensure that both TMJs are normally aligned. Review the paranasal sinuses for evidence of fluid that may represent acute sinusitis or, in the correct setting, fractures. 6. Whole-Body NRRD File Showing the Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis A whole body NRRD file converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It includes a skin, bone and muscle 3D model. 7. Jawbone Implant as Shown in a 3D Model A 3D model of mandible implant with exquisite detail from a CT scan from planning. Current 3D-printers are easy to use and represent a promising solution for medical prototyping. The 3D printing will quickly become undeniable because of its advantages: information sharing, simulation, surgical guides, pedagogy. They allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 8. The Whole Body of a Female — Available in a 3D Printer-Ready Format A 3D model of female's whole body (with bone, muscle and skin 3D printing) 9. Head and Neck Scan from the Cancer Imaging Archives 62yo male skull from the Head-Neck Cetuximab collection of The Cancer Imaging Archives. 10. Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan of the Skull and Brain A brain CT scan with contrast showing all the structures of the skull and brain. References 1. Lekholm U, Zarb G. Patient selection and preparation. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb G, Albrektsson T, editors. Tissue-integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence; 1985 p. 199 – 209. 2. Wood MR, Vermilyea SG. A review of selected dental literature on evidence-based treatment planning for dental implants: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 92: 447 – 62. 3. Lindh C, Petersson A, Klinge B. Measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal in radiographs. Clin Oral Impl Res 1995; 6: 96 – 103. 4. Garcia, J., Yang, Z., Mongrain, R., Leask, R. L., & Lachapelle, K. (2018). 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(1), 27-40.
  21. Create a 3D-Printed Rib Cage and Thorax from STL Files As the second largest largest hollow cavity (largest space between bones), the thoracic cavity encases the lungs, trachea, pericardium, base and apex of the heart, esophagus, as well as all the vessels transporting blood between the lungs and heart. The ribs enclosing these vital organs also include skeletal features such as the sternum, vertebral column, and breastbone. The feature separating the thoracic cavity from the largest cavity in the body (abdominal cavity) is separated by the diaphragm, a muscular, membranous partition that is used to control respiration. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." As the technology behind medical 3D printing continues to advance, each iteration brings us closer to highly realistic simulations of thoracoscopic surgery, allowing surgeons to practice cutting, suturing, stapling, and a range of other thoracic surgical procedures. To get the most out of your time on the embodi3D® website (and use the many democratiz3D® medical 3D printing tools), you should register with embodi3D®. The process is free, easy, and will take just a few minutes of your time. And, it just might change the way you practice medicine. After you've browsed these STL files, you can also check out our growing CT scan collection showing various conditions of the thorax and ribs. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Chest Cavity Bones JCab uploaded this excellent 3D model of the bones of the rib cage without costochondral cartilage. The thoracic cavity has several functions. The first is to provide protection and support to the body’s vital organs. The thoracic cavity is surrounded by the rib cage and several layers of membranes, which help keep the organs protected from any dangers in the environment. #2. A 3D model of a Chance Fracture of T10 This 3D model created on embodi3D® features a fracture also known as flexion-distraction injury or seat belt fracture. Usually occurs from T11-L3 levels. – 78% occur between T12 and L2 levels * Occasionally at midthoracic spine * May have anterior injury at one level, posterior injury at adjacent one. Staging, Grading, & Classification • Osseous Chance fracture * Vertebral body fracture * Posterior element fractures: Pedicles, transverse processes, laminae, spinous process • Ligamentous Chance injury (uncommon) * Intervertebral disc * Facet dislocation * Ruptured interspinous ligaments • Osteoligamentous Chance injury * Variable combination of fracture and ligament injury #3. A 3D Model of the Sternum in STL Format This 3D model shows us the sternum also called breastbone, in the anatomy of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates), elongated bone in the centre of the chest that articulates with and provides support for the clavicles (collarbones) of the shoulder girdle and for the ribs. In mammals the sternum is divided into three parts, from anterior to posterior: (1) the manubrium, which articulates with the clavicles and first ribs; (2) the mesosternum, often divided into a series of segments, the sternebrae, to which the remaining true ribs are attached; and (3) the posterior segment, called the xiphisternum. In humans the sternum is elongated and flat; it may be felt from the base of the neck to the pit of the abdomen. The manubrium is roughly trapezoidal, with depressions where the clavicles and the first pair of ribs join. The mesosternum, or body, consists of four sternebrae that fuse during childhood or early adulthood. The mesosternum is narrow and long, with articular facets for ribs along its sides. The xiphisternum is reduced to a small, usually cartilaginous xiphoid (“sword-shaped”) process. The sternum ossifies from several centres. The xiphoid process may ossify and fuse to the body in middle age; the joint between manubrium and mesosternum remains open until old age. #4. A 3D Model Showing Rib Cage (Left Side) in STL The human skeleton has 12 pairs of ribs. Working from the top of the torso down, ribs 1 to 7 are considered "true ribs," as they connect directly from the spine to the sternum, Martinez says. Ribs 8 to 10 are called "false ribs" because they don't connect directly, but have cartilage that attaches them to the sternum. Ribs 11 and 12 are called "floating ribs" because they only connect to the spine in back. These, he says, "are much shorter." #5. Right Side of Ribs Shown in Medical 3D Model This incredible created on embodi3D® shows the right sided ribs with exquisite detail. The ribs allow chest expansion for breathing, Martinez explains. "They function similarly to the bucket handle on a bucket and swing upwards as we take a breath, allowing the thoracic cavity to expand." This increase in the thoracic cavity makes it easier to take a breath. #6. An Informative Tutorial on Showing Thoracic Cavity Arteries with STL Files This incredible chest and humerus was generated from a CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person- #7. STL File Showing a Three-Dimensional Model of a Clavicle The clavicle (collarbone) extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula. The clavicle has three main functions: - Attaches the upper limb to the trunk as part of the ‘shoulder girdle’. - Protects the underlying neurovascular structures supplying the upper limb. - Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton. #8. 3D Imaging of the Costal Cartilage Do you know that the sexual difference in pattern of human costal cartilages is statistically significant and thus highly predictive of sex determination? The first rib cartilages were not considered because there are no sex differences. The lower ribs exhibit sexual dimorphism. Mineralization and ossification changes appear at the end of puberty and their occurrence increases with age. #9. 3D Model of the Sternocostoclavicular Joint Many physicians are unfamiliar with the characteristics of the sternocostoclavicular joint (SCCJ). Disorders of the SCCJ, although common, frequently escape recognition. The most common SCCJ disorder is degenerative disease manifesting as osteoarthritis or as periarticular lesions causing antero-medial dislocation of the clavicle. Septic arthritis is the most severe disorder and can lead to mediastinitis. All inflammatory joint diseases, including spondyloarthropathies, can affect the SCCJ. SCCJ involvement is a typical component of the osteoarticular manifestations seen in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. #10. A 3D-Printable STL Medical File (Converted from CT Scan DICOM of Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage (rib cage) is the skeleton of the thoracic cavity. It is formed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum. Its main function is to give support and protection for the vital organs of the thorax. References 1. Rejtarová, O., Slizova, D., Smoranc, P., Rejtar, P., & Bukac, J. (2004). Costal cartilages–a clue for determination of sex. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 148(2), 241-243. 2. Le Loët, X., & Vittecoq, O. (2002). The sternocostoclavicular joint: normal and abnormal features. Joint Bone Spine, 69(2), 161-169. 3. Vertebral column | anatomy. (2018). Encyclopedia Britannica. 4. Giannopoulos, A. A., Steigner, M. L., George, E., Barile, M., Hunsaker, A. R., Rybicki, F. J., & Mitsouras, D. (2016). Cardiothoracic applications of 3D printing. Journal of thoracic imaging, 31(5), 253. 5. Ross, J. S., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Diagnostic Imaging: Spine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  22. I wanted to know that, is there any size difference between the .stl file generated form CT scan and the actual size of the skull of the patient. at the conversion, is there any dimensional change could be happen in the software.
  23. Version 1.0.0

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    This Brain model was created from a high resolution MRI scan. The model includes the cerebrum. The cerebellum and brain stem are not depicted. The model has been made hollow, with 4 mm wall thickness to save on material when 3D printing. The model is full-size. It has been successfully printed at full size on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer, and at 95% size on a Formlabs Form 2 printer. Technical parameters: Vertices: 350725 Triangles: 701950 Size: 17.9 x 13.4 x 11.5 cm

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    This is a 3D model of lumbar vertebrae ready for print., spine, bone, stl, 3dmodel, print, column,

    $1.99

  25. 1,068 downloads

    This full-size skull with web-like texture was created from a real CT scan. The beautiful lace-like structure not only makes the piece aesthetically interesting and strong, but also reduces material cost when 3D printing. The file is in STL format. This is the full-size version. A half-size version is also available here. Please share your 3D printable creations in the File Vault as I have shared mine with you. Feel free to print this model for your own personal use but please do not use this file for commercial purposes.

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