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Dr. Mike

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  1. Dr. Mike

    Aortic simulation model

    sadia, Sorry about the slow reply. Do you still require help with this model? Perhaps I can help you. Best, Dr. Mike
  2. Terrie, Speaking of sharing anthropology files online, embodi3D has a dedicated section in the file library for anthropological files. But, it hasn't been active at all. Do you have any ideas for how we can get better sharing in this field? We'd like to help promote 3D printing in anthropology as well as medicine. https://www.embodi3d.com/files/category/11-anthropology/ Thanks in advance, Dr. Mike
  3. Dr. Mike

    SKULL BONE DEFECT ( difficult case )

    OK. What kind of help do you need?
  4. Version 1.0.0


    This STL file of a highly detailed dental scan shows the bony anatomy of the maxilla, mandible and facial structures in great detail. This model was created using the democratiz3D service. incisix, H, 150


  5. Is this for everyone or just anthropologists?
  6. Version 1.0.0


    This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. This model is an improvement over a prior version (here). Notches have been added to ensure the slices fit together and do not slide against each other. The model demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. It has been validated as printable on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer. Technical parameters: manifold STL (watertight) vertices: 462576 triangles: 925800 dimensions: 15.1 x 15.2 x 10.5 cm


  7. I receive a lot of inquiries to my account. I'm going to try to share them with the community in the hope that any information that is shared can help many others. A member recently contacted me and asked the following: "I am a Biomaterials and Tissue Engineer by profession and recently got into 3d printing of medical implants. I would be greatly obliged if you could please advice me on designing 'cranial mesh' My task is to design titanium based cranial mesh. I would like to know if you can suggest me any tutorial on the same." Another member asks, " I am a resident in neurosurgery in Brazil and I have a dream to allow cheap cranioplasty for those in need that depend on Brazilian public health system. If you have some sort of tutorial using free software to make those prosthetic cranial grafts of a cheap way to make a mold out of it I will be glad to hear from you. I am planning on buying the ultimaker 2 printer which allows direct PEEK print and also PLA print for mold to go through autoclave." I must admit that I have limited experience with craniofacial implants. I know that the physicians at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Bethesda Maryland are doing pioneering work in the field. Regarding making titanium-based implants I am unaware of any tutorials, but a search on Pubmed has yielded a few helpful articles. Here is one https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073471/ From what I have seen most of these implants are designed using the Mimics system by Materialise. Regarding the low-cost solution for cranial implants, I'm not familiar with any freeware software that specifically does implants. From the hardware perspective, you may want to consider a Form 2 stereolithographic printer in addition to the Ultimaker 2 (FYI, there is a new Ultimaker 3 printer out). Formlabs, the makers of the Form 2 have a tutorial on using their printer to make molds for casting. https://formlabs.com/blog/3d-printing-for-injection-molding/ Formlabs has a dental biocompatible resin that I know some hospitals (Mayo Clinic) are using for in-surgery cutting guides. I heard them talk about that at a conference I recently attended. Whatever you do, make sure you follow the health safety rules in your country and take all necessary steps for patient safety.
  8. Piotr, that is brilliant. Thanks for sharing. Are you doing along of 3D Printing-assited bone flaps?
  9. I'm a member of this group and was involved in the drafting if the guidelines. And they are guidelines and subject to change. Really at this moment nobody really know what is or isn't appropriate for a certain indication. The publication is really a summary of where the literature is at the moment and where the is some published research about where 3D printing may be useful. It is a good start.
  10. Formlabs now has a low cost nylon SLS printer, the Fuse 1. It is about 10 times cheaper than other selective laser sintering printers. Check it out.
  11. Dr. Mike

    Formlabs Fuse 1 SLS printer

    Good point. The in-contact concern seems similar to the form 1 and form 1+ printers. Always wear gloves. I know if several people who have developed allergies to resin.
  12. Dr. Mike

    Thoughts on UNIZ

    Not too familiar with it. What are you intending to use it for?
  13. Dr. Mike

    Converting Ultrasound Files

    Thanks for the great discussion. I'm sure a lot of our members would like to learn how to convert ultrasound to STL. Please post an answer if you figure it out.
  14. This an an incredible review. Flaviu, thank you for sharing your experience with the community. What kind of print times are you experiencing for anatomic parts, for example, the L spine in the photo? It looks like you are using a 0.4mm nozzle. My experience has been that these parts are very time consuming. With the extra purge tower that time will be extended. What are you experiencing? kopachini, yes the Palette 2 was what I mentioned to you at RSNA. Flaviu, what are your experience with BVOH? In particular, how well does it stick to PLA. PVA is notoriously difficult to get to work nicely with PLA, and I am wondering if BVOH is any better. Also, do you know if the palette works with a dual extruder system? I would be nice to use the first extruder for multicolor and the second for soluble support only, as the expensive soluble support won't be lost in the purge block. Great work! Dr. Mike
  15. Version 1.0.0


    Facial CT scan Gunshot to Face for RSNA 2018 Course: RCA35 Intro to Open Source 3D Printing - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. 3D, model, .stl, bone, printable, bone, nasal, septum, zygomatic, arch, maxilla, apophysis, mastoid, temporal, frontal, upper, teeth, orbit, mandible, cervical, spine, head, skull occipital, parietal, fracture, gunshot ,atlas, axis, cervical, spine,


  16. I've recently discovered that a lot of trouble I've been having with my Ultimaker 3E when printing with PVA support that has been due to the PVA absorbing moisture from the air. I live in the Pacific Northwest and in the wintertime the humidity is very high most of the time. I stored it in an airtight bag, but apparently that wasn't good enough. The PVA has been popping and crackling during printing, presumably due to vaporizing water in the hot extrusion nozzle. Printing results have been very inconsistent, but got immediately better when I swapped in a new roll of PVA. I tried drying the old PVA roll in a food drier at 125 F for 12 hours and when I tried printing with that roll I obtained much better results, but it still wasn't as good as the fresh PVA. There was still some popping and crackling and the extruded support looked "hairy," i.e. not quite that clean. Has anybody had success with rejuvenating PVA that has been exposed to atmospheric moisture? Can you share any tips you have? Thanks in advance.
  17. Version 1.0.0


    This Brain model was created from a high resolution MRI scan. The model includes the cerebrum. The cerebellum and brain stem are not depicted. The model has been made hollow, with 4 mm wall thickness to save on material when 3D printing. The model is full-size. It has been successfully printed at full size on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer, and at 95% size on a Formlabs Form 2 printer. Technical parameters: Vertices: 350725 Triangles: 701950 Size: 17.9 x 13.4 x 11.5 cm


  18. This tutorial is based on course I taught at the 2018 RSNA meeting in Chicago, Illinois. It is shared here free to the public. In this tutorial, we walk though how to convert a CT scan of the face into a 3D printable file, ready to be sent to a 3D printer. The patient had a gunshot wound to the face. We use only free or open-source software and services for this tutorial. There are two parts to this tutorial: Part 1: How to use free desktop software to create your model Part 2: Use embodi3D's free democratiz3D service to automatically create your model Key Takeaway from this Tutorial: You can make high quality 3D printable models from medical imaging scans using FREE software and services, and it is surprisingly EASY. A note on the FDA (for USA people): There is a lot of confusion about whether expensive, FDA-approved software must be used for medically-related 3D printing in the United States. The FDA recently clarified its stance on the issue.* If you are not using these models for patient-care purposes, this does not concern you. If you have questions please see the FDA website. If you are a DOCTOR, you can use whatever software you think is appropriate for your circumstances under your practice of medicine. If you are a COMPANY, selling 3D printed models for diagnostic use, you need FDA-approved software. If you are designing implants or surgical cutting guides, those are medical devices. Seek FDA feedback. *Kiarashi, N. FDA Current Practices and Regulations, FDA/CDRH-RSNA SIG Meeting on 3D Printed Patient- Specific Anatomic Models. Available at https://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/UCM575723.pdf Accessed 11/1/2017. Part 1: Using Desktop software 3D Slicer and Meshmixer Step 1: Download the scan file and required software To start, download the starting CT scan file at the link below. Also, install 3D Slicer (slicer.org) and Meshmixer (meshmixer.com). Step 2: Open 3D Slicer Open Slicer. Drag and drop the scan file gunshot to face.nrrd onto the slicer window. The scan should open in a 4 panel view as shown below in Figure 1. Figure 1: The 4 up view. If your view does not look like this, you can set the 4 up view to display by clicking Four-Up from the View menu, as shown in Figure 2 Figure 2: Choosing the four-up view Step 3: Learning to control the interface Slicer has basic interface controls. Try them out and become accustomed to how the interface works. Note how the patient has injuries from gunshot wound to the face. Left mouse button – Window/Level Right mouse button – Zoom Scroll wheel – Scroll through stack Middle mouse button -- Pan Step 4: Blur the image The CT scan was created using a bone reconstruction kernel. Basically this is an image-enhancement algorithm that makes edges more prominent, which makes detection of fractures easier to see by the human eye. While making fracture detection easier, this algorithm does unnaturally alter the image and makes it appear more "speckled" Figure 3: Noisy, "speckled" appearance of the scan on close up view To fix this issue, we will slightly blur the image. Select Gaussian Blur Image Filter as shown below in Figure 4 Figure 4: Choosing the Gaussian Blur Image Filter Set up the Gaussian Blur parameters. Set Sigma = 1.0. Set the input volume to be Gunshot to face. Create a new output volume called "Gaussian volume" as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: Setting up the Gaussian parameters When ready, click Apply, as shown in Figure 6. You will notice that the scan becomes slightly blurred. Figure 6: Click Apply to start the Gaussian Blur Image filter. Step 5: Create a 3D model using Grayscale Model Maker Open the Grayscale Model Maker Module as shown below in Figure 7. Figure 7: Opening the Grayscale Model Maker Set up the Grayscale Model Maker parameters. Select the Gaussian volume as the input volume, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8: Choosing the input volume in Grayscale Model Maker Next, set the output geometry to be a new model called "gunshot model." Set the other parameters: Threshold = 200, smooth 15, Decimate 0.5, Split normals unchecked as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9: Grayscale Model maker parameters When done, click Apply. A new model should be created and will be shown in the upper right hand panel, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: The new model Step 6: Save the model as an STL file To start saving the model, click the save button in the upper left of the Slicer window as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: The save button Be sure that only the 3D model, gunshot model.vtk is selected. Uncheck everything else, as shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: The Save dialog. Check the vtk file Make sure the format of the 3D model is STL as shown in Figure 13. Specify the folder to save into, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 13: Specify the file type Figure 14: Specify the folder to save into within the Save dialog. Step 7: Open the file in Meshmixer for cleanup Open Meshmixer. Drag and drop the newly created STL file on the meshmixer window. The file will open and the model will be displayed as in Figure 15. Figure 15: open the STL file in Meshmixer Get accustomed to the Meshmixer interface as shown in Figure 16. A 3 button mouse is very helpful. Figure 16: Controlling the Meshmixer user interface Choose the Select tool. In is the arrow button along the left of the window. Figure 17: The select tool Click on a portion of the model. The selected portion will turn orange, as shown in Figure 18. Figure 18: Selected areas turn orange. Expand the small selected area to all mesh connected to it. Use Select->Modify->Expand to Connected, or hit the E key. The entire model should turn orange. See Figure 19. Figure 19: Expanding the selection to all connected mesh. Next, Invert the selection so that only disconneced, unwanted mesh is selected. Do this with Select->Modify->Invert, or hit the I key as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Inverting the selection At this point, only the unwanted, disconnected mesh should be selected in orange. Delete the unwanted mesh using Select->Edit->Discard, or use the X or DELETE key as shown in Figure 21. At this point, only the desired mesh should remain. Figure 21: Deleting unwanted mesh. Step 8: Run the Inspector tool The Inspector tool will automatically fix most errors in the model mesh. To open it, choose Analysis->Inspector as shown in Figure 22. Figure 22: The Inspector tool The Inspector will identify all of the errors in the mesh. To automatically correct these mesh errors, click Auto Repair All as shown in Figure 23. Figure 23: Auto Repairing using Inspector The Inspector will usually fix all or most errors. In this case however, there is a large hole at the edge of the model where the border of the scan zone was. The Inspector doesn't know how to close it. This is shown in Figure 24. Figure 24: The inspect could not fix 1 mesh error Step 9: Close the remaining hole with manual bridges Using the select tool, select a zone of mesh near the open edge. The Select tool is opened with the arrow button along the left. Choose a brush size -- 40 is good -- as shown in Figure 25. Figure 25: Choosing the select tool The mesh should turn orange when selected, as shown in Figure 26. Figure 26: Selected mesh turns orange. Next, rotate the model and select a zone of mesh opposite the edge from the first selected zone, as shown in Figure 27. Figure 27: Selecting mesh opposite the defect. Once both edges are selected, create a bridge of mesh spanning the two selected areas using the Bridge operation: Select->Edit->Bridge, or CTRL-B, as shown in Figure 28. Figure 28: The bridge tool There should now be a bridge of orange mesh spanning the gap. Click Accept, as shown in Figure 29. Figure 29: The new bridge. Be sure to click Accept. Next, repeat the bridge on the opposite side of the skull. Be sure to deselect the previously selected mesh before working on the opposite side, as shown in Figure 30. Figure 30: Creating a second bridge on the opposite side. Step 10: Rerun the Inspector Rerun the Inspector tool, as shown in Figure 31. Now with the bridges to "help" Meshmixer to know how to fill in the hole, it should succeed. If it fails, create more bridges and try again. Figure 31: Rerun the Inspector tool Next, export your file to STL. ' Figure 32: Export to STL Step 11: 3D print your file! Your STL file is now ready to be sent to the 3D printer of your choice. Figure 33 shows the model after printing. Figure 33: The final print Part 2: Using the democratiz3D service on embodi3d.com democratiz3D automatically converts scans to 3D printable models. It automates the mesh cleanup process and saves time. The service is free for general bone model creation. Step 1: Register Register for a free embodi3D account. The process takes only a minute. You need an account for your processed files to be saved to. Step 2: Upload the NRRD source scan to democratiz3D. From anywhere in the site, click democratiz3D-> Launch App Figure 34: Launching the democratiz3D app. Fill out basic information about your file. That information will be copied to your generated STL file, as shown in Figure 35. Figure 35: Entering basic file information Make sure democratiz3D processing is on. Choose an operation to convert your model. Set threshold to 200, as shown in Figure 36. Figure 36: Operation, threshold, and quality parameters. Click Submit! In 10 to 15 minutes your model should be done. You will receive an email notification. The completed model file will be saved under your account. Download the file and send it to your printer of choice! Figure 37; The final democratiz3D file, ready for download. That's it! I hope this tutorial was helpful to you. If you liked it, please rate it positively. If you want to learn more about democratiz3D, Meshmixer, or Slicer, please see our tutorials page. It has a lot of wonderful resources. Happy 3D printing!
  19. Dr. Mike

    06 gaussian apply.png

    From the album: Blog images 5

  20. Dr. Mike

    36 democratiz3d ops.png

    From the album: Blog images 5