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embodi3d

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Files posted by embodi3d

  1. Free

    3D printable osteochondroma of the femur, STL format

    This 3D printable STL file of an osteochondroma of the femur was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows a large osteochondroma on the posterior surface of the proximal femur. The popliteal artery is in close proximity to the osteochondroma. Download is free for registered members.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Triangles: 127018

    35 downloads

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  2. Free

    Thoracic spine with scoliosis

    This 3D printable STL file of a thoracic spine with severe scoliosis was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows how the vertebrae become misaligned in the scoliotic spine. Great for education at all levels. Download is free for registered members. This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
     
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
     
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
     
    Triangles: 261682
     
    thoracic, spine, scoliosis, t, spine, .stl, 3d, printable, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, body, transverse, foramen, intervertebral, disc, costovertebral, joint, facet,

    54 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  3. Free

    3D printable frontal bone (os frontis) from a human skull

    This anatomically accurate frontal bone was created by Dr. Marco Vettorello, who has graciously given permission to share it here. The frontal bone forms the forehead of a skull, and also creates the upper parts of the eye sockets. The file is in STL format and compressed with ZIP.
     
    This file is also available here.

    31 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  4. Free

    Ankle with talus fracture

    This 3D printable ankle with a talus fracture was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows how the talus bone was crushed between the calcaneus and tibia.

    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 137938

    36 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  5. Free

    Distal fibula, left

    This 3D printable distal fibula bone was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the fibula and its articulation with the talus and tibia. In the attached thumbnails, the fibular is shown in white and the rest of the ankle in glass.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 4960

    44 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  6. Free

    Medial cuneiform bone, left

    This 3D printable STL file of a medial cuneiform bone (left) was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of this foot bone. In the attached thumbnails, the media cuneiform is shown in white and the other foot bones in glass.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 18290

    29 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  7. Free

    lateral cuneiform bone

    This 3D printable STL file of the lateral cuneiform bone of the foot was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the bone in detail. The lateral cuneiform is shown in the thumbnails in white and the rest of the foot in glass.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    http://www.embodi3d.com/user/273-bgobbato/
    http://www.embodi3d.com/user/4-dr-mike/
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 25678

    28 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  8. Free

    Transposition of the Great Arteries Congenital Heart Defect 3D Printing STL Files

    Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth, in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed (transposed). Transposition of the great arteries is usually detected either prenatally or within the first hours to weeks of life.
     
    Transposition of the great arteries changes the way blood circulates through the body, leaving a shortage of oxygen in blood flowing from the heart to the rest of the body. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and a child faces serious complications or death without treatment. Corrective surgery soon after birth is the usual treatment for transposition of the great arteries.
     

     
    There are three STL files available for download segmented as seen in the video and images. These files have been zipped to save space and data transfer.
     
    The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Heart Library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives.
     
    It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement. A US quarter is shown for scale in the images below.

    173 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    1 comment

    Updated

  9. Free

    Double Aortic Arch STL Files For Medical 3D Printing

    Double aortic arch is a relatively rare congenital cardiovascular malformation. Double aortic arch is an anomaly of the aortic arch in which two aortic arches form a complete vascular ring that can compress the trachea and/or esophagus.
     
    Embryologically, the aorta's right sided 4th arch failed to regress which resulted in this double aortic arch and vascular ring. Depending on how tight the ring is, symptoms in infancy are related to respiratory compression, compared to a later presentation in childhood or adulthood of swallowing difficulty.
     
    Please see the related STL file for 3D printing double aortic arch blood pool model.
     

     
    There are 3 separate files so the heart can be printed in slices. A fourth STL files is for 3D printing the whole heart model. The three part model has holes for magnets, which can be used to connect and separate the pieces. A US quarter is shown for scale in the images below.
     
    The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives.
     
    It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.

    137 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  10. Free

    Left Knee Joint 3D Printable STL File Converted From CT Scan

    Left Knee Joint 3D Printable STL File Converted From CT Scan - stl file processed
     
    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.
    The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation.   The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_045. The source CT scan used to create this model can be found here.  

    110 downloads

       (1 review)

    0 comments

    Updated

  11. Free

    Double Aortic Arch (Solid Blood Pool) STL Files For Medical 3D Printing

    This STL file is related to another set of files demonstrating the congenital heart defect double aortic arch. This heart STL file demonstrates double aortic arch blood pool. Double aortic arch is one of the 2 most common forms of vascular ring, a class of congenital anomalies of the aortic arch system in which the trachea and esophagus are completely encircled by connected segments of the aortic arch and its branches. Although the double aortic arch has various forms, the common defining feature is that both the left and right aortic arches are present.
     

     
    There is one STL file for 3D printing the whole congenital heart defect model double aortic arch with blood pool.
     
    The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives.
     
    It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.

    57 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  12. Free

    Second and third proximal metatarsals

    This 3D printable STL file of the proximal second and third metatarsals of the foot was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. The metatarsals are shown in white while the rest of the foot is shown in glass.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 16488

    20 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  13. Free

    First metatarsal, proximal part

    This 3D printable STL file of a proximal first metatarsal was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person.
    This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing.
    The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors.
    Technical specs:
    File format: STL
    Manifold mesh: Yes
    Minimum wall thickness: 1 mm
    Triangles: 17276

    21 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  14. Free

    Right knee - CT scan

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.
    The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation.   The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (mensci) which are best imaged by MRI.   The CT scan is derived from the file STS_039   The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at:  The 3D skin model created from this scan can be reviewed at:

    58 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  15. Free

    Right knee - Bone model STL file from converted CT scan

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.

    The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation.   The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_051   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at:  The 3D skin model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    121 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  16. Free

    Bioprinting Tibia and Fibula Model with Fracture and Rod: STL Files Available for Download

    The tibia, or shinbone, is the most common fractured long bone in your body. The long bones include the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula. A tibial shaft fracture occurs along the length of the bone, below the knee and above the ankle. Because it typically takes a major force to break a long bone, other injuries often occur with these types of fractures. Often times the fibula is also compromised.
     
    This 3D printable model demonstrates Intramedullary nailing. The current most popular form of surgical treatment for tibial fractures is intramedullary nailing. During this procedure, a specially designed metal rod is inserted from the front of the knee down into the marrow canal of the tibia. The rod passes across the fracture to keep it in position.
     

     
    This 3D printable model of tibia shaft fracture contains two STL files for bioprinting. One STL file is for printing the tibia and fibula. There is another file for printing the pin or nail which is inserted within the tibia as part of intramedullary nailing. The files have been zipped to reduce file size. You will need to unzip the files once you have downloaded them.These files are distributed under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.
     
    The models are provided for distribution on embodi3D.com with the permission of the creators Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana. These models are part of the Top 10 Killers 3D printable disease library. James Weaver and Ahmed Hosny also contributed to the project. We thank everyone involved for their contributions to embodi3d.com and their advocacy for better health and education through 3D printing.

    29 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Submitted

  17. Free

    Chest Wall Tumor STL Files for 3D Printing

    Chest wall tumors are benign or malignant tumors that can interfere with pulmonary function. Primary chest wall tumors account for 5% of all thoracic tumors and 1 to 2% of all primary tumors. Patients with chest wall tumors require chest x-ray, CT, MRI, and sometimes PET–CT to determine the original site and extent of the tumor and whether it is a primary chest wall tumor or a metastasis. Biopsy and histologic evaluation confirm the diagnosis. Prognosis varies by cancer type, cell differentiation, and stage. Sarcomas have been the most well studied, and primary chest wall sarcomas have a reported 5-yr survival of 17%.
     

     
    The models are provided for distribution on embodi3D.com with the permission of the creators Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana. These models are part of the Top 10 Killers 3D printable disease library. James Weaver and Ahmed Hosny also contributed to the project. We thank everyone involved for their contributions to embodi3d.com and their advocacy for better health and education through 3D printing.
     
    There are two STL files available for download and 3D bioprinting. One STL file for printing the chest wall mass and the other STL is for bioprinting the ribs. The files have been zipped to save space and speed up downloads. These files are distributed under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.

    75 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  18. Free

    Normal Left Foot and Ankle Bone Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This is the normal right foot and ankle bone model of a 56 year old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    The ankle is a hinge (or ginglymus) joint made of the distal tibia (tibial plafond, medial and posterior malleoli) superiorly and medially, the distal fibula (lateral malleolus) laterally and the talus inferiorly. Together, these structures form the ankle “mortise”, which refers to the bony arch. The normal range of motion is 20 degrees dorsiflexion and 50 degrees plantarflexion. Stability is provided by the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) laterally, and the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments medially. The ankle is one of my most common sites of musculoskeletal injury, including ankle fractures and ankle sprains, due to the ability of the joint to invert and evert. The most common ligament involved in the ATFL.
     
    The foot is commonly divided into three segments: hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. These sections are divided by the transverse tarsal joint (between the talus and calcaneus proximally and navicular and cuboid distally), and the tarsometatarsal joint (between the cuboids and cuneiforms proximally and the metatarsals distally). The first tarsometatarsal joint (medially) is termed the “Lisfranc” joint and is the site of the Lisfranc injury seen primarily in athletic injuries.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_014.

    24 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  19. Free

    Thoracic spine, a 3D-printable medical file of its normal anatomy converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset

    Thoracic vertebrae compose the middle portion of the vertebral column. They are 12 in number and their size is intermediate between the cervical and the lumbar spine. They increase gradually in size as we go down the vertebral column. They are characterized by the presence of facets for articulation with the corresponding ribs and they are of limited flexibility compared to the cervical and the lumbar regions, they also have thinner intervetebral discs and a narrower spinal canal. This is a 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset

    96 downloads

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  20. Free

    Sternum 3D Printable STL File Converted From CT Scan

    The sternum is formed by three bones; the manubrium, the sternal body and the xiphoid process (xiphisternum). These bones articulate together by hyaline cartilage with a fibro-cartilaginous disc to form the anterior and midline portion of the chest wall.   The has many articulations, where the manubrium articulates with the first rib and the clavicle while the sternal body articulates with the second to seventh ribs as well as the costal cartilages.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_044. The source CT scan used to create this model can be found here.

    24 downloads

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    0 comments

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  21. Free

    Whole Body - NRRD file Converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing

    Whole body NRRD file converted from CT Scan for Medical 3D Printing includes the chest, abdomen and pelvis.
     
    The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum. The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs.
     
    The cervical spine is the upper most spines forming the spinal column, extending from the skull base to the level of the thoracic vertebra (the spines with attached ribs). The cervical spines are usually seven and the main function is to support the skull and to protect the spinal cord.
     
    The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies. The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs.
     
    The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation.
     
    The bony pelvis is formed by 4 bones; a pair of hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bony pelvis supports the pelvic viscera and works to transmit force from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs.
    The two hip bones are related anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacroiliac joints bilaterally.   The CT scan is derived from the file ABD_LYMPH_001   The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    109 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  22. Free

    Normal Right Foot and Ankle Muscle Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This is the normal right foot and ankle muscle model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    The primary motions of the ankle are dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, inversion, and eversion. However, with the addition of midfoot motion (adduction, and abduction), the foot may supinate (inversion and adduction) or pronate (eversion and abduction). In order to accomplish these motions, muscles outside of the foot (extrinsic) and muscles within the foot (intrinsic) attach throughout the foot, crossing one or more joints.
     
    Laterally, the peroneus brevis and tertius attach on the proximal fifth metatarsal to evert the foot. The peroneus longus courses under the cuboid to attach on the plantar surface of the first metatarsal, acting as the primary plantarflexor of the first ray and, secondarily, the foot. Together, these muscles also assist in stabilizing the ankle for patients with deficient lateral ankle ligaments from chronic sprains. Medially, the posterior tibialis inserts on the plantar aspect of the navicular cuneiforms and metatarsal bases, acting primarily to invert the foot and secondarily to plantarflex the foot.  The flexor hallucis longus inserts on the base of the distal phalanx of the great toe to plantarflex the great toe, and the flexor digitorum inserts on the bases of the distal phalanges of the lesser four toes, acting to plantarflex the toes. The gastrocnemius inserts on the calcaneus as the Achilles tendon and plantarflexes the foot. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior inserts on the dorsal medial cuneiform and plantar aspect of the first metatarsal base as the primary ankle dorsiflexor and secondary inverter. The Extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus insert on the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanges to dorsiflex the great toe and lesser toes, respectively.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_014.

    37 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  23. Free

    Right Knee Bone Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This model is the right knee bone rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    The knee is composed of 3 separate joints: two hinge joints (medial and lateral femorotibial joints), and one sellar, or gliding, joint (the patellofemoral joint). These also compose the three compartments of the knee: medial, lateral, and patellofemoral. Although the knee is thought of as a hinge joint, it has 6 degrees of motion: extension/flexion, internal/external rotation, varus/valgus, anterior/posterior translation, medial/lateral translation, and compression/distraction. To provide stability to the joint, static and dynamic stabilizers surround the knee, including muscles and ligaments.
     
    The major ligaments that provide stability to the knee include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), lateral (or fibular) collateral ligament (LCL), and medial collateral ligament (MCL). The ACL prevents anterior translation of the knee and the PCL prevents posterior translation of the knee. The LCL prevents varus stresses and the MCL prevents valgus stresses on the knee. Furthermore, the medial meniscus is a secondary stabilizer to anterior translation and is therefore commonly injured during an ACL tear or after an untreated ACL tear.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_022.

    62 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

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  24. Free

    Lumbar spine normal anatomy , a 3D printable STL medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset.

    The lumbar spine is formed by 5 lumbar vertebrae labelled L1-L5 and the intervening discs. Its main function is to provide stability and permits movement. The lumbar vertebral body is formed of 3 parts : Body, arch and spinal processes.
    The body of the lumbar vertebrae is large, its transverse diameter is larger than is AP diameter, and is more thickened anteriorly.
    The arch of the lumbar vertebra on the other hand is formed of pedicle, a strong structure that is projected from the back of the upper part of the vertebrae, and lamina which forms the posterior portion of the arch.
    The lumbar spine processes are the spinal process, superior and inferior articular processes, and the transverse process.
    This is a 3D printable STL medical file that was converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset.

    84 downloads

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  25. Free

    Right forearm, wrist, and hand, a 3D printable medical file of their normal anatomy converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 48-year old female

    The radius and the ulna are long, slightly curved bones that lie parallel from the elbow, where they articulate with the humerus, to the wrist, where they articulate with the carpals. The radius is located laterally, near the thumb, and the ulna medially, near the little finger. The radius and the ulna have a styloid process at the distal end; they are also attachment sites for many muscles.The radius is smaller than the ulna.
    A total of 27 bones constitute the basic skeleton of the wrist and hand. These are grouped into carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
    The wrist is the most complex joint in the body. It is formed by 8 carpal bones grouped in 2 rows with very restricted motion between them. From radial to ulnar, the proximal row consists of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones. In the same direction, the distal row consists of the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones.
    The hand contains 5 metacarpal bones. Each metacarpal is characterized as having a base, a shaft, a neck, and a head. The first metacarpal bone (thumb) is the shortest and most mobile. It articulates proximally with the trapezium. The other 4 metacarpals articulate with the trapezoid, capitate, and hamate at the base. Each metacarpal head articulates distally with the proximal phalanges of each digit.
    The hand contains 14 phalanges. Each digit contains 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), except for the thumb, which only has 2 phalanges. To avoid confusion, each digit is referred to by its name (thumb, index, long, ring, and small) rather than by number.
    This is 3D printable medical file converted from a CT scan DICOM dataset of a 48-year old female.

    72 downloads

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