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Showing content with the highest reputation since 09/21/2018 in all areas

  1. 3 points

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    Every Slicer software have automatic support function. Just click it and it will generate the right amount of support you need. For bone models the important question is - are your fellow surgeons planning to cut the model or not. It will be a shame, if they break their instruments into your model... For metal implant premodelling prior the operation, you need smooth bones with high resolution details. In my experience, 0,150mm layer thickness, with 4 perimeters (1,7mm shell thickness with 0,4mm nozzle), 15% gyroid or cuboid infill, a bit colder extrusion temperature (200C for PLA) is perfect. Your fellow surgeons can bend the metalic osteosynthesis implants on the model into their optimal shape, can sterilise them and this whole operation will decrease the surgery time with 1 hour. This is a big difference for the outcome of the operation, the recovery time, the complications ect. ect. If you want to print fracture fragments, make them in different colors. Then you can make 3D visualization with the corresponding colors. The model will look marvelous and you'll become the surgeon's best buddy. They will love you, they will cheer you and they will give you a lot of money for that. If you need specific information, please tell us - printer model, slicer software, material on choice. I can give you more specific information, if you do that.
  2. 3 points
    If you want to scan people for fun, you can use your cell phone for photogrammetry with free software. Then you can put the heads on different bodies and to print them. Something like this: For this purpose you can use every 3d printer up to 2000$. I myself prefer my original Prusa MK3, because I'm not an engineer and I prefer something to do all the printing stuff for me. Here is the result: When we're talking about medical 3d printing, we're talking about a whole different topic. The medical models have to be very precise and there is an industrial standards about it. For example, my models have 0,5mm deviation from the original body part at 95% confidence interval. I had a presentation at an morphology symposium about my favorite Lusoria model lately and now I have a lot of orders from the local hospitals, because of the standard, which I can achieve. For medical modeling you have to be an expert in all the morphological specialties (Anatomy, Pathology, Radiology) with some serious clinical background. To reach this level, you need: 1. Medical education. 2. A lot of treated patients, most of which have to stay alive after your job. The death patients are literally skeletons in the closet. 3. Some background in the basic dissection techniques, both the pathological and the anatomical ones. 4. The surgery training is a plus. 5. Some gaming experience or experience with CAD software. The computer games are like bodybuilding for the visual cortex. 6. 1+ years of hard work, everyday modeling, studying, drawing, dissections, consultations with the experts in the field, a lot of tears and some joy. THEN you can do medical modeling, something like this. I started to model, when I was an anatomy assistant professor, with 12 years of experience as an emergency internal physician. I had the chance to find this website with all it resources, tutorials and the awesome support from the administrators and after 1 year of really hard work, I became a professional, (one of the best in my region, in a matter of fact). But still, my biggest nightmare is that, because of my mistakes during the preoperative modeling, a patient will die. So - are we really talking about medical modeling or you just want to do some fun with your client's CT scans?
  3. 2 points

    Version 1.0.0


    This is a preoperative model of thoraco-abdominal aneurysm, Crawford typle I, with rupture above the diaphragm. The subsequent haemorrhagia in the mediastinum closed temporary the rupture, probably saving the life of the patient. This was an impossible operation, which took 7 hours and the team of the best cardio-thoracic surgeons in Bulgaria. I don't know how, but the patient is still alive and kicking. It took me 3 days to make the model and to turn it into a 3d visualization and I'll share my workflow with you. I'm printing the model right now for a cardio-thoracic surgery symposium. The source is Angio CT scan with 1,3 mm slide thickness. 1. I analysed the model in Radiant Dicom viewer (you can activate trial license for unlimited amount of times, if you can't afford 100 euro for it). I selected the best series and exported them in a folder. 2. I loaded the model in 3D Slicer. First, I run two denoising algoritms (Gradient Anisotropic Diffusion and Curvature Anisotropic Diffusion), which improved the quality of the images significantly. Then I selected a ROI, which included the whole aorta. With the Segment Editor Module I segmented the lumen of the aorta. Then, as a separate segmentation, I used the Margin operation to grow the lumen with 2 centimeters and applied a boolean operation, resulting in a hollow shell with precise lumen. I had to segment the rest of the aortic wall manually. I exported the result as STL file. 3. In Meshmixer, I modeled the whole thing, until I was satisfied by the result. 4. My client asked me to remove the aortic arch (it's such a pain, I love aortic arches) and to print the aneurysmal sac with the abdominal aorta and the bifurcation of the iliac arteries. Note the double renal artery. I divided the model into two parts and installed ports for two 8x2mm and two 5x2 mm neodymium magnets with tolerance of 0,250mm. The final preprint version is on picture 3. 5. I'm printing this model with 1,5mm slide thickness, 4 perimeters, 15% gyroid infill, custom support with support enforcers, using red Natural PLA from a local manufacturer. The whole printing will take 45 hours.


  4. 2 points
    After several weeks of multi color/material printing with my FDM printer Prusa MK3 (I have other Printers too) with the Multi Material Unit 2 (MMU2) I'd like to share my results with you. Another interesting product regarding multimaterial is the Mosaic Palette 2. I don't own that unit at the moment but I know people who are using the system and I talked a lot with them about the unit so I will share their experience also with you. First of all, some general info. The Prusa MK3 costs as a build kit 769€ and fully assembled 999€. The MMU2 unit comes only as a kit and costs 300€. It can print with up to 5 materials. It can only be used with a Prusa printer out of the box. (Firmware is open source so in theory you could tinker it to work with other printers). Prusa has also their own (open source) slicer called Slic3er PE. The Palette 2 comes in two versions, the standard and the pro. Both versions can print with up to 4 materials. I highly recommend the pro version because it has a better warranty and comes with better quality parts. I also recommend the canvas hub option because it makes it easier to connect the system to your printer. That would result in a total prise of 878 USD. The Palette 3 can only be used with 3D printers that use 1.75 mm filament. So it can't be used with something like an Ultimaker. One more thing about filament. Prusa has now their own filament called Prusament. It is produced with a tolerance of +/- 0.02 mm in diameter. And you get a QR code with your spool to check the measuring yourself. Every spool is measured 100%. One (and only) advantage of the 2.85 mm filament that Ultimaker is using is that it is easier to produce precisely. If you are using 1.75 mm with +/- 0.02 mm that advantage is gone. First some thoughts on the MMU2. The MK3 produces very nice quality prints especially with high quality PLA like Prusament or PLA/PHA. That is mainly thanks to the Bondtech direct drive extruder. One other nice feature is the removable (magnetic flex steel) PEI bed. I guarantee you that if you are using this feature one time you will never never ever want a printer without it again. The basic principle of the system is that it adds a bowden system with a selector to the direct drive system. So the direct drive system pulls the filament up until the bowden system takes over. Than it switches the filament and the bowden system pushes the filament back to the direct drive gears. And so on ... As already mentioned it comes as a kit. And that is a BIG problem. Assembling it is not easy because you have to make sure that the filament path is as smoothly as possible. When you pull filament out from the hotend you can have tips with large strings or increased diameters. That will cause problems. To form the tips Slic3r PE has something called "ramming sequence". It tries to "form" the tips nicely like with no strings. This works good with Prusas own filament Prusament. It works also usually quite good with other filaments especially high quality ones like PLA/PHA. But there is no guarantee it works with the filament you are using so you might have to try different settings. So you have with the MMU2 basically two main problems. Assembling it so that everything runs perfectly smooth. And getting the ramming sequence settings right. A LOT of people are having problems with that. I had also try a lot out and it was frustrating at the beginning. I have now a working unit and prints are imho amazing. Now some words about the Palette 2 (pro). The principle of the machine is that it cuts the filaments and than splices them (melting) together. So you have one filament going out of the system with the right color combination for your model. It comes basically fully assembled. Installing the system to your printer takes maybe half an hour or so depending on your setup. So a LOT easier that the MMU2. One big problem right now is that their own slicer is very buggy and produces (especially on complex models) mediocre print quality. Sometimes it does even the color changes on the wrong location of the part. Combining your own more sophisticated slicer like Slic3er, Simplify3D or Cura with their system works also not reliably at the moment. Some general thoughts. Both systems produce purge towers. Every time when you change the color you have to get rid of the plastic from the old color in the hot end. How much you have to purge onto the tower is color dependent. E. g. switching from black to white or from PLA to BVOH as extreme scenarios. BUT as I mentioned the Palette splices the filaments together. That produces a color gradient in the filament of a few mm. That has to be purged additionally. So the purge amount of the Palette will always be bigger than the one of the MMU2. Slic3er PE has the option to "purge into infill" so it purges also into the objects infill. That option will come to the Palette 2 in the near future. I print a lot with BVOH and I know that it can work with the Palette too. But in both cases it adds complexity. Slic3er PE has the option for printing only support interface layers or completely supports with soluble material. I will start testing flexible materials in the near future. Customer support is pretty good with both companies. The forums are used very actively and you have also a very helpful chat support at Prusa. MMU2 Print: MMU2 Print: Kidney with tumor and magnet inserts MMU2 Fun prints: Palette slicing problems: Palette color gradient:
  5. 2 points
    You could use your Prusa printer with the palette 2. Their software has improved a lot the last few months and it should be a plug and play experience now.
  6. 2 points

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    Removing the support is a really hard and painful job, I almost cut one of my fingers the last time I did it (the bleeding was serious though). This is why I prefer to avoid the 3d printing of brain models and I'm making only visualizations. Anyway, here are some tips how to remove the damn thing without hurting yourself: 1. Use a bit lower extrusion temperature or additional cooling fan. For PLA try to print it at 195 degrees instead of 210. This will keep the details nice and steady, the support - easily removable and will eliminate the stringing. It's a bit risky, the model can deattach from the building platform. 2. Use a raft. A real game changer, when we're talking about support removing from complicated organic models. 3. Silk PLA filament. The supports with those filaments are much easier for removal. And it looks really cool. 4. Use different slide thickness at the interface layers. With most of the slicers, you can control the layer thickness in the different parts of your model. You can use lower slide thickness at the interface layers between the support and higher thickness at the rest of the model. This will keep the printing time acceptable and the support - removable. 5. You can try dual extrusion system with PVA as support, if you're ok with the constant oozing and stringing from the second extruder and the terrible performance of most of the PVA filaments. You can also try BVOH with a such system, if you can afford it.
  7. 2 points
    3D modeling and printing from US data is pretty much the same as from CT... using treshold technique and generating mesh. The biggest problem, for now, is how to open DICOM data obtained from US because it differs to one obtained from CT in one of the software for sliceing (3D Slicer). For now, in 3D slicer you can open DICOM data from GE machines and Philips but people are working on enabling importing DICOM data from other manufacturers. Hope this helps a little bit
  8. 2 points
    I've only printed the skull, but it came out very well (see my comment), I haven't had to clean none of the surfaces of the file. Again, thanks for sharing this file 🙂
  9. 2 points
    I am a neurosurgeon. The simplest way to solve most of our problems in a low cost and rather according to the rules way is to first to print the patients skull (easy). Than to form manually, slowly and exactly a lacking bone from the cheap, available everywhere in the world dental molds (I have succeeded with silicone prosthetic mold). When the bone substitute is ready and firm, then make an impress in a stomatologic acrylic mass (methacrylate, the ubiquitous surgical material), also available everywhere. Its the same component that we use to form a bone in the operating theatre, but not sterile. If you have the mold ready, you can sterilise it in a plasma autoclave, put in a sterile foil bag in the operating theatre and then form in this foil and form a lacking skull piece from a classic methacrylate. Sterile, with all of the certificates needed. It does work. Ready 3D printed skull flaps are often imperfect. I.e. they do not take into consideration brain swelling, soft tissue remodelling etc. The mold and forming the bone flap during surgery from PMMA seems to be much more versatile. And you do not have to throw away the bone substitute of 2000 USD into trash. Best regards, Piotr
  10. 2 points
    Nice model of brain. It definitely needs supports. The printing on Prusa i3 MK3 consumed almost whole 1kg of filament and 90hrs of time (PLA filament 1.75mm, OPTIMAL print 0.15mm, with supports). Unfortunately I chose supports above the pad only, not everywhere, so there are some ugly places above the temporal lobes. It is a pity that the cerebellum is missing. Thanks!
  11. 2 points
    The last three weeks was a busy time for me. I purchased the best 3D printer of Fall 2018 - Prusa I3 MK3. I ordered it as a kit, the build itself took me 8 hours - my obsession with the electronics payed off - and immediately after that the printer was ready for some action. Prusa I3 is the most common 3D printer in the world - 70% of all printers are Prusa clones. Prusa MK3 is manufactured by the designer of the printer itself, Josef Prusa and most of it's parts are made by other MK3's in the Prusa's 3D printer farm. The printer is robust, tough, with very useful automatic functions and can print with most types of termopolymers (Polycarbonate included) with minimum layer thickness of 0,05 mm. Now I'm preparing an enclosure with automatic temperature and humidity control, Hepa and carbon filter and Octoprint upgrade for WiFi control. I bought cheap secon-hand server rack for this purpose (Fig. 4) - if it can keep a constant environment for the servers, it can do it for my printer, right? y first print was the object on Fig. 1 (what is the name of the organ?) Then I had more than 300 hours of unstoppable 3D printing and the printer doesn't made A SINGLE bad print. The only issue was the printing surface after print #12 - the next print didn't adhesed properly, so I had to wipe the printing surface with isopropyl alcohol. I was printing with PLA, now I'm starting with the first roll of PETG. My next step was to contact my colleagues from the orthopedic surgery clinic and to show them my first prints. They was exited by the result, so they provided a 1 mm. slide thickness CT scan of a Pylon fracture. Then I used the following workflow: 1. Slicer 3D, Resample Scalar Vollume to resample the set to 0,5 mm. 2. CurvatureAnisotropicDiffusion with 3 iterations. 3. Editor module for segmentation, model maker for the conversion to stl. 4. Autodesk Meshmixer for remeshing, editing and sculpting, Blender for smoothing. I prefer Meshmixer than Zbrush because it's much simpler and user-friendly. I'm also pretty good with it 5. I sliced the final stl with Slic3r, Prusa Edition and sliced the model on 0,150 mm slices, with support from the building plate, with 15% Gyroid infill (it looks exactly as a spongy bone), with Natural White PLA (17 euro per kilogram, from a local supplier) with the Natural PLA preset on the slic3r. 6. The print took 14 hours, the support was easy for removal (Fig. 2). 7. The orthopedical surgeons did their magic, first on the model (Fig. 3), then on the patient. They claimed, that the operation was very successful, thanks to my model and their skill. The chief surgeon is Dr. Preslav Penev MD PHD. My second project was a Pilon fracture of the ankle with multiple fragments, which I made with the same workflow. The patient is in operation right now. I also have two more projects, for a congenital aplasia of the talus with pes varus and for luxatio of the Lisfranc joint, so I hired two medical students and I'll teach them how to model (I already sent them Dr. Mike's beginners tutorial) for my future projects. I'm the first physician in Bulgaria, who performs preoperative 3D printing, which is very good for my career development. My colleagues called me a "pioneer" and I'm thinking about a 3D printing lab. I already ordered the Multimaterial Upgrade, which means SOLUBLE SUPPORT MATERIAL (I have to wait till January, it's in production right now). Jo Prusa's STL printer looks quite appealing too. Those printers are ridiculously cheap, considering how efficient never-stopping beasts of burden they are. I guest I should hit the vascular surgeons next...
  12. 2 points
    Dr. Mike

    Full size Thorax 3D print

    A quarter is shown at the bottom for scale.
  13. 2 points


    Version 1.0.0


    craniotomy, stl, 3d, model, printable, parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, orbit, nasal, bones, maxilla, craniotomy, neurosurgery, sutures, mastoid, apophysis


  14. 1 point
    I think this is the biggest thoracic aneurysm I have ever seen. I am glad the patient survived!
  15. 1 point

    Medical 3D printing 101

    This topic is for medical 3d printing tips and tricks for the newbies. I'm starting with the bones, you can add whatever you can share. Bones. The main advantage of the orthopedical presurgical 3d printed models is the possibility to create an accurate model, which can be used for metal osteosynthesis premodelling - the surgeons can prepare (bend, twist, accommodate) the implants prior the operation. After a sterilisation (autoclaving, UV-light, gamma-ray etc etc), those implants can be used in the planned surgery, which will decrease the overall surgery time (in some cases with more than an hour) with all it's advantages, including a dramatic decreasing of the complication rates, the X-ray exposure for the patient and for the surgeons, the cost and the recovery rates etc etc. For this purpose, you need a smooth bone model, with clearly recognizable and realistic landmarks, realistic measurements and physical properties, close to the real bone. Traditionally, the orthopedical surgeons in my institution used polystyrene models, made by hand, now they have access to 3d printed models and they are better in any way. Here are some tips how to print that thing. 1. Method - FDM. The bone models are the easiest and the most forgiving to print. You can make them with literally every printer you can find. FDM is a strong option here and, in my opinion, the best method on choice. 2. Matherial - PLA - it's cheap, it's easy to print, it's the bread and butter for the bone printing. Cool extruding temperature (195-200C) decrease the stringing and increases the details in the models. 3. Layer heigh - 0,150mm. This is the best compromise between the print time, the quality and the usability of the models. 3. Perimeters (shell thickness) - 4 perimeters. One perimeter means one string of 3d printed material. It's width depends on the nozzle diameter and the layer thickness. For Prusa MK3 with 0,4mm nozzle 1 perimeter is ~0,4mm. To achieve a realistic cortical bone, use 4 perimeters (1,7mm). The surgeons loves to cut stuff, including the models, in some cases I have to print several models for training purposes. 4 perimeters PLA feels like a real bone. 4. Infill - 15% 3d infill (gyroid, cuboid or 3d honey comb). The gyroid is the best - it looks and feels like a spongy bone. It's important to provide a realistic tactile sensation for the surgeons, especially the trainees. They have to be able to feel the moment, when they pass the cortical bone and rush into the spongiosa. 5. Color - different colors for every fracture fragment. If the model is combined with a 3D visualization, which colors corresponds with the colors of the 3d print, this will make the premodelling work much easier for the surgeons. Also, it looks professional and appealing. 6. Postprocessing - a little sanding and a touch of a acrylic varnish will make the model much better. 7. Support material - every slicer software can generate support, based on the angle between the building platform and the Z axis of the model. You can control this in details with support blockers and support enforcers, which for the bones is not necessary, but it's crucial for the vessels and the heart. Conclusions - the bone models are easy to make, they look marvelous and can really change the outcome of every orthopedical surgery.
  16. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    REAL, right upper lobe, apical segment (B1), posterior segment (B2), anterior segment (B3), right middle lobe (or more correctly - just middle lobe), lateral segment (B4), medial segment (B5), right lower lobe superior segment (B6), medial segment (B7), anterior segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment , left upper lobe, apicoposterior segment (B1/2), anterior segment (B3), superior lingular segment (B4), inferior lingular segment (B5), left lower lobe, superior segment (B6), anteromedial segment (B8), lateral segment (B9), posterior segment (B10), 3d, model, .stl, printable,


  17. 1 point
    Angel Sosa

    Size of the 3D print vs Actual size

    You can check this tutorial https://www.embodi3d.com/democratiz3d-user-manual/#Quality
  18. 1 point

    mandible - stl file processed

    I remixed and resized a little and printed well in white pla.
  19. 1 point
    I contacted the manufacturer of their implants for some details. It's weird, but they are using this brand of filament, which meets the regulations for food safety (European regulations EC No. 1935/2004, EC No. 2023/2006 and EC No. 10/2011 concerning plastic materials and articles coming into contact with food and is also compliant with the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for food contact), but not those for temporary/permanent implants. So, I contacted Apium for their PEEK filament, which have very good toxicology/cytotoxicity/mutagenic profile and meets all the regulations, including those for temporary/permanent implants. The prices are good, they have good filament dryers (you have to preheat the PEEK to 150 degrees before it reaches the hotend) and they have a specialized 3D printing system for PEEK (which doesn't concern me, because we already have a PEEK capable 3d printer). In the next half a year we'll perform some tests and if the results are ok, we'll make a phalanx bone for a patient, which is on hold right now. If everything is fine, we'll become a manufacturer for such implants. If not, we'll use Nylon 680. My colleagues from Sofia implanted 3d printed rib from Nylon 680 on a patient and the results are very promising.
  20. 1 point
    Can you please be a bit more specific? What do you mean by "scans"?
  21. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This file contains two printable circle of willis models. One is at life size and another magnified. It has been printed using Form 2 SLA printer and the second image is of the large model with support structures under xray which looks like cerebral angiography. Anterior parietal artery, Pericallosal artery, Posterior parietal artery, Artery of the angular gyrus, Posterior temporal artery, Second segment of the middle cerebral artery, Anterior communicating artery of the cerebrum (obscured by a vascular arch), First segment of the middle cerebral artery (sphenoid part), Temporal polar artery, Frontal orbital artery, Internal carotid artery, 3d, model, printable, .stl


  22. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This stackable heart with short-axis slices was 3D printed for a customer with strong red plastic. The print turned out great! The file can be downloaded here. To learn more about embodi3D's specialized medical 3D printing services, click here.
  23. 1 point
    NRRD is a file format for storing and visualizing medical image data. Its main benefit over DICOM, the standard file format for medical imaging, is that NRRD files are anonymized and contain no sensitive patient information. Furthermore NRRD files can store a medical scan in a single file, whereas DICOM data sets are usually comprised of a directory or directories that contain dozens if not hundreds of individual files. NRRD is thus a good file for transferring medical scan data while protecting patient privacy. This tutorial will teach you how to create an NRRD file from a DICOM data set generated from a medical scan, such as a CT, MRI, ultrasound, or x-rays. To complete this tutorial you will need a CD or DVD with your medical imaging scan, or a downloaded DICOM data set from one of many online repositories. If you had a medical scan at a hospital or clinic you can usually obtain a CD or DVD from the radiology department after signing a waiver and paying a small copying fee. Step 1: Download Slicer Slicer is a free software program for medical imaging. It can be downloaded from the www.slicer.org. Once on the Slicer homepage, click on the Download link as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Slicer is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Choose your operating system and download the latest stable release as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Download Slicer Step 2: Copy the DICOM files into Slicer. Insert your CD or DVD containing your medical scan data into your CD or DVD drive, or open the folder containing your DICOM files if you have a downloaded data set. If you navigate into the folder directory, you will notice that there are usually multiple DICOM files in one or more directories, as shown in Figure 3. Navigate to the highest level folder containing all the DICOM files. Figure 3: There are many DICOM files in a study Open Slicer. The welcome screen will show, as demonstrated in Figure 4. Left click on the folder that contains the DICOM files and drop it onto the Welcome panel in Slicer. Slicer will ask you if you want to load the DICOM files into the DICOM database, as shown in Figure 5. Click OK Slicer will then ask you if you want to copy the files or merely add links. Click Copy as shown in Figure 6. Figure 4: Drag and drop the DICOM folder onto the Slicer Welcome window. Figures 5 and 6 After working for a minute or two, Slicer will tell you that the DICOM import was successful, as shown in Figure 7. Click OK Figure 7 Step 3: Open the Medical Scan in Slicer. At this point you should see a window called the DICOM Browser, as shown in Figure 8. The browser has three panels, which show the patient information, study information, and the individual series within each study. If you close the DICOM Browser and need to open it again, you can do so under the Modules menu, as shown in Figure 9. Figure 8: DICOM Browser Figure 9: Finding the DICOM browser Each series in a medical imaging scan is comprised of a stack of images that together make a volume. This volume can be used to make the NRRD file. Modern CT and MRI scans typically have multiple series and different orientations that were collected using different techniques. These multiple views of the same structures allow the doctors reading the scan to have the best chance of making the correct diagnosis. A detailed explanation of the different types of CT and MRI series is beyond the scope of this article, but will be covered in a future tutorial. Click on the single patient, study, and a series of interest. Click the Load button as shown in Figure 8. The series will then begin to load as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: The study is loading Step 4: Save the Imaging Data in NRRD Format Once the series loads you will see the imaging data displayed in the Slicer windows. Click the Save button on the upper left-hand corner, as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: Click the Save button The Save Scene dialog box will then appear. Two or more rows may be shown. Put a checkmark next to the row that has a name that ends in ".nrrd". Uncheck all other rows. Click the directory button for the nrrd file and specify the directory to save the file into. Then click the save button, as shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: Check the NRRD file and specify save directory. The NRRD file will now be saved in the directory you specified!
  24. 1 point
    Great!! I did a half print on the Stratasys printer in our lab. A beautiful brain model.
  25. 1 point
    Agreed. This limit was put in place to prevent abuse for free downloads, but should not apply to paid items. We are working on a fix. You should now be able to download your files. Thank you for letting us know about this issue.
  26. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This skull with left MCA aneurysm was printed by embodi3D for a customer who wants to use the model for simulating neurosurgical aneurysm clipping.
  27. 1 point
    We recently 3D printed a multimaterial skull with MCA aneurysm from a CTA head for customer who needed the skull in rigid plastic and the vessels and aneurysm in flexible material. The model will be used by neurosurgeons to practice intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery. To properly simulate the surgery, the skull needs to be hard and the vessels elastic. Combining two materials (and two printers!) provides the best solution. The model was created on democratiz3D. You can learn more about embodi3D's printing service here.
  28. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This skull with left MCA aneurysm was printed by embodi3D for a customer who wants to use the model for simulating neurosurgical aneurysm clipping.
  29. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This skull with left MCA aneurysm was printed by embodi3D for a customer who wants to use the model for simulating neurosurgical aneurysm clipping.
  30. 1 point

    Converting Ultrasound Files

    Hi guys Does anybody know how to convert MVL. files (Fetus 3d ultrasound file) to DICOM or NRRD in order to making 3d model?
  31. 1 point
    I am a biomedical engineer, I own a CAD/3D print Company in Croatia. My Company is specialized in production of 3D printed moulds for making patient specific cranial implants out of PMMA. This is a rather cost effective way to produce patient specific cranial impants. I use Solidworks for designing implants and moulds. This software isn´t free, but it's cheaper than Geomagic. The whole procedure is described in an article I have published on my LinkedIn page: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pmma-cranial-impants-more-cost-effective-solution-josip-rauker/
  32. 1 point

    image extraction

    Hello, I want to extract the geometry fro angiographic data ....please tell me......it is an aneurysm ...cerebral.....I Have data with me ....which is in angiographic formate
  33. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Salim ali al badi - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.


  34. 1 point

    Converting Ultrasound Files

    I found in the 3D Slicer forum this topic that may help you. There is software called TomoVision that could help you, but you must buy it. https://discourse.slicer.org/t/how-to-import-a-mvl-file-format-3d-ultrasound-image/3294
  35. 1 point
    As a general rule of thumb: Materials who like to string are not easy to print with the mmu2. ABS does not like to string so it should work well. PETG for example strings a lot therefore it is not easy to be used with the mmu2. If you want to print with PVA you probably will have a lot of problems. BVOH is easier to print with but has to be stored in very dry conditions.
  36. 1 point
    Wow, nice. Thank you for your true review of MMU2. Unfortunately, new orders for MMU begin in February 2019 and can't wait for it to begin Those prints look great. Are there any difficulties when printing ABS/PLA and PVA as support together in one print? PS. @Dr. Mike is this Palette Mosaic same thing you told me about in RSNA meeting?
  37. 1 point

    Formlabs Fuse 1 SLS printer

    I'd like to warn everyone from using Prusas SLA or other cheap (Chinese) SLA printers instead of a Form 2. The Form 2 has a cartridge system for the resin. The cheaper SLA printers don't have that so you are a lot more "in contact" with the resin. This makes the whole process a lot more difficult/complex and might even be harmful to your health. 😐
  38. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Vascular Models?

    You can use democratiz3D to segment a CTA using bone algorithms, but it will include the arteries and bone. If you only want bone, that will need to be removed in a mesh editing software like MeshMixer or Blender. At this time democratiz3D does not automatically extract only the vessels (and not bone) from a CTA. Hope this helps. Dr. Mike
  39. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    test - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. skull, head, osteology, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, frontal, parietal, temporal, zygomatic, arch, maxilla, upper, teeth, orbit, veterinary, animal


  40. 1 point

    Horse head

    Version 1.0.0


    this is a horse head, maxilla, mandible, orbit, eye, brain, sinus, nasal, septum, teeth, veterinary, animal, ct, without, contrast 3d, model, dicom


  41. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Cat Skull - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.3d skull, stl, bone, cat, zygomatic arch, temporal, frontal, parietal, maxilla, mandible, teeth, canine, cervical, spine, orbit, auditory, canal, inner, occipital, 3d, model, printable


  42. 1 point
    Great blog! Its the easiest way in which someone must have explained the difference between CT scan and MRI scan. Thanks for sharing such a wonderful blog, most of the people would like it. I would also like to know the difference between Ultrasound, MRI, and CT scan.
  43. 1 point
    Here are two volumes obtained by GE Voluson E10 and exported as .stl file. I think that a lot depends on fetal head position and gestation age if you want to have nice fetal face model. Personally, I wasn't present when study was made.
  44. 1 point
    I contacted one private clinic in my city which has 3D US, and they are apparently really good at it. They told me that they are too busy right now so I couldn't obtain new DICOM data, but I will call them again and ask them if I could come. But the doctor who works there told me that they have GE Voluson S10 (newest model) which have build in the possibility to save study as .stl file... same as Philips IntelliSpace portal that was told before. I did a little bit of research and really there it is, but not for S10, yet for E10 model: http://www3.gehealthcare.com/en/products/categories/ultrasound/voluson/voluson_e10#tabs/tab44799EF6884146E1A27A6929FCAB17D5 Keep your fingers crossed so I could have a glance at that machine in a very soon time
  45. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Holes in bone models with democratiz3D

    I'd like to elaborate on this topic a bit, as I recently had another member inquire about this issue. The member was creating a model from a CT scan of the clavicles. As you can see, there are holes in the medial (midline) ends of both clavicles. What is causing this? Is it a problem with democratiz3D? How can it be fixed? The issue lies with the patient's anatomy and the quality of the original CT scan. In the human body there are areas where bones are naturally very thin. Sometimes, the bone surface (cortex) can be paper thin. Also, some patients who have conditions like osteoporosis may have very little calcium in their bones. Issues like this make it very hard for the CT scanner to detect the bone wall, as you can see from the image below which shows the area on the left clavicle that has a hole in the final model (red arrow). The problem isn't with democratiz3D, but with the quality of the CT scan or with the patient having thin bones (how dare they!). democratiz3D is actually creating the model exactly as it appears on the CT, its just that the CT has holes we don't want! So, what can be done? If you encounter this problem you have two options. 1) Manually fix the holes in the model with a mesh editor like Meshmixer, or 2) decrease the threshold value in democratiz3D and re-process the scan. Decreasing the threshold tells the system to capture more voxels in your model, potentially capturing more thin or osteoporotic bone. But, be careful. If you reduce the threshold too much (less than 100), you run the risk of starting to capture muscle, organs, and vessels in your bone model. If you are not sure what threshold to use, you can experiment by running your scan through democratiz3D using different thresholds. To save time, I suggest you do this on low or medium quality setting. When you find a threshold that works, you can generate your final model using a higher (and more time consuming) quality setting, like High or Ultra. If you are familiar with mesh editing software, that is probably the fastest way to correct this problem. Just delete the edge of the hole, fill it in with a new face, and run a quick smooth operation on the area. It's a 1 minute fix if you know the keyboard shortcuts. I hope this tip helps. Dr. Mike
  46. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Holes in bone models with democratiz3D

    I received this inquiry from a member. I am going to post the response here so that it can help others with the same question: QUESTION: "I am printing out a spine model.... Why are there so many defects in the rendering? I can't print this out on a 3d printer, half of the vertebrae are hollow. I get these from a 3d CT and on a computer monitor, the vertebrae are whole. Just take a look at the thumbnails and you'll know what I'm talking about. I don't have the expertise or time to fill all of the defects. Is there a paid service somewhere that could do this for me? I'm just surprised the STL file wouldn't look like the 3d CT since they use the same dicom imagery?" ANSWER: If you are creating bony models and are finding that the bones have holes or other large defects in them (see above), this is probably an issue with the Threshold value used during the conversion. Threshold is the number of Hounsfield units to use to create the surface of the model. Anything above the threshold value is considered bone and is included. Anything below is not considered bone and is excluded. Normal cortical bone is very dense, greater than 300 Hounsfield units, so the default threshold of 150 is more than enough to catch it. The inside of the bone (medullary, or marrow cavity) is filled with fatty bone marrow and is a much lower Hounsfield value. If the patient has osteoporosis or very thin cortical bones they may not register as bone if the default threshold of 150 is used. You can decrease this to a lower threshold value (maybe 100 or so) and you will be more likely to capture this thin, deossified bone. If you go too low though (60 or so) you will start to capture non-bony structures like muscle. Another thing that may help get the highest quality models is using premium operations such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality level. These operations are time-consuming however. To save on time, you can run your scan through democratiz3D using free operations such as Detailed Bone and medium or high quality until you find the threshold you like. Once you find the threshold value you like, you can run you scan through a final time using the highest quality (and slowest) operation settings, such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality. Hope this helps! Dr. Mike
  47. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    The Venous Drainage of the Central Nervous System. Model from MRI data. Anatomy plate from Gray's Anatomy.


  48. 1 point

    Version STL


    This is a .stl file of a left temporal bone ready for 3d printing. I have segmented a CT scan paying attention to all the important bony structures of the ear. In the .stl screenshots you can see the mastoid, malleus, incus, the bony canal of the facial nerve, the stylomastoid foramen Etc. I do this for my training and the idea is to perform a mastoidectomy just in my desktop i have printed my personal 3d plaster model (you can see in the screenshots) but i haven't the courage to destroy it whit the drill..... I hope that my work can be of help to anyone who wants to try to drill a faithful model of temporal bone at home or simply want to study the anatomy in a versatile 3d .stl Model Good Job Nicola Di Giuseppe M.D.


  49. 1 point

    Damian Delgadillo

    Version 1.0.0


    Hello, Thank you for an amazing community and for truly making a difference in the space. I will have someone design custom Jaw implants for this skull. I will ask the members of this community for help and will likely hire someone with the required skills to do design them. The skull and the implants will be 3d printed once the design is completed. The implants will be something similar to the picture attached. Best, Damian


  50. 1 point

    Knee Condyles

    From the album: 3D Metal Printed Parts

    3D Printed Knee Condyles
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