Jump to content

Angel Sosa

Members
  • Content Count

    51
  • Joined

  • Last visited

1 Follower

About Angel Sosa

Recent Profile Visitors

The recent visitors block is disabled and is not being shown to other users.

  1. Create a 3D-Printed Rib Cage and Thorax from STL Files As the second largest largest hollow cavity (largest space between bones), the thoracic cavity encases the lungs, trachea, pericardium, base and apex of the heart, esophagus, as well as all the vessels transporting blood between the lungs and heart. The ribs enclosing these vital organs also include skeletal features such as the sternum, vertebral column, and breastbone. The feature separating the thoracic cavity from the largest cavity in the body (abdominal cavity) is separated by the diaphragm, a muscular, membranous partition that is used to control respiration. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." As the technology behind medical 3D printing continues to advance, each iteration brings us closer to highly realistic simulations of thoracoscopic surgery, allowing surgeons to practice cutting, suturing, stapling, and a range of other thoracic surgical procedures. To get the most out of your time on the embodi3D® website (and use the many democratiz3D® medical 3D printing tools), you should register with embodi3D®. The process is free, easy, and will take just a few minutes of your time. And, it just might change the way you practice medicine. After you've browsed these STL files, you can also check out our growing CT scan collection showing various conditions of the thorax and ribs. #1. An Incredible 3D Model of the Chest Cavity Bones JCab uploaded this excellent 3D model of the bones of the rib cage without costochondral cartilage. The thoracic cavity has several functions. The first is to provide protection and support to the body’s vital organs. The thoracic cavity is surrounded by the rib cage and several layers of membranes, which help keep the organs protected from any dangers in the environment. #2. A 3D model of a Chance Fracture of T10 This 3D model created on embodi3D® features a fracture also known as flexion-distraction injury or seat belt fracture. Usually occurs from T11-L3 levels. – 78% occur between T12 and L2 levels * Occasionally at midthoracic spine * May have anterior injury at one level, posterior injury at adjacent one. Staging, Grading, & Classification • Osseous Chance fracture * Vertebral body fracture * Posterior element fractures: Pedicles, transverse processes, laminae, spinous process • Ligamentous Chance injury (uncommon) * Intervertebral disc * Facet dislocation * Ruptured interspinous ligaments • Osteoligamentous Chance injury * Variable combination of fracture and ligament injury #3. A 3D Model of the Sternum in STL Format This 3D model shows us the sternum also called breastbone, in the anatomy of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates), elongated bone in the centre of the chest that articulates with and provides support for the clavicles (collarbones) of the shoulder girdle and for the ribs. In mammals the sternum is divided into three parts, from anterior to posterior: (1) the manubrium, which articulates with the clavicles and first ribs; (2) the mesosternum, often divided into a series of segments, the sternebrae, to which the remaining true ribs are attached; and (3) the posterior segment, called the xiphisternum. In humans the sternum is elongated and flat; it may be felt from the base of the neck to the pit of the abdomen. The manubrium is roughly trapezoidal, with depressions where the clavicles and the first pair of ribs join. The mesosternum, or body, consists of four sternebrae that fuse during childhood or early adulthood. The mesosternum is narrow and long, with articular facets for ribs along its sides. The xiphisternum is reduced to a small, usually cartilaginous xiphoid (“sword-shaped”) process. The sternum ossifies from several centres. The xiphoid process may ossify and fuse to the body in middle age; the joint between manubrium and mesosternum remains open until old age. #4. A 3D Model Showing Rib Cage (Left Side) in STL The human skeleton has 12 pairs of ribs. Working from the top of the torso down, ribs 1 to 7 are considered "true ribs," as they connect directly from the spine to the sternum, Martinez says. Ribs 8 to 10 are called "false ribs" because they don't connect directly, but have cartilage that attaches them to the sternum. Ribs 11 and 12 are called "floating ribs" because they only connect to the spine in back. These, he says, "are much shorter." #5. Right Side of Ribs Shown in Medical 3D Model This incredible created on embodi3D® shows the right sided ribs with exquisite detail. The ribs allow chest expansion for breathing, Martinez explains. "They function similarly to the bucket handle on a bucket and swing upwards as we take a breath, allowing the thoracic cavity to expand." This increase in the thoracic cavity makes it easier to take a breath. #6. An Informative Tutorial on Showing Thoracic Cavity Arteries with STL Files This incredible chest and humerus was generated from a CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person- #7. STL File Showing a Three-Dimensional Model of a Clavicle The clavicle (collarbone) extends between the manubrium of the sternum and the acromion of the scapula. The clavicle has three main functions: - Attaches the upper limb to the trunk as part of the ‘shoulder girdle’. - Protects the underlying neurovascular structures supplying the upper limb. - Transmits force from the upper limb to the axial skeleton. #8. 3D Imaging of the Costal Cartilage Do you know that the sexual difference in pattern of human costal cartilages is statistically significant and thus highly predictive of sex determination? The first rib cartilages were not considered because there are no sex differences. The lower ribs exhibit sexual dimorphism. Mineralization and ossification changes appear at the end of puberty and their occurrence increases with age. #9. 3D Model of the Sternocostoclavicular Joint Many physicians are unfamiliar with the characteristics of the sternocostoclavicular joint (SCCJ). Disorders of the SCCJ, although common, frequently escape recognition. The most common SCCJ disorder is degenerative disease manifesting as osteoarthritis or as periarticular lesions causing antero-medial dislocation of the clavicle. Septic arthritis is the most severe disorder and can lead to mediastinitis. All inflammatory joint diseases, including spondyloarthropathies, can affect the SCCJ. SCCJ involvement is a typical component of the osteoarticular manifestations seen in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis. #10. A 3D-Printable STL Medical File (Converted from CT Scan DICOM of Thoracic Cage) The thoracic cage (rib cage) is the skeleton of the thoracic cavity. It is formed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, 12 ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum. Its main function is to give support and protection for the vital organs of the thorax. References 1. Rejtarová, O., Slizova, D., Smoranc, P., Rejtar, P., & Bukac, J. (2004). Costal cartilages–a clue for determination of sex. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub, 148(2), 241-243. 2. Le Loët, X., & Vittecoq, O. (2002). The sternocostoclavicular joint: normal and abnormal features. Joint Bone Spine, 69(2), 161-169. 3. Vertebral column | anatomy. (2018). Encyclopedia Britannica. 4. Giannopoulos, A. A., Steigner, M. L., George, E., Barile, M., Hunsaker, A. R., Rybicki, F. J., & Mitsouras, D. (2016). Cardiothoracic applications of 3D printing. Journal of thoracic imaging, 31(5), 253. 5. Ross, J. S., & Moore, K. R. (2015). Diagnostic Imaging: Spine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  2. Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. We now have the ability to 3D print a skull and 3D-printed face models have been used in the facial reconstruction process. We can also use 3D printing to recreate the muscles of the face. These types of models have been used in advanced procedures that help to restore facial features. One notable example from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is the 2017 full-facial reconstruction that employed 3D-printed models to reconstruct a face. Check this post and learn more!
  3. 3D Print a Skull and Facial Features from Our Top 10 Face Models Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. We now have the ability to 3D print a skull and 3D-printed face models have been used in the facial reconstruction process. We can also use 3D printing to recreate the muscles of the face. These types of models have been used in advanced procedures that help to restore facial features. One notable example from the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota is the 2017 full-facial reconstruction that employed 3D-printed models to reconstruct a face. Whether used in reconstructive surgery or rhinoplasty, the ability to convert a CT scan into an STL, then created a highly accurate 3D model is changing the way these medical professionals work. Visualizing Advanced Facial Reconstruction Surgeries 3D modeling is an effective method to demonstrate the spatial relationships of neighboring structures, such as bone, tissue, and muscle. The ability to visualize critical structures before a complex operation allows the surgeon to decrease the rate of complications. While this represents a focused view and primarily addresses the patient perspective, it introduces a technology that has application to many different plastic surgeries as well as rhinoplasty. Models can be created for facial augmentation (genioplasty and malar implants), otoplasty, rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, and combined procedures with exciting promise. If you want to have access to these amazing 3D models you just have to register in the following link: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/ 1. Using 3D Facial Models for Forensic, Surgical, and Aesthetic Analysis This is an example of a face 3D model detailed for surgery, forensic, anthropological and aesthetic purposes provided by Dr. Mike. 2. Conversion of a Human Skull into a 3D-Printable Format This 3D printable STL file of a skull was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed bony anatomy of the skull and face. An orogastric tube is present in the mouth. 3. Using 3D Printing to Reconstruct an Orbital Wall 21 year old S/P MVC with Lefort 3 fx. CT scans can be used to create custom implants, but getting the implants manufactured can take a long time. Craniofacial disjunction and transverse fracture line passes through nasofrontal suture, maxillo-frontal suture, orbital wall, and zygomatic arch / zygomaticofrontal suture. 4. An Incredible 3D-Printable Model of a Baby... Taken from an Ultrasound Scan A baby face 3D model. Moms and dads can now hold an accurate representation of their baby in their hands before it is born. 5. Modeling Human Facial Features Using 3D Printing A 3d model of a human face with details of the eyes, nose and mouth. 6. 3D Print a Skull for Maxillofacial Surgery Preparation 3D model of the maxilla with teeth details excellent for preoperative use. 3D printing allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 7. Demonstrating 3D Printing's Use in Reversing Appearance of Facial Cancers We show a 3d model printing of a human face. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries as well as tissue loss associated with significant oncologic resections. In addition to reconstructive procedures, the technology has an achievable potential for breakthroughs in the improvement of facial and limb prosthetic development as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants that will provide more natural tactile qualities and appearance for the patient. 8. Guiding Skin Grafting Procedures with 3D Modeling Skin grafting is traditionally indicated for the treatment of major skin defects, due to trauma, burns, or tumor excision, which cannot be closed primarily. Often times, in the cases of extensive burns, there is not enough healthy skin to harvest to cover the defect, or the size of the donor site may compromise adequate cosmetic or functional results. Despite the numerous synthetic and bioengineered skin substitutes currently available, none have provided equivalent results to that of autologous skin grafts. Optimal skin substitutes must be durable, prevent water loss, lack antigenicity, resist infection, and conform to irregular wound surfaces. 9. 3D Printing Can Help in Facial Reconstruction Where Resources are Limited The 3D printing provides the ability to construct complex individualized implants that not only improve patient outcomes but also increase economic feasibility. The technology offers a potential level of accessibility that is paramount for remote and resource-limited locations where health care is most often limited. The 3D printing-based technologies will have an immense impact on the reconstruction of traumatic injuries, facial and limb prosthetic development, as well as advancements in biologic and synthetic implants. 10. Full-Scale Facial Model Created with 3D Printing 10. A novel technology incorporating 3D photography and printing to produce life-size models for use in patient evaluation and treatment. Early surgeon experience also indicates benefit for intraoperative use. Three-dimensional printing and modeling is a new technology that has exciting applications for rhinoplasty and facial plastic surgery. References 1. Bauermeister, A. J., Zuriarrain, A., & Newman, M. I. (2016). Three-dimensional printing in plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic review. Annals of plastic surgery, 77(5), 569-576. 2. Radiopaedia.org, the wiki-based collaborative Radiology resource. (2018). Radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 26 May 2018, from https://radiopaedia.org/ 3. Klosterman, T., & Romo III, T. (2018). Three-dimensional printed facial models in rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery, 34(02), 201-204.
  4. In this week's embodi3D® top ten, we would like to share with you some of the top 3D uploads of the chest, including some STL files you can use to create a 3D-printed rib cage or thorax. The benefits of creating three-dimensional models to practice thoracic surgeries was recently highlighted in the Journal of Thoracic Disease in an article titled "Multi-dimensional printing in thoracic surgery: current and future applications." https://www.embodi3d.com/blogs/entry/409-create-a-3d-printed-rib-cage-and-thorax-from-stl-files/
  5. DICOM to STL Files and Other Medical Scans Uploaded to embodi3D® 3D printing is a technology that is constantly evolving, especially among medical professionals who are converting medical CT scans into 3D-printed anatomical models. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. In terms of research and education, 3D-printed anatomical models have proven to be a major benefit in helping students and researchers gain first-hand knowledge of specific conditions and the human anatomy. In a recent University of Pennsylvania research article ("From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models") there merits of DICOM to STL conversions are highlighted and this is a medical technology that will continue to grow in the coming years. As a manufacturing process, 3D printing is well suited for the generation of biomedical phantoms, which is essentially a low-volume process for patient-specific models. The relatively high tooling costs for alternative processes—such as lost-wax investment casting—make 3D printing a cost-effective choice. This week we want to share the top ten downloads of medical scans. 3D prnting technology can be aligned with the predefined educational need, as listed below. Teaching anatomy, patient education: To teach the anatomy and explain pathology, models constructed of hard materials are often sufficient. The low cost and most accessible method FDM is most certainly the best choice if there is no need for fine printing definition and if the size of the model is large, otherwise we would recommend SLA. Models obtained by SLA present more detail thus would be better for small printing models (eg, coronary arteries). However, in the case of the thoracic aortic model with root aneurysm we put the emphasis on the realism of the geometry by representing as much as details as possible which is why we needed to use one of the most accurate 3D printing method: PJ. It also allowed us to change easily the colours of the 3D printed model if desired. Surgical planning and review of procedure: Surgical planning and review of procedure do not necessarily require materials to have the same mechanical properties of the biological tissues. Hard material model can be well representative of the anatomical structure and once again, FDM and SLA might be your best options. Preprocedural planning: preprocedural planning models are more complicated to fabricate since they require materials mechanically representative to the biological tissues. Discussions on the matter are provided in the following section where all printing methods are eventually used. To see more CT scans, check out the embodi3D® Medical CT Scan Files library. Remember: to get the most out of embodi3D® you need to register on the embodi3D® website. It's completely free and will take only a few minutes of your time. Plus, you will gain access to many of our cutting-edge conversion tools and algorithms! 1. A Whole-Body CT Scan in DICOM and NRRD File Formats First place: A Ridiculously Easily Way to Convert CT Scans to 3D Printable Bone STL Models for Free in Minutes which allows you to follow along with the tutorial. Included is an anonymized chest abdomen pelvis CT in both DICOM and NRRD formats. Take a look to this CT model of whole body. 2. An Incredible CT Scan of an Open Bite CT is indicated for implant site assessment in anatomically difficult cases or when extensive implant treatment is planned. In addition, bone quantity and quality, in the implantation area are evaluated in the CT scans. Classifications are based upon jaw shape (degree of resorption), bone quality (amount of compact bone) and bone density. Information about the location of vital structures, such as mandibular canal, mental foramen, incisive foramen, maxillary sinuses and nasal cavity can be evaluated. 3. Head and Neck CT Scan — Great Addition to our Top 10 Medical CT Scans! A source Head and Neck CT scan in NRRD file format for the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting 2017 course on Open-Source and Freeware Medical 3D Printing, RCA12 and RCA21, November 26 and 27, 2017. Be sure to view the full tutorial that uses this file here. https://meeting.rsna.org/program/index.cfm Search for "3D Printing Hands-on with Open Source Software: Introduction (Hands-on)" CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after intravenous contrast administration, the vessels become enhanced with contrast allow them to be differentiated from adjacent tissues. Following image acquisition, post-processing techniques are applied for better 3D visualization of the vessels and their abnormalities. 4. A Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan Showing a Chest Wall Tumor Tumors of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumors and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. - Benign: soft tissue , haemangioma: common, lymphangioma: common, lipoma: chest wall lipoma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, ganglioneuroma paraganglioma, skeletal (ribcage), fibrous dysplasia: common, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC): common, giant cell tumour (GCT), ossifying fibromyxoid tumour, chondromyxoid fibroma, osteochondroma, mesenchymal hamartoma of chest wall: sometimes even considered a developmental anomaly - Malignant: The most common malignant lesions are metastases. Lesions include: rhabdomyosarcoma: common, Ewing sarcoma: including Askin tumour (or pPNET), ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, skeletal (ribcage), chest wall metastases: common, myeloma, chondrosarcoma osteosarcoma, 5. CT Scan of the Brain and Structures (Without Contrast) This upload shows a CT scan of the human brain and related structures. This scan has not been contrast-enhanced. window: W:2800 L:600 Review the bones. This should always be performed, even when a bony algorithm hasn't been provided or where slice thickness is suboptimal. Note that if there is a history of trauma, then dedicated thin bony images are required to detect undisplaced fractures. Review the skull vault for any fractures or destructive lesions. Spend some time checking the base of the skull as the increased complexity of this region can make identification of abnormalities more difficult. Don't forget to ensure that both TMJs are normally aligned. Review the paranasal sinuses for evidence of fluid that may represent acute sinusitis or, in the correct setting, fractures. 6. Whole-Body NRRD File Showing the Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis A whole body NRRD file converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis. It includes a skin, bone and muscle 3D model. 7. Jawbone Implant as Shown in a 3D Model A 3D model of mandible implant with exquisite detail from a CT scan from planning. Current 3D-printers are easy to use and represent a promising solution for medical prototyping. The 3D printing will quickly become undeniable because of its advantages: information sharing, simulation, surgical guides, pedagogy. They allow for better preoperative planning and training for the procedures and for pre-shaping of plates. Occlusal splints and surgical guides are intended for the smooth transfer of planning to the operating room. 8. The Whole Body of a Female — Available in a 3D Printer-Ready Format A 3D model of female's whole body (with bone, muscle and skin 3D printing) 9. Head and Neck Scan from the Cancer Imaging Archives 62yo male skull from the Head-Neck Cetuximab collection of The Cancer Imaging Archives. 10. Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan of the Skull and Brain A brain CT scan with contrast showing all the structures of the skull and brain. References 1. Lekholm U, Zarb G. Patient selection and preparation. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb G, Albrektsson T, editors. Tissue-integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence; 1985 p. 199 – 209. 2. Wood MR, Vermilyea SG. A review of selected dental literature on evidence-based treatment planning for dental implants: report of the Committee on Research in Fixed Prosthodontics of the Academy of Fixed Prosthodontics. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 92: 447 – 62. 3. Lindh C, Petersson A, Klinge B. Measurements of distances related to the mandibular canal in radiographs. Clin Oral Impl Res 1995; 6: 96 – 103. 4. Garcia, J., Yang, Z., Mongrain, R., Leask, R. L., & Lachapelle, K. (2018). 3D printing materials and their use in medical education: a review of current technology and trends for the future. BMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(1), 27-40.
  6. 3D printing is a technology that is constantly evolving, especially among medical professionals who are converting medical CT scans into 3D-printed anatomical models. Patient-specific models with anatomical fidelity created from imaging dataset have the potential to significantly improve the knowledge and skills of a new generation of surgeons. In terms of research and education, 3D-printed anatomical models have proven to be a major benefit in helping students and researchers gain first-hand knowledge of specific conditions and the human anatomy. Check this! https://www.embodi3d.com/blogs/entry/403-dicom-to-stl-files-and-other-medical-scans-uploaded-to-embodi3d®/
  7. The human heart beats an astonishing 115,000 times each day. It's a fascinating (and essential) organ, which is why we are highlighting the heart and its support structures in this week's post, as well as sharing some intriguing STL files so you can create your own heart 3D model by using your own 3D printer. In this week's post, we will introduce you to the top 3D-printable STL files published on the embodi3D® website. Before you get started creating your own heart 3D model, you will need to register through embodi3D® (https://www.embodi3d.com/register/). Registering is absolutely free, so become a member today! We recently reported on how researchers have used a 3D printed heart to treat arrhythmia, yet 3D printing is also be used to combat other types of cardiovascular disease. After all, heart disease is the leading cause of premature death in Western countries. According to the National Institutes of Health, nearly half a million individuals succumb to cardiovascular disease each year. While coronary artery disease leads the pack in terms of cardiovascular diseases, congenital heart conditions and acquired diseases of the heart such as tumors, cardiomyopathy, pericardial processes, and valvular disease unfortunately remain present in the modern era. In the early 2000s, an average 1.5 million patients received some type of invasive heart catheter, a figure brought to our attention through the book "Computed Body Tomography with MRI Correlation, Volume 1" (edited by Joseph K. T. Lee). The answer to reducing the number of invasive heart procedures may be in medical 3D printing, whether CT scans can be converted into STL files in order to create 3D models of the heart and nearly every part of the human anatomy. Medical 3D Printing and STL Files: An Alternative to Invasive Cardiac Catheterization? Echocardiography is widely available, portable, and essentially non-invasive when compared to MDCT and MR scans, while CT and MRI scans give us a clear advantage in terms of creating output files that are ready to be converted into a 3D printing-ready format such as STL (stereolithography) files. STL files and tissue algorithm conversion technologies from companies such as embodi3D® are bringing medical 3D printing within reach of researchers, radiologists, physicians, and medical students. Radiologists have witnessed the evolution of medical imaging, from two-dimensional scans to the three-dimensional scans aided by the latest technologies. 3D-printable files open the door to less invasive diagnostic procedures and have also proven useful in pre-surgical planning. Multiplanar imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gave rise to 3D reconstructions, improving the evaluation of complex anatomies. Medical 3D printing takes imaging data from the limited two-dimensional view on a computer screen to a three-dimensional model that can be held, studied, and referenced. The Meteoric Rise of Additive Manufacturing in Medicine The additive manufacturing technique known as 3D printing has seen exponential growth in health care sectors over the last decade, with most of that growth coming in just the last few years. As a tool to improve patient care and lower the costs of care, 3D printing can be used in pre-operative planning, education, and also to replace bone materials, such as knee joints. For these reasons, the McKinsey Global Institute recently called 3D printing a "disruptive technology that will transform life, business and the global economy." This management consulting company also predicated that 3D printing will have impact the global economy by a range of $200 billion to $600 billion in the coming decade. What started out as a technology for garage tinkerers and those looking to replace hard-to-find mechanical parts was only recently introduced into the medical world. The adoption rates of this technology within the health care community have been staggering. In 2000, only six publications made mention of 3D printing's use in medicine. That figure had jumped to nearly 200 publications in the years spanning 2011 and 2015. This brings us to the present, where nearly 2,000 publications have cited the amazing utility of 3D printing across a diverse range of medical applications. The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute was launched in 2012 as a way to grow and encourage the adoption of this life- and industry-changing technology. 3D Printing in Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery The use of 3D printing in cardiology to detect abnormal heart structures and predict heart attacks has followed a similar growth trend in the past decade. In the research article "Cardiac 3D Printing and its Future Directions," Vukicevic, et al. detailed the utility of 3D printing in the area of cardiovascular care, focusing primarily on acquired structural heart disease. 3D-printed heart and aortic models have been used for treatment planning in both percutaneous cardiology applications and cardiothoracic surgery. In cardiothoracic surgery, 3D-printed anatomic models have been used to plan surgical approaches, perform resections, and guide the process of tissue reconstruction. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is frequently performed before catheter-based and surgical treatments in situations of congenital heart disease (CHD). To date, little is known about the accuracy and advantage of different 3D-reconstructions in CT-data. For reference purposes, gaining the exact anatomical information is critical in achieving a successful outcome. According to a review published in JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 3D models may improve outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease by also improving communication among multidisciplinary teams, enhancing shared decision-making, and facilitating greater medical breakthroughs via basic science and translational clinical investigations. Approximately 3 out of 1,000 patients with congenital heart disease require a surgical or catheter-based intervention early in their lifetimes, according to the study's investigators. 3D printing can be a valuable tool to plan extra-cardiac and vascular surgery in patients with CHD. 3D models are helpful for planning high-risk unifocalization surgery. Medical 3D Printing as an Educational Tool in Congenital Heart Disease In terms of education, the use of medical 3D printing technology may lead to an educational shift from an apprenticeship-type model to a simulator-based learning method, which would augment the traditional mentored training. Using 3D printed models in congenital heart disease (CHD) can reduce the learning curve for cardiac trainees in three crucial ways: help trainees understand the complex cardiovascular structures, provide high-fidelity simulation experiences, and enable more exposure to rare CHD cases. 1. A 3D-Printable Model of a Human Heart from Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan A 3D-printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan. An endpoint of many patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is heart failure requiring a ventricular assist device (VAD) or heart transplant. 3D printing can aid in ventricular assist device placement and optimizing function in complex CHD, as recently described by Farooqi et al. and Saeed et al. 2. 3D-Printable STL File of Truncus Arteriosus with Unseparated Aorta and Pulmonary Artery Truncus arteriosus is a congenital (present at birth) defect that occurs due to abnormal development of the fetal heart during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The heart begins as a hollow tube, and the chambers, valves, and great arteries develop early in pregnancy. The aorta and pulmonary artery start as a single blood vessel, which eventually divides and becomes two separate arteries. Truncus arteriosus occurs when the single great vessel fails to separate completely, leaving a connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives. 3. STL Files of a Neonatal Heart Defect (Ventricular Septal Defect) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) with pulmonary atresia (PA) can be considered to be the severest form of tetrology of Fallot wherein the right ventricular outflow tract obstruction has progressed to the extent of atresia. This atresia can occur either at the infundibulum or as a plate atresia of the pulmonary valve. An important observation is that the plate-type atresia is more frequently associated with well-developed pulmonary arteries. The other significant abnormality in patients with VSD and pulmonary atresia (PA) is the presence of arborization abnormalities. The blood supply to a particular lung segment can be derived from a systemic artery or a central pulmonary artery or a combination of both. 4. 3D-Printable Heart Model Showing Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot, which is one of the most common congenital heart disorders, comprises right ventricular (RV) outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) (infundibular stenosis), ventricular septal defect (VSD), aorta dextroposition, and RV hypertrophy (see the image below). The mortality rate in untreated patients reaches 50% by age 6 years, but in the present era of cardiac surgery, children with simple forms of tetralogy of Fallot enjoy good long-term survival with an excellent quality of life. This three-part 3D printed heart is from a CT scan of a 4-year-old infant with Tetrology of Fallot, a congentital heart defect and the most common cause of blue baby syndrome. 5. 3D-Printable STL of Left Heart Atrium and Ventricle 3D models promise to transform teaching in ways that go beyond the lecture hall, and over the next few years are set to revolutionize medical training, especially in percutaneous interventions. In this 3D model we can observe the anatomical relationship of all the elements of the heart and neighboring structures. 6. Left Main Coronary Artery with Abnormal Origin Rising from Pulmonary Artery Trunk Variations in coronary anatomy are often seen in association with structural forms of congenital heart disease like Fallot's tetralogy, transposition of the great vessels, Taussig-Bing heart (double-outlet right ventricle), or common arterial trunk. Importantly, coronary artery anomalies are a cause of sudden death in young athletes even in the absence of additional heart abnormalities. Prior knowledge of such variants and anomalies is necessary for planning various interventional procedures. 7. Aortic Coarctation in 3D-Printable STL File Coarctation of the aorta — or aortic coarctation — is a narrowing of the aorta, the large blood vessel that branches off your heart and delivers oxygen-rich blood to your body. When this occurs, your heart must pump harder to force blood through the narrowed part of your aorta. Coarctation of the aorta is generally present at birth (congenital). The condition can range from mild to severe, and might not be detected until adulthood, depending on how much the aorta is narrowed. Coarctation of the aorta often occurs along with other heart defects. While treatment is usually successful, the condition requires careful lifelong follow-up. 8. STL File of a Cardiac Myxoma The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a cardiac myxoma as a neoplasm composed of stellate to plump, cytologically bland mesenchymal cells set in a myxoid stroma. Myxomas can recur locally (usually with incomplete resection) and spread to distant sites through embolization. Embolization appears to be much more likely in myxomas that are friable with a broad-based attachment than they are in tumors that are fibrotic or calcified. 9. 3-D Printable Heart Anatomy from High-Spatial Resolution Imaging A heart 3d model with details of anatomy. By combining the technologies of high-spatial resolution cardiac imaging, image processing software, and fused dual-material 3D printing, several hospital centers have recently demonstrated that patient-specific models of various cardiovascular pathologies may offer an important additional perspective on the condition. With applications in congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, and in surgical and catheter-based structural disease – 3D printing is a new tool that is challenging how we image, plan, and carry out cardiovascular interventions. 10. Human Heart Model in Stable Slices from Contrast-Enhanced CT Scan A 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan References 1 Yoo, S. J., Spray, T., Austin, E. H., Yun, T. J., & van Arsdell, G. S. (2017). Hands-on surgical training of congenital heart surgery using 3-dimensional print models. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 153(6), 1530-1540. 2. Farooqi K.M., Saeed O., Zaidi A., et al. (2016) 3D printing to guide ventricular assist device placement in adults with congenital heart disease and heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol HF 4:301–311. 3. Saeed O., Farooqi K.M., Jorde U.P. (2017) in Rapid Prototyping in Cardiac Disease, Assessment of ventricular assist device placement and function, ed Farooqi K.M. (Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland), pp 133–141. 4. Lee JKT, Sagel SS, Stanley RJ, Heiken JP. Computed Body Tomography with MRI Correlation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. 5. Ballard, D. H., Trace, A. P., Ali, S., Hodgdon, T., Zygmont, M. E., DeBenedectis, C. M., ... & Lenchik, L. (2018). Clinical applications of 3D printing: primer for radiologists. Academic radiology, 25(1), 52-65. 6. Vukicevic, M., Mosadegh, B., Min, J. K., & Little, S. H. (2017). Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 10(2), 171-184.
  8. We'd like to share some of the best medical 3D printing models, as well as a few detailed examples that garnered the attention of embodi3D® users. 3D-printable STL files like these are helping physicians and medical students to further their understanding of complex diagnoses and treatments — and your contributions are a big part of embodi3D's continued success. https://www.embodi3d.com/blogs/entry/394-great-3d-medical-printing-files-recently-shared-on-embodi3d®/
  9. In this week's blog entry, we'd like to share some of the best medical 3D printing models, as well as a few detailed examples that garnered the attention of embodi3D® users over the past month. 3D-printable STL files like these are helping physicians and medical students to further their understanding of complex diagnoses and treatments — and your contributions are a big part of embodi3D's continued success. If you are not yet an embodi3D member, we invite you to register and take advantage of all the wonderful resources available to you. Registering is free and allows you to upload, download, and share 3D-printable medical models with our diverse community. While Gray's Atlas of Anatomy and other classic reference pieces remain beneficial, there is nothing like seeing a true-to-life, full-scale 3D model that can be held and studied. Become a registered member of embodi3D so you can access the many free resources available. 1. Cerebrum Scan in 3D-Printable STL Format Dr. Mike uploaded an excellent 3D model of the cerebrum. Just look at the details of those gyri! This model was created from a high-resolution MRI scan and uploaded for use by the embodi3D community. 2. 3D-Printable Stable Slices of a Human Heart in STL Format Dr. Mike has uploaded several 3D-printable stable slices of a human heart. This STL file was created using contrast-enhanced CT scans, and this upload wins our hearts for its detailed anatomy and exquisite details. 3. STL File of Anterior Muscles of a Human Torso A big "thank you" to Infinity Print for uploading this STL file featuring the sternocleidomastoid, deltoid, pectoralis major, brachioradialis, abductor longus, and other highly detailed anterior muscles of the torso. 4. A 3D-Printable Model of a Dilated Biliary System In this upload from an MRCP image, user nevitdilmen uploaded a detailed file of a dilated biliary system (tree). This patient has a benign biliary stricture, and this 3D-printable rendering will serve as a great tool in the surgical process of correction the obstruction and fixing the hydropic gallbladder. 5. Scoliosis Example as a 3D-Printable STL File User hewtech uploaded a 3D-printable STL file to the Spine and Pelvis forum depicting a severe case of scoliosis, a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve in the spine seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side of the body, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a "C" or an "S" shape in the spine. You may also want to check out the upload by user markchui, showing another highly detailed rendering of a patient with scoliosis. 6. Full-Size, 3D-Printable Human Left Foot in STL Format GMorein uploaded full-size, human left foot 3D rendering to the Extremity, Lower (Leg) forum. This 3D-printable STL file was created from MRI images. 7. 3D-Printable Mandible and Teeth Scan Featuring Deep Third Molar Inclusions Uploaded to the forum Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial by user Nicola, this well-defined 3D rendering of a human mandible with teeth. This 3D-printable scan features deep inclusions of the third molars ("wisdom teeth"), as well as a supernumerary tooth. Great upload, Nicola! 8. A CT Scan Illustrating a Right Maxilla Fracture Dr. Raghavendra Byakodi uploaded a CT scan showing a right maxilla fracture to the Skull, Head, and Neck CTs section of the Medical CT Scan Files portion of the Downloads page. 9. Cervical Spine 3D Model with Great Details This upload by FroOkk to the Spine and Pelvis forum shows a 3D-printable model of a cervical spine in exquisite detail. 10. Highly Detailed 3D-Printable Human Skull Last but certainly not least, James Greatrex uploaded a highly detailed human skull to the embodi3D Skull and Head forum. References: 1. Pujol, S., Baldwin, M., Nassiri, J., Kikinis, R., & Shaffer, K. (2016). Using 3D modeling techniques to enhance teaching of difficult anatomical concepts. Academic radiology, 23(4), 507-516.
  10. Medical 3D printing can be used to create centimeter- to sub-millimeter-accurate models. These include the hearts, lungs, kidney, and colon featured in this week's Top Ten, but can be used to create just about any type of 3D organ or tissue model. Check the top 10 and share your comments. https://www.embodi3d.com/blogs/entry/393-top-10-organ-stl-files-downloaded-on-embodi3d®/
  11. Welcome to this week's Top Ten, featuring some exciting STL files and medical models, many of which you can download and print using your own 3D printing machine. When you upload your organ STL files to embodi3d®, you are helping researchers, students, and inquisitive minds everywhere to develop innovative diagnostic, interventional, and surgical techniques. Medical 3D printing can be used to create centimeter- to sub-millimeter-accurate models. These include the hearts, lungs, kidney, and colon featured in this week's Top Ten, but can be used to create just about any type of 3D organ or tissue model. The democratiz3D® conversion algorithms used on the embodi3D® website are sophisticated enough to recreate the cellular arrangements of various tissues and organs, but are straightforward enough to be used by just about everyone. Even the complex anatomy of the heart can be successfully replicated using various pliable 3D printing materials. These models could serve a future role in preoperative planning, medical education, and enhanced communication between radiologists and others involved in patient care. The prospect of 3D medical models being used to advance research and educational knowledge is truly exciting. We're glad to have you along to share in the experience of this rapidly developing science and art form. But, to receive much of what embodi3D® has to offer you have to register on the website. But, signing up is absolutely free. Become a Registered Member (it's Free) Remember to register on embodi3D.com so you can upload, download, share, and create stunningly realistic 3D models of hearts, lungs, mandibles, and just about anything having to do with the human anatomy. Plus, it is absolutely free to become a registered member. #1. 3D-Printable Model of Human Heart in Tissue Slices Dr. Mike created and submitted this 3D-printable human heart, separated into stackable slices for educational purposes. This STL file originated from a contrast-enhanced CT scan. The embodi3D® community was very excited about this model; it demonstrates the complex anatomy of the heart in a way that can be held, studied, taken apart, and put back together — all activities real-life patients would rather you not try with their own hearts. Representing some of the best uses of medical 3D printing on the embodi3D.com website, this downloadable STL file has earned a rightful place on this week's Top 10 downloads list. #2. Create a 3D Model of a Heart and Pulmonary Artery Tree This anatomically accurate heart and pulmonary artery tree was extracted from a CT angiogram DICOM dataset (0.4 mm slice thickness x 300 slices). This model may serve as an excellent, hands-on educational tool for those entering the medical profession. The uploaded STL files shows the aorta, coronary sinus, coronary arteries, pulmonary arteries, as well as the cardiac ventricles and atria. A special "thank you" goes out to Health Physics for contributing this magnificent file! #3. Full-Size Model of a Human Heart Number 3 on our list is a 3D-printable model of a full-size human heart. Using this STL file, you can create a scale model of a heart, complete with all the complex cardiac anatomy. You will achieve the best results by using a flexible medium when completing your 3D print. Please note: This model has yet to be fully optimized for 3D printing. Therefore, some issues related to minimum wall thickness can be expected. #4. Great Example of a 3D-Printable, Anatomically Accurate Human Heart Dr. Marco Vettorello graciously created and shared this highly accurate human heart STL file, ready for use in your 3D printer. Thank you, Dr. Vettorello! #5. 3D-Print and Compare a Healthy Lung to a Lung with COPD Lung tissue inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) makes it difficult to fully expel air and creates an obstruction in breathing in fresh air. To compare the three STL files of a lung with COPD, embodi3D® has also uploaded three files of a healthy lung. Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease chronic lung disease is often caused by long-term exposure to particulates, cigarette smoke, harmful gases, and other irritants. Those with COPD are at a higher risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer, and a number of other life-threatening conditions. #6. Have a Heart... in a Medical 3D Printing-Ready Format! We'd like to say a special "thank you" to the creators of this 3D-printable heart file, Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana, who have graciously shared this 3D-printable human heart in STL format. This file originally appeared in the "Top 10 Killers" list. While it appears in sixth place for this week's chart, the cardiac events we collectively refer to as "heart disease" remain the developed world's top "killer" and these files should serve to remind us why this type of research is so important — not only to the medical community, but the many patients cardiovascular disease affect each day. #7. 3D-Print a Lung with Pneumonia Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in many parts of the world. This inflammatory condition affects the microscopic alveoli (tiny air sacs) of the lungs, which leads to coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. The 3D-printable files uploaded in STL format feature the lung, airways, and detailed imaging of the alveoli. #8. Compare Healthy and Diseased Kidneys by Creating a 3D Model Chronic kidney disease (chronic renal disease) presently affects around 26 million American adults, with many others at risk of developing this devastating disease. The STL files uploaded for your medical 3D printing use allow you to compare a healthy kidney to one with chronic renal disease. These are available in a format that is ready to be 3D-printed to create your three-dimensional model. #9. Create a 3D Model of a Human Colon with this STL File Surgical procedures, such as hemorrhoidectomies, require a surgeon with a solid grasp of three-dimensional human anatomy. By uploading and sharing medical 3D printing-ready files, such as this colon extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.8 mm slice thickness x 467 slices), those entering the profession can acquire this essential knowledge outside the confines of the operating room. Available for educational purposes, this 3D model includes the cecum, appendix, and overall layout of the small and large bowel. #10. A democratiz3D®-Created, 3D-Printable STL File of a Human Right Kidney Dr. Mike uploaded this printable STL file of a human kidney (right side), showing all the nuances of the kidney and renal collecting system in clear, stunning detail. Dr. Mike used the democratiz3D® premium tissue algorithms to bring out all the details of the kidney. Sharing 3D-printable files is just one of the many ways users are creating the future of preoperative planning and surgical performance. References 1. Zheng, B., Wang, X., Zheng, Y., & Feng, J. (2018). 3D-printed model improves clinical assessment of surgeons on anatomy. Journal of robotic surgery, 1-7.
  12. In this week's post, we feature some exceptional 3D-printable orthodontic, maxillofacial, and dental scans, including the orbits of the skull, lower teeth, as well as a severe case o jaw bone cavitation. Those practicing in dentistry or orthodontia have likely read about 3D printing's use as an educational tool among colleagues, students, and patients — but, this is just the beginning.
  13. In this week's post, we feature some exceptional 3D-printable orthodontic, maxillofacial, and dental scans, including the orbits of the skull, lower teeth, as well as a severe case o jaw bone cavitation. Those practicing in dentistry or orthodontia have likely read about 3D printing's use as an educational tool among colleagues, students, and patients — but, this is just the beginning.
  14. In this week's post, we feature some exceptional 3D-printable orthodontic, maxillofacial, and dental scans, including the orbits of the skull, lower teeth, as well as a severe case o jaw bone cavitation. Those practicing in dentistry or orthodontia have likely read about 3D printing's use as an educational tool among colleagues, students, and patients — but, this is just the beginning. A recent article in The Angle Orthodontist highlighted a study by Indiana University School of Dentistry in which it was found that "Dental models reconstructed by FDM (fused deposition modeling) technology had the fewest dimensional measurement differences compared to plaster models." Dental 3D printing will continue to advance, and a future where high-speed digital X-rays and stereolithography-generated 3D dental models seems all but certain. We may even see prosthodontists use a 3D printing process for dentures or implant-supported crowns. Become a Registered Member Registered members can upload, download, and share their medical 3D printing files with the embodi3D® community. Registering is absolutely free, so become a registered embodi3D® member today! #1. A 3D Model of a Woman's Mandible in STL Format Memer lillux earns a top spot on this week's list with this highly detailed, 3D-printable lower jaw. To date, this STL file has been downloaded over a hundred times. As this upload demonstrates, dentist-patient communication could be enhanced through 3D digital dental models with color simulation effects. #2. Detailed CT-Generated Mandible Ready for 3D Printing Member ebombmx uploaded a 3D printer-ready file of a mandible created from a conebeam CT scan. As the second-highest downloaded file in the Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum, we can only assume embodi3D® members were equally impressed with the high resolution of this upload. #3. Maxilla, Mandible, and Maxillofacial 3D Model In this highly detailed dental scan, the bony anatomy of the maxilla, mandible, and facial structures are shown in great detail. Dr. Mike created this model by using the democratiz3D® service. #4. Lower Jaw and Teeth 3D Model Member mjgillis uploaded this 3D-printable model of a human mandible. This is one example of how a three-dimensional view can illuminate the seriousness of a maxillofacial issue, such as the heavy cavitation (bone loss) in the mandible. #5. Using 3D Models for Dental Implant Patient Eligibility Titanium root implants require a strong jawbone. Using 3D models of tooth-supporting bone matter can help select ideal candidates for dental implants. A special thank you to embodi3D® user mjgillis for sharing this under a Creative Commons (CC) license! #6. Is it a 3D Model of a Mandible or a Plaster Cast? This STL file was uploaded to the Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum by embodi3D® member JAWSDOC and serves as a great demonstration of how 3D-printed mandible/maxilla models may someday replace traditional plaster casts. #7. A 3D Model of the Zygomatic, Maxilla, and Orbital Rims of a Human Skull Member Hisham uploaded this file to our Dental, Orthodontic, Maxillofacial forum. This is a detailed, 3D-printable representation of the cavities, curvature, and structure of the orbital, maxilla, zygomatic, and nasal bones. #8. Mandible Fractures Highlighted in a 3D-Printable Model Sometimes, scientific inquiries create more questions in lieu of solutions. This 3D-printable model has us wondering if augmented reality-assisted devices may someday replace endoscopes in the treatment of parasymphyseal and subondylar mandibular fractures. Beyond the possibilities, this 3D-printable fractured mandible combines both art and science; truly a great contribution to the embodi3D® community. Thank you, skullman! References 1. Dawood, A., Marti, B. M., Sauret-Jackson, V., & Darwood, A. (2015). 3D printing in dentistry. British dental journal, 219(11), 521.
×
×
  • Create New...