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Showing content with the highest reputation since 02/19/2019 in all areas

  1. 3 points
    In the last few decades, the 4th industrial revolution began - a significant advance in the 3D technology and an emerging of a brand new production method - the computer-controlled additive/subtractive manufacturing. It is considered "the new wheel" and it gives the ability to generate a detailed three dimensional object with complicated geometry from various materials (metals, polymers, clay, biological macro molecules) with a robot, controlled by a computer. The size of the object don't really matters - it's possible to construct structures on micron level or entire buildings. The thing, which really matters, is the geometry of the model. The specialists in the 3D technology are able to bend the very fabric of the world in every shape, which is needed. In the medical field, this advancement of the 3D technology was combined with the rise of the computer-assisted imaging and the histological imaging techniques , visualizing the living (or already death) organisms in details, never seen before. This is how the profession of the medical 3D artist emerged, giving new hope and amazing possibilities for the presentation, diagnostics and treatment of the human body. It's a hybrid profession, which requires vast knowledge and experience in the medical, engineering and computer science. If you want to become one and you're wondering can you actually sell your work, this guide will be quite helpful for you. As any other type of scientists, medical 3D artists have to choose his career path. It can lead to a career as academical professor, teaching students and performing theoretical experiments at a university or a science institute or as a industrial R&D specialist, creating practical products for the biomedical corporations. Both career options have their pros and cons, bot of them are saving lives. The difference is in the way of thinking. And the salary. For both of them the entrance requirement is a PhD in the field life or engineering science. So, in order to become a medical 3D artist, you need to go in the academy for a while, to endure the hell of the dissertation/thesis and to keep your sanity at the end. Once achieved, it's really hard to stay unemployed for long, those pesky talent seekers will jump on you like flies on manure. 1. Academical: The academical lives and thrives in his/hers institution. An office, a laboratory, some teaching obligations and the ability to work in the most cutting-edge fields of science and technology. More flexibility/freedom: the academical have a lot of free time, as long as the basic obligations towards the institution are satisfied. Intellectual autonomy: the academical can follow whatever idea he/she wants, as long as it's supported by the institution. Long term results: the academical things and acts in long period of time - one project can take an year, several year or the entire lifespan, depending on the project. Funding/salary issues: the academical is always underfunded and the salary sucks (unless he/she is well quoted, successful professor). This is why the problem-solving abilities and the high IQ are required for this career path. Strong ego and self-confidence: the academical things for themselves as geniuses, much smarter than the rest of the population (and in most cases they are right). Always “speaks theoretically”: the question "what if" is the breath and butter of the academia and it's really hard for the academical to be practical. 2. Industrial R&D specialist: the industrial scientist works in a office or a warehouse, with a team of other specialists, under the supervision of a project manager. He/she develops practical products, which have to be sellable and they have to be developed fast. More constrained (deadlines): the usual industrial project takes several months, under strict supervision and have to satisfy the needs of the marketing department. The deadlines are an issue here. Produces a practical product: the product have a practical, well defined application, shape, quality requirements and price. Pays a lot more: the salaries of the industrial R&D have an additional zero at the end. No funding issues: the industrial projects have more than adequate budget and they can receive an additional funding, if needed. No ego issues – “it’s just a job” - for the industrial specialist, the work is just a meaning for living. A job, as good as any other job. No "special missions" here. Literally “saves the world”: the products of the industry are used as practical applications and are used for diagnostics and treatment on everyday basis. Professional levels: As any other profession, the medical 3D artist goes through several stages, each one with higher requirements and possibilities. Jobber: the lowest level of them all. A sporadic odd jobs, for a low salary, for whoever is willing to pay. This is the first level, which a wannabe medical 3d artist reach and the level, on which most of them stay. Only those, who can achieve the necessary discipline, business ethics and quality can reach the next level. The jobbers are unpredictable, chaotic, they can hardly satisfy the deadlines and they offer the lowest quality possible. Every medical 3D artist in training is also a jobber. Freelancer: the selective few, who are talented and discipline enough to be able to offer NDA, contract, quote statement, production method description and industrial quality control. Those are the medical 3D artists, who doesn't suck, but wants to be free and flexible enough to follow their other interests. The freelancer is hired from companies and institution, which can't support a full-job 3d artist or their specialist are not competent enough to make the job done. A proud, well-respected person, working under strict business ethics, for fixed pay rate, usually calculated per hour or per item. The freelancer works on small projects, for a limited period of time and under well-defined condition, written on an official contract. Every professional medical 3D artist is also a freelancers. The reputation have a big importance in this group, which is why the freelancers are considered predictable, disciplined and competent to do any task, thrown at them. The salary here depends on the negotiating skills of the freelancer. Contractor: Those freelancers, who have the necessary business talent and are willing to take some risks, can make a company with several employees, several 3d printers, a convenient website with good portfolio and a variety of services. Such a company can take bigger orders from large institutions (hospitals or industrial companies), which requires a higher level of expertise, speed of service and quality control. Those contracts are for a longer period of time, under fixed condition, pricing and quality of the service. CEO: Those are the contractors, who are able to survive and to thrive, eventually can become big corporations, with hundreds of employees and millions dollars budgets. All of the current corporations started as small companies. Believe it or not, the biggest 3d printing companies (3D Systems, Stratasys. Ultimaker and many more) started as small, family-oriented companies, which became the gigantic corporations they are today. How they made it? I really want to know the answer of this question. So, most likely, you're a talented young (or not-so-young) individual with medical background, who watched some tutorials, made several models (most likely bones) and 3d printed them with a cheap 3d printer. Confident with your results, you think you can make a living with this amazing job and you're wondering how to start. My start was a bit rough, because I was trying to make a model of Pyramidal neuron in the Telencephalon for my department from a 10Gb Z-stack in Tif format with zero knowledge how to do it. This is how I found this website in first place. Few days later the model was done and when I tried to make my first bone models, it was way too easy, compared to the neuron. The rest is a lot of trails and errors, a lot of youtube tutorials, several kilograms of textbooks and the support of my colleagues. Here are some tips what you need to do in order to become a freelancer: Portfolio: If you want to sell your work, you have to present it first. Sketchfab.com is a very good way to do it, because it have an amazing 3d viewer with various awesome animation options. If you want to present your work, you just have to paste the link, because it's a zero-footrpint system - all you need to use it is a web browser. It's an excellent choice for 3d visualization and it's also free. The more models you're adding, the bigger audience you'll have and you don't have to worry what kind of 3d viewer your potential clients are using. Downloadable models: My personal choice is 30% paid models and 70% free ones. I'm a PhD student, I don't have some immediate need of money, so I can afford that. I'm dividing my models into regular and premium ones. In this way my models can be useful for everyone, both business parties or poor students around the world. It's really hard to find a good medical model for a presentation or a small university project and if you manage to find one, it's most likely from this website. Quote: When you're starting a job for someone, make sure that you have an accurate quote for your task in written format. Something like that: "I will generate ??? 3D models of a ??? (system, organ, structure) from CT/MRI datasets, which will include the following structures (soft tissues, bones, arterial/venous vessels etc. etc.) in ??? days for a ??? USD per hour, ??? hours per model, ??? USD per model". The more accurate you are, the better. This gives you the framework, in which you're working. Everything outside this frameworks is an extra and it should be payed as well. Your clients will try to change the conditions of your quote, this is why you need something written to control this process. Make sure you specify the currency, $ can mean a US dollar or a Mexican peso! NDA: Some clients will requite a mutual non-disclosure agreement, which you have to print, sign, scan and send back to the client. If you don't have such a document signed, you can do whatever you want with the model and you don't have to explain yourself to your client. You can afford a lower price for a model without NDA, because you can sell it or upload it as free download anyway. If you have such a document, just forget about the model, don't share it, don't show it and don't print it - you don't want to be sued by a medical company, they are more powerful than you. Contract: You should have a standard freelancers contract, in which you should apply the quote statement. Most of the cases, the quote statement is enough. Production method: You have to specify your production parameters like software, methods and operations. Something like that: "Segmentation of the abdominal aorta with Slicer 3D, exporting of the model as stl file, modelling and sculpting (smoothing, remeshing, boolean operation etc etc) in Meshmixer, postprocessing (slicing, magnet sockets, hinges etc etc) in Fusion 360, importation of the model into Slicer 3D for subsequent quality control, including ??? measurements of the dataset, the model and generation of average deviation". Don't be too precise, just the basic operations you're using with the corresponding software. Make sure you're not using a cracked software in your production method, everything you're using should be owned by you! 3D printed models: It's a good idea to have a set of 3d printed models, which can be presented on conferences, exhibitions and your social media page. This is a good commercial for your work, which is also a way for popularisation of the medical 3D modelling. Deadlines: Be precise in your work and follow the deadlines! As an old proctologist from my med school used to say - it's better to mess your finger than your reputation. If you're good in your work, you'll be hired again. Invoice: As with the contract, you should have a standard freelancers invoice, which you should send to your client. All those documents increases your credibility and are considered as signs of professionalism. If you're keeping your professional level high, you'll have better clients and higher pay rate. Freelancers websites: It's a good idea to have profiles in several freelancers websites. Most of your clients will contact you in person, but most likely they'll find you on those websites. Linkedin is a must. Patreon and facebook are also a good bet. Pricing: The usual salary for 3d modelling is between 30 and 60$ per hour, depending on the complexity of the task and the presence of an NDA. The most useful pricing for 3d printing is 1,5-2$ per hour of 3d printing. The smaller slide thickness and the bigger models requires significantly more time and a bigger price. You should also include all the postprocessing you're using (sanding, airbrushing, magnets, varnishes etc etc). 3D printing: For small operations, two or three 3d printers are enough. Good budget options are Ender 3 (FDM) and Elegoo Mars (DLP). Prusa MK3 and Form 2 are better, more expensive options, which will make your life much easier. Keep your printers in good condition and provide a regular maintenance. Choose several brands of polymers and stick to them, you don't want surprises, why you're chasing a deadline. Have fun: It doesn't matter what you're doing and how much you're making by doing it. Just have some fun! 3D printing is amazing, highly contagious activity, but it can become a burden, if you're not enjoying it. And always remember - with your work you're developing the medical science and you're literally saving lives.
  2. 3 points
    If you want to scan people for fun, you can use your cell phone for photogrammetry with free software. Then you can put the heads on different bodies and to print them. Something like this: For this purpose you can use every 3d printer up to 2000$. I myself prefer my original Prusa MK3, because I'm not an engineer and I prefer something to do all the printing stuff for me. Here is the result: When we're talking about medical 3d printing, we're talking about a whole different topic. The medical models have to be very precise and there is an industrial standards about it. For example, my models have 0,5mm deviation from the original body part at 95% confidence interval. I had a presentation at an morphology symposium about my favorite Lusoria model lately and now I have a lot of orders from the local hospitals, because of the standard, which I can achieve. For medical modeling you have to be an expert in all the morphological specialties (Anatomy, Pathology, Radiology) with some serious clinical background. To reach this level, you need: 1. Medical education. 2. A lot of treated patients, most of which have to stay alive after your job. The death patients are literally skeletons in the closet. 3. Some background in the basic dissection techniques, both the pathological and the anatomical ones. 4. The surgery training is a plus. 5. Some gaming experience or experience with CAD software. The computer games are like bodybuilding for the visual cortex. 6. 1+ years of hard work, everyday modeling, studying, drawing, dissections, consultations with the experts in the field, a lot of tears and some joy. THEN you can do medical modeling, something like this. I started to model, when I was an anatomy assistant professor, with 12 years of experience as an emergency internal physician. I had the chance to find this website with all it resources, tutorials and the awesome support from the administrators and after 1 year of really hard work, I became a professional, (one of the best in my region, in a matter of fact). But still, my biggest nightmare is that, because of my mistakes during the preoperative modeling, a patient will die. So - are we really talking about medical modeling or you just want to do some fun with your client's CT scans?
  3. 2 points
    I remember seeing 3D printed skulls from CT scans many years ago at JPAC, the Joint POW MIA Accounting command based at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. It was a pretty cool idea to study the 3D printed models so that the original remains could be buried, thus giving families closure, etc. I think there is great potential in anthropology for this type of technology.
  4. 2 points
    (Many thanks to @Nicola for agreeing to this interview in the Member Spotlight! If you're working on a cool project or you'd like to be featured, send me a quick message!) 1. Hi Dr. Nicola, what's your background? I am an ENT doctor at the hospital of TERAMO in Italy and I am practicing medicine for 20 years. Over many years, I've developed a specialty in ENT pathology and head and neck surgery. I also have two kids and enjoy spending summers by the sea in Roseto Degli Abruzzi, the town where I live on the coast of Adriatic sea in the region of Abruzzo in the center of Italy. The beach by Roseto Degli Abruzzi 2. How did you come across medical 3d printing? It was an accident! I’ve always had a passion for the interpretation of radiological images and the three-dimensional reconstruction of images. I needed to show a patient the cause of his nasal liquorrhea and I first started to make a virtual three-dimensional reconstruction to be viewed on the computer and then I also understood - thanks to the tutorials of Embodi3D- that it was possible to build real models from the data of a CT scan! Medical 3d printing is a growing field in the modern medicine and surgery. It can be useful for the study of anatomy in universities as much as for patient-specific anatomy (such as vascular variants). It is also possible to use it for the study of complex clinical cases such as tumor diseases and for the pre-surgical programming of oncological or complex traumatic diseases. 3. To help out other members, what are some beginner tips on creating a model? I have many models for sale in the Model Library and I've improved them many times. The advice I would like to give to those who start with medical 3d printing is to learn how to use dicom image manipulation softwares like Horos, Slicer, etc. To start exporting small regions of interest to .stl files and to play a lot with one of the numerous .stl file manipulation softwares. 4. What's on your bookshelf? One of my side pleasures is the playing guitar and also reading. My current book is Stephen Hawking’s Brief Answers to the Big Questions. 5. If someone were to come visit you, where would you take them on a tour? I live in Abruzzo, a region relatively unknown to tourists but it is certainly one of the most surprising in Italy. One of the most interesting aspects is the great proximity between the sea, the hills and the mountains which make it the green region of Europe. Tourists can enjoy spending a morning at the beach, going to eat in one of the beautiful cities and then trekking in the mountains in the afternoon. A region full of ancient villages, fortresses, unspoiled nature and then the passion for traditions and for good food. Finally, Abruzzo is the land of large vineyards and excellent wines.
  5. 2 points
    Andras Lasso

    Converting Ultrasound Files

    We have added an extension to streamline the process of loading images of unknown file format. We also added a video tutorial for loading Samsung .mvl files: https://discourse.slicer.org/t/new-extension-rawimageguess-for-loading-of-images-from-unrecognized-file-format/9219.
  6. 2 points

    Medical 3D printing 101

    Single versus multiple segmentation - Back and forth technique There are many challenging cases, in which the single segmentation is not enough. The paranasal sinuses and the congenital heart defects are notable examples. My usual workflow was to segment whatever I can as good as it's possible, to clean the unnecessary structures and the artefacts, to export the segmentation as stl 3d model and then to "CAD my way around". This is solid philosophy for simple, uncomplicated models, but for complex structures with a lot of small details and requirement from the client for the highest quality possible, this is just not good enough, especially for a professional anatomist like myself. Then I started to exploit the simple fact, that you're actually able to export the model as stl, to model it with your CAD software and then to reimport it back and convert it into label map again. I called this "back and forth technique". You can model the finest details on your model and then you can continue the segmentation right where you need it, catching even the slightest details of the morphology of the targeted structure. This technique, combined with my expertise, gives me the ability to produce the best possible details on some of the most challenging cases, including nasal cavity, heart valves, brain models etc. etc. To use this technique, just import the stl file, convert it into a label map (for 3D slicer - segmentation module/ export/import models and label maps). The main advantages of this technique are: 1. You can combine the segmentation with the most advanced CAD functions of your favorite software. Two highly specialized programs are better than one "Jack of all trades" (cough cough Mimics cough cough) 2. Advanced artefact removing. 3. Advanced small detail segmentation and modelling. 4. Combined with several markers (separate segmentations, several voxels in size) on the nearby anthropometric points, this technique increases the accuracy of the final product significantly. Without points of origin, the geometry of your model will go to hell, if you're not especially careful (yes, I'm talking about the 3D brushes in Slicer). 5. You can easily compare the label map with the 3d model, converted back. Every deviation, produced during the CAD operations will be visible like a big, shining dot, which you can easily see and correct. This is one of the strongest quality control techniques. 6. You can create advanced masks with all the geometrical forms you can possibly imagine, which you can use for advanced detail segmentation. Those masks will be linked with the spatial coordinates of the targeted structures - the stl file preserves the exact coordinates of every voxel, which was segmented. 7. You can go back and forth multiple times, as many as you like. 8. This technique is more powerful than the best AI, developed by now. It combines the best from the digital technologies with the prowess of the human visual cortex (the best video card up to date). The main disadvantages are: 1. It's time consuming. 2. It produces A LOT of junk files. 3. Advanced expertise is needed for this technique. This is not some "prank modelling", but an actual morphological work. A specialized education and practical experience in the human anatomy, pathology and radiology will give you the best results, which this technique can offer. 4. You need highly developed visual cortex for this technique (dominant visual sense). This technique is not for the linguistic, spatial-motor, olphactory etc. types of brains. Recent studies confirms, that a part of the population have genetically determined bigger, more advanced visual cortex (The human connectome project, Prof. David Van Essen, Washington University in Saint Louis). Such individuals become really successful cinematographers, designers, photographers and medical imaging specialists. The same is true for all the other senses, but right now we're talking about visual modality and 3D intellect (I'm sorry, dear linguists, musicians, craftsmen and tasters). It's not a coincidence that I have so many visual artists in my family (which makes me the medical black sheep). But if you don't have this kind of brain, you can still use the technique for quality control and precise mask generation. Just let the treshould module or the AI to do the job for you in the coordinates, in which you want (You should really start using the Segment Editor module in Slicer 3D). 5. You really need to love your work, if you're using this technique. For the usual 3D modelling you don't need so many details in your model and to "CAD your way around" is enough for the task. 6. You should use only stl files. For some reason, the obj format can't preserve the spatial geometry as good as the stl format. Maybe because the stl is just a simple map of vertex coordinates and the obj contains much more sophisticated data. The simple, the better. On the picture - comparison of the semilunar valves, made by treshould segmentation at 250-450 Hounsfield units (in green) and modelled and reimported model (in red).
  7. 2 points

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    I was thinking the same, until I found the Silk PLA. It's a composite - 85% PLA, 15% Polyester and it's dirt cheap. The advantages are: 1. In contrast to the natural PLA, the Silk one doesn't warp or deform during the cooling (or at least the deformation is minimal). 2. It prints really well. You can make the impossible possible with this material. 3. It looks amazing. The layer lines are almost invisible, the silk finishing is appealing, the colors are vivid. 4. The supports falls easily. You just have to pull them and they are done. Tried this on a heart, brain and aorta models. You don't even need increased retraction for this. 5. The stringing is minimal. No more "hairs". 6. It's cheap. 7. Because of those characteristics, this is material of choice for models with accurate morphological measurements. I'm using mostly this material, when I want to have an accurate model. So, check the local store for this material and try it yourself. You can thank me latter. P.S. For best results, print it at 200C.
  8. 2 points
    Dr. Mike

    Human Heart

    Version 2


    STL file of 3D printable human heart, full-size. The model has not yet been optimized for 3D printing, so there may be issues with minimum wall thickness, etc. If you print this file, please report back about how the printing went.


  9. 1 point
    Yes definitely! I would definitely like to see it applied more to unidentified remains.
  10. 1 point

    Anatomical heart box

    This print worked well. Really liked the addition of the stand and the holes for the magnets.
  11. 1 point


    Version 1.0.0


    Right side of the chest wall, including half of the spine, and right ribs 1-12, ribs, chest, wall, thorax, spine, chest, ribcage, cage, dorsal, body, 3d, model, printable,


  12. 1 point
    Candace Moore

    Quality of models

    I use 3D slicer at home, but I was in a course where Philips Intellispace was taught. Both have advantages and disadvantages. I'm sure the Intellispace costs differently depending upon how it is negotiated. If you want I can send you my contact there who might know what kind of deal was negotiated for my course. These things are inherently local although the company a big multi-national. I currently live in Israel, and still had to route all my questions through that contact in Spain where the course came from, as Philips here is different. The versions of Intellispace are even slightly different depending on your region. You live in the USA, and they are sort of hyper-capitalists over there. If I were you I might try to negotiate with Europe, and claim your site is intended to be a global resource.
  13. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Cervical Spine C1-C5 was designed from MRI scanning. All parts are separated, that can be printed easier. High quality of STL file provide good adjustment between all elements of cervical spine during assembly. neck, spine, cervical, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, bone, body, parts, anterior, posterior, transverse, cervical, spine, .stl, 3d, model, printable,


  14. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Paul HWS 18 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. cervical, dorsal, spine, body, intervertebral, disc, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, ribs, thorax, chest, scapula, clavicle, dog, k9


  15. 1 point
    1. i preview it looked rough could they print it higher quality 2. if cost how much per model 3. how i pick right stuff PLA / AMS / ETC CAN SOMEONE HELP ME WITH SERVICES / I'M ROOKIE AT THIS STILL thank u, mike foote
  16. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Sample brain data from the HCP (Human Connectome Project). Brain segmentation done using FreeSurfer. MeshLab used to smooth the surfaces. Three files are available (a) Full Cortical view, (b) White Matter (no cortex), and (c) left Cortex - right White Matter. Cerebellum and subcortical structures are digitally removed. Superior frontal gyrus, Coronal suture, Precentral sulcus, Precentral gyrus, Parietal bone, Paracentral lobule, Central sulcus, Postcentral gyrus, Superior parietal lobule, Precuneus, Middle frontal gyrus, Precentral sulcus, Postcentral gyrus, Paracentral lobule, Supramarginal gyrus, Inferior parietal lobule, Precuneus, Parieto-occipital sulcus, 3d, model, printing, printable, brain, organ, central nervous system, sylvian,


  17. 1 point

    Are you attending RSNA 2019?

    Unfortunately, I won't attend RSNA meeting this year
  18. 1 point

    Jaw from dental CT scan

    wydrukowałem. fajnie wyszło
  19. 1 point


    This 3D printable STL file of a thoracic spine with severe scoliosis was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows how the vertebrae become misaligned in the scoliotic spine. Great for education at all levels. Download is free for registered members. This file was originally created by Dr. Bruno Gobbato, who has graciously given permission to share it here on Embodi3D. Modifications were made by Dr. Mike to make it suitable for 3D printing. The file(s) are distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. It can't be used for commercial purposes. If you would like to use it for commercial purposes, please contact the authors. Technical specs: File format: STL Manifold mesh: Yes Triangles: 261682 thoracic, spine, scoliosis, t, spine, .stl, 3d, printable, ribs, .stl, 3d, model, printable, body, transverse, foramen, intervertebral, disc, costovertebral, joint, facet,


  20. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This is a fusiform abdominal aortic aneurysm extracted from a medical CT scan. It is a perfect model for medical device testing, hydrodynamic testing, finite element analysis (FEA). The aneurysm is maximally 5.58 cm is diameter. This model represents the blood pool (lumen) of the aneurysm, and includes the following structures: abdominal aorta abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) superior mesenteric artery (SMA) right and left renal arteries right and left common iliac arteries right and left internal and external iliac arteries right and left common femoral arteries right and left superficial femoral arteries (proximal) right and left profunda femoris arteries (proximal) Vascular Parameters: Aneurysm dimensions: Length: 6.96 cm Anterior Posterior: 4.9 cm Transverse (left-right): 5.58cm Infrarenal aorta: Transverse: 1.92 cm Anterior Posterior: 1.75 cm Infrarenal landing area (distance from renal arteries to aneurysm): 3.85 cm Right Common Iliac Artery (CIA): 1.35 cm Left Common Iliac Artery (CIA): 1.11 cm 3D printing parameters: Vertices: 113,948 Faces: 227,892 Object is manifold


  21. 1 point

    Dental Study

    Version 01


    From a CT cone beam scan of a patient with misaligned molars on right side. File is not 3D print-ready, but good for studying the dental work. dental, teeth, orbit, maxilla, angle, ramus, .stl, body, 3d, model, printable, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, tooth, maxillofacial, nasal,


  22. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    trial - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. upper, teeth, tooth, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, dental, dentistry, bone, .stl, 3d, model, hard, spine, maxillofacial, printable,


  23. 1 point
  24. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This is a full High definition 3D model set of a head, made from 0,7mm CT scan. Caucasian female in her 20s. The set doesn't include the original dataset and the metadata for ethical reasons. I can provide the dataset as a personal request. The set includes: 1. Full head model of a head with the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, the pharynx and the superior part of the larynx. 2. Skull model with most of the foramens. The inner ear is NOT included in the set. 3. Mandibula model. 4. The first 6 cervical vertebrae. 5. The hyoid bone. The models are accurate, with proper geometry and measurements, in their raw format. They are also 3d printable. I can slice and dice them in whatever format you need, but I'll have to charge you additionally for that. anatomy, morphology, head, skull, vertebra, cervical, hyoid, set, atlas, axis, frontal, temporal, occipital, orbit, zygomatic, arch, mandible, angle, ramus, nasal, anterior, posterior, vertebral, foramen, mastoid, process, skin, bone, 3d, model, printable, .stl, maxillofacial, eye, lips, face, spinous, teeth, tooth, incisor, molar, premolar, canine, coronoid,


  25. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Size of the 3D print vs Actual size

    There shouldn't be. Just know that the unit of measurement is in millimeters. If you import the STL file into printer software and specify that the unit of measurement is cm, inches, or feet, your model will be HUGE. Hope this helps. Mike
  26. 1 point
    I contacted the manufacturer of their implants for some details. It's weird, but they are using this brand of filament, which meets the regulations for food safety (European regulations EC No. 1935/2004, EC No. 2023/2006 and EC No. 10/2011 concerning plastic materials and articles coming into contact with food and is also compliant with the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for food contact), but not those for temporary/permanent implants. So, I contacted Apium for their PEEK filament, which have very good toxicology/cytotoxicity/mutagenic profile and meets all the regulations, including those for temporary/permanent implants. The prices are good, they have good filament dryers (you have to preheat the PEEK to 150 degrees before it reaches the hotend) and they have a specialized 3D printing system for PEEK (which doesn't concern me, because we already have a PEEK capable 3d printer). In the next half a year we'll perform some tests and if the results are ok, we'll make a phalanx bone for a patient, which is on hold right now. If everything is fine, we'll become a manufacturer for such implants. If not, we'll use Nylon 680. My colleagues from Sofia implanted 3d printed rib from Nylon 680 on a patient and the results are very promising.
  27. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    High fidelity 3D models of liver vasculature. Created using the anatomical atlas published by the open anatomy project. liver, portal, vessels, .stl, printable, 3d, model, printable, left portal vein, right anterior portal vein, and right posterior portal vein


  28. 1 point
    If you want FDM printing with many colors you should consider the da Vinci Color from XYZ printing (https://www.xyzprinting.com/de-DE/product/da-vinci-color). The print quality is OK for an FDM printer. They are also not very reliable (compared to something like a Prusa MK3). But you can print with many colors and they lowered the prizes a bit.
  29. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    Video showing flow testing performed in an elastic 3D printed sheep heart model
  30. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This file contains two printable circle of willis models. One is at life size and another magnified. It has been printed using Form 2 SLA printer and the second image is of the large model with support structures under xray which looks like cerebral angiography. Anterior parietal artery, Pericallosal artery, Posterior parietal artery, Artery of the angular gyrus, Posterior temporal artery, Second segment of the middle cerebral artery, Anterior communicating artery of the cerebrum (obscured by a vascular arch), First segment of the middle cerebral artery (sphenoid part), Temporal polar artery, Frontal orbital artery, Internal carotid artery, 3d, model, printable, .stl


  31. 1 point
    Hello, it's Dr. Mike here again with another tutorial on medical 3D printing. In this tutorial we are going to learn what types of medical imaging scans can be used for 3D printing. We will also explore the characteristics those scans must have to ensure a high quality 3D print. This is one of a series of 3D printing tutorials that will teach you how to create 3D printed anatomical and medical models yourself. Open source and commercial software are covered in the tutorials along with 3D printer selection and setup. This tutorial is followed by a tutorial on Creating 3D Printable Medical Models in 30 minutes using free software: Osirix, Blender, and MeshMixer. Introduction to Selecting a Medical Scan for 3D Printing If you listen to the hype in the press, it sounds like any medical imaging scan can be easily converted into a high quality 3D printed anatomic model, and any structure of interest can be shown clearly and beautifully. This is simply not true. In fact, most conventional medical imaging scans are not suitable for 3D printing. Those few that are suitable will probably only produce high-quality 3D prints of a few anatomic structures. In this tutorial I will go over the basic elements that make a medical scan suitable for 3D printing. I will briefly discuss different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound. By the end of this tutorial you should be able to recognize whether a medical scan is suitable for 3D printing. If you are planning on having a medical scan done with the intention of 3D printing from the scan, you will be able to protocol the scan appropriately to enable a high quality 3D print. Imaging planes I'd first like to take a moment to discuss the standard imaging planes used in medical scans. When a medical scan is performed, images of the body are usually captured and displayed in one of three standard imaging planes. These are the transverse plane (also called axial plane), the coronal plane, and the sagittal plane. Figure 1 demonstrates these planes. In layman's terms, the axial plane divides the body into top and bottom, the coronal plane front and back, and the sagittal plane right and left. CT and MRI scans are typically comprised of several series of images. Each series is comprised of a stack of images in the same plane spaced out evenly. When a medical scan is converted into a format suitable for 3D printing, such as an STL file, the computer takes this stack of images and extrapolates the volume of an object. A surface is then calculated around that volume. That surface is what becomes the 3D printed model. Figure 1: Standard imaging planes used in medical scans. Source: National Cancer Institute Imaging Modality: CT versus MRI versus ultrasound In order to understand what scans are best used for 3D printing, a very basic understanding of the types, or modalities, of medical scans is needed. The medical physics behind how these scans work can literally fill volumes. Radiology residents are required to take board examinations on the physics and engineering of medical scanners as part of their training. I will attempt to summarize only the most critical information about medical scans into a few short paragraphs to get you up and 3D printing as quickly as possible. Computed Tomography, or CT scans, are created when an x-ray beam is rotated around the patient. An x-ray detector on the opposite side of the emitter records the strength of the beam that emerges from the other side of the patient. Knowing the angle and position of the x-ray emitter and the strength of the beam emerging from the other side of the patient, a computer can calculate the x-ray appearance of the body in three dimensions. An x-ray beam is generally absorbed or deflected by electrons in matter. Since the density of electrons in matter is more or less the same as the actual physical density of matter, a CT scan can be considered to be a density map of the patient. Things that are dense, such as bone or metal, will appear white. Things that are not dense, such as air, appear black. Figure 2 shows how the different densities of tissue appear on a standard CT scan. When intravenous contrast is given, which contains an iodine-containing chemical that is very dense, it appears white. Fat is not very dense and floats on water, thus it has a blackish appearance. What else floats on water? Choices: bread, apples, very small rocks, cider, gravy, cherries, mud, churches, lead, a duck. (This is a joke. If you get the reference, please leave a comment and give yourself a star). Figure 2: Effect of tissue density on CT scan appearance. This CT scan image of the head at the eyes shows fat in the temporal fossa as black (red arrow), intermediate density brain tissue as gray (green arrow) and dense calcium-laden bone in the skull as white (blue arrow). Magnetic Residence Imaging, or MRI, is a type of imaging that uses very strong magnetic fields to generate an image. The hydrogen atoms that are part of almost all biological structures (water, fat, muscle, protein, etc.) align with the magnetic field. Radio waves can be sent into the scanner causing the hydrogen atoms to flip orientation. When the radio waves are turned off, the hydrogen atoms flip back and emit their own faint radio signal. Based on analysis of these faint radio emissions and by varying the magnetic field strength and timing of the radio wave pulses, a variety of images can be generated. These different pulse sequences can be used to highlight different types of tissue. Take Figure 3 for example. Four different pulse sequences are shown of the same slice of brain: T1, T2, FLAIR, and T1 with gadolinium contrast. On the T1 image tissues with fat are a bright white, as shown by the fat in the skin (white arrow). The hard, calcium-filled tissue of the skull is black, with the exception of a small amount of bone marrow which is gray in color and sandwiched between the inner and outer skull plate (yellow arrow). The watery cerebral spinal fluid in the lateral ventricles are black (red arrow). However, on the T2 image the watery cerebral spinal fluid is bright white (red arrow). T2 images show water very well. In addition to the water in the ventricles, swelling of the brain tissue due to an adjacent brain tumor can be seen as a white appearance (blue arrow). FLAIR images are similar to T2 images except pure water has been subtracted from the image. Thus tissue swelling (blue arrow) is still clearly visible but the cerebral spinal fluid in the ventricle (red arrow) now appears black. Finally, in the T1 images with gadolinium IV contrast small blood vessels are visible. Additionally, you can actually see the brain tumor and meninges turning white from contrast enhancement (purple arrows). Figure 3: MRI of the brain at the same level using four different pulse sequences. The patient has a left frontal lobe brain tumor. When 3D printing from an MRI scan, it is important to select images from a pulse sequence that will highlight the structure you wish to visualize. Arteries, tumors, body fluid, bones, and general tissue are all best seen on different sequences. If you choose the wrong imaging sequence to generate your 3D model from, you will encounter only frustration. Ultrasound images are generated when soundwaves are sent into the body by an ultrasound emitter. The waves then bounce off various structures and are detected by a receiver, typically built into the emitter. The concept is similar to sonar that is used on ships and submarines. Based on the strength and depth of the soundwave return, an image can be created. Ultrasound images can be used for 3D printing, however it is very difficult to do so because individual images are not registered in a fixed place in space. The images are acquired by sliding the ultrasound transducer on the skin. The exact location in space and angle of the transducer at the time of image acquisition is not known, which makes generation of a 3D volume difficult or impossible. In general, ultrasound is not recommended as a source of imaging data for 3D printing for the beginner. Key features of medical imaging scans used in 3D printing There are certain features common to all scan modalities that can help you to create a good 3D print. When considering making a 3D medical or anatomic model you must first decide what you want the model to show. Should it show bones, arteries, or organs? Having a model with unnecessary structures included not only makes it more difficult to manufacture, but it also diverts attention away from the important parts of the model. Give this careful thought. Once you have decided what you want to show, evaluate the medical scan you want to create your model from carefully. If the scan doesn't have the proper characteristics, you can exponentially increase the difficulty of getting a 3D printable model from it. 1. Presence of Intravenous contrast Take a look at these two axial (transverse) images from CT scans of the upper abdomen (Figure 4). Both images show slices of the upper abdomen at the level of the tops of the kidneys and liver. What is the difference between the two? You'll notice that on the rightmost scan the aorta is white, whereas on the left scan the aorta is gray. Figure 5 is a zoomed image of this region and shows this in more detail. This is because the rightmost scan was performed with intravenous contrast and that contrast is causing the aorta and other vessels to turn a bright white color. Figure 4: The effect of intravenous contrast. Figure 5: Close-up view of the abdominal aorta with (right) and without (left) intravenous contrast. Take a closer look at the kidneys. Figure 6 shows a zoomed-in image. The outer part of both kidneys on the contrast-enhanced scan on the right are a light shade of color. This is due to blood mixed with contrast going into the outer cortex of the kidney. With the contrast-enhanced scan you can clearly see the edge of the kidney, even where it touches the liver. On the noncontrast scan the border of the kidney is only discernible where it is adjacent to the darker colored fat. Where it touches the liver it is difficult to see where the kidney ends and the liver begins. If you want to make a print of the kidney, it will be very difficult to discern the edge of the kidney without IV contrast. Figure 6: Close-up view of the right kidney with (right) and without (left) intravenous contrast. If you are trying to create a 3D printed model of a bone, it is best to create it from a scan without IV contrast. This is because the bone is the only thing that will be a white color in the scan. This allows your software to easily separate the bones from other tissues. The presence of intravenous contrast may trick the software into thinking that blood vessels or organ tissue is actually bone, and it may improperly include these structures in the 3D printable surface model. These unwanted structures can be manually removed, but this can be an incredibly time-consuming and laborious exercise. It is best to avoid this problem in the first place. On the other hand, if you are trying to 3D print a blood vessel, tumor, or organ, then intravenous contrast is absolutely necessary. Vessels and tumors will light up, or enhance, with IV contrast, turning white on a CT scan. Which will make separation of these structures from background tissue more easy to perform. 2. Timing of intravenous contrast If you are creating a 3D printed model of a blood vessel, tumor, or organ, merely having intravenous contrast in your scan is not sufficient. You also must have the proper contrast timing. Contrast injected into a vein before a medical scan is not static. It is a very dynamic entity, and flows through the blood vessels and tissues of the body at different times before being excreted by the kidneys. Intravenous contrast is injected through an IV catheter, typically in the arm immediately before initiation of scanning. The contrast flows with the blood into the superior vena cava, the large vein in the chest, and then into the heart where it is then pumped into the pulmonary arteries. It is at this point, typically about 15 to 20 seconds, that is the best time to perform a scan to clearly visualize the pulmonary arteries. The contrast-filled blood then flows out of the lungs back to the heart where it is pumped into the aorta and its branches. This may be about 30 seconds after contrast injection, and is the best time to see the arteries. The contrast-filled blood then percolates into the capillaries of the tissues throughout the body. This is the point of maximal tissue enhancement, and is usually the best time to see tumors and organs. The blood then leaves the tissues and drains back into the veins, which is the best time to look at the veins. Finally, after about five minutes or so, the contrast begins to be excreted by the kidneys into the urine, and can be seen within the collecting system of the kidneys, the ureters, and the bladder. Take a look at Figure 7. When the scan was performed in the arterial phase (left) you can clearly see the aorta, arteries of the intestine, and outer rim (cortex) of the kidneys have turned white with contrast-enhanced blood (green arrows). After about five minutes the scan was repeated (right), and on these delayed phase images only a small amount of contrast is left within the aorta and blood vessels. However, contrast can be seen concentrated within the central portions of the kidney (red arrow). This is urine mixed with contrast collecting in the renal pelvis and ureter. Figure 7: Transverse (axial) images from a contrast-enhanced CT scan from a patient with intravenous contrast in the arterial (left) phase and delayed urographic (right) phase. The point I'm trying to make here is that merely having intravenous contrast is not good enough. When the scan was taken relative to the contrast injection, in other words the timing of the contrast, is critically important to visualizing the target structure. 3. Oral contrast In addition to intravenous contrast it is very common for oral contrast to be given prior to CT scans of the abdomen or pelvis. This is that nasty stuff that you are asked to drink about two hours before your scan. Oral contrast is designed to stay within the intestines so they can be clearly seen and evaluated. Take a look at Figure 8. In this CT scan of the abdomen intravenous contrast has clearly been given as the right kidney is white and enhancing (red arrows). Oral contrast has also been given, as several loops of small intestine can be seen filled with a substance that appears white on the CT scan (green arrows). Unless you are trying to 3D print the intestines, for the most part oral contrast is something you do not want in your source imaging scans. If you are trying to separate out bones, organs, or blood vessels for printing, the presence of oral contrast will increase the likelihood that intestines will be accidentally included in your 3D printable model. Figure 8: The effects of oral contrast on a CT scan of the abdomen. 4. Slice thickness Take a look at these two CT scans of the chest (Figure 9). What is the difference between them? Both of them have IV contrast and both of them are showing the heart. Obviously, the scan on the right is of higher quality than that on the left, but why? The reason has to do with the thickness of the image slices. When CT scans are performed they are reconstructed into slices in the axial (transverse) plane. The axial plane is the plane that is parallel to the ground if you are standing upright. When the axial slices are stacked on top of each other the data can be used to create images in a different plane, such as when viewed from the front (the coronal plane), as in these example images. The axial slices that were used to create the coronal image on the left were 5 mm thick, whereas the axial slices used to create the image on the right were only 1 mm thick. You can see that the thick slices in the leftmost image generate structures with a very coarse appearance. If you try to 3D print an anatomic model from a scan with thick slices, your model will have a similar rough appearance. It is very important to use scans with thin slices, preferably less than 1.25 mm in thickness, when creating a model for 3D printing. Figure 9: The effect of slice thickness on three-dimensional reconstructions. 5. Imaging artifact Finally, take a look at these two CT scans of the face (Figure 10). What is the difference between them? The scan on the left clearly shows the teeth of the upper jaw as well as the bones of the upper cervical spine. The scan on the right however has white and black lines crisscrossing the mouth and obscuring the teeth. This type of artifact, called a beam hardening artifact, was created by metallic fillings in the teeth. When the CT scan was performed, the x-ray beam could not penetrate the metal fillings in the teeth to reach the detector. Subsequently, the scanner has no information about the x-ray appearance of the tissues along that x-ray path. When it generates an image from the x-ray data, the x-ray path with the missing information is shown as a white or a black line. The same phenomenon can be seen with any metallic object within the body, such as an artificial hip or spine fixation rods. If the scan on the right were converted to an STL file for 3D printing, the white lines would be 3D printed as well and the print would look as if sharp spikes were coming out of the mouth. Metallic objects also cause imaging artifact in MRIs. Metal on MRIs typically looks like a big black blob that obscures everything around it. Figure 10: Two CT scans through the face and jaw. What is the difference between the two? 6. Reconstruction kernel Take a closer look at the two CT scans of the face (Figure 10). In particular, look closely at the muscle and fat tissue of the neck. The scan on the left shows the muscle and fat tissue as being somewhat noisy. It has a granular type of appearance. On the rightmost scan however, the muscle and fat tissues appear rather smooth. This is because the two scans use a different type of reconstruction kernel. Think of the reconstruction kernel as equivalent to a sharpening or blurring function in Photoshop. The sharper kernel on the left shows the edges of the bones very clearly at the expense of causing a speckled appearance of the muscles and fat. The softer kernel on the right shows the muscle and fat more accurately, at the expense of causing the bones to have a more indistinct edge. Sharp kernels are used to make it easier to find hairline fractures and other difficult to detect abnormalities in the bones. However, for 3D printing smoother reconstruction kernels are generally best. Reconstruction kernel is primarily a factor only in CT scans. Figure 11: Zoomed image from Figure 10 of the angle of the jaw. Note how the sharp kernel has much more clearly defined bone edges, but also has a speckled, noisy appearance to the soft tissues. Final thoughts So there you have it. In this tutorial we have gone over the main types of imaging modalities used for 3D printing (CT, and MRI), as well as six very important factors to consider with any type of imaging scan you are thinking about using for 3D printing. There is a saying when it comes to medical 3D printing: "garbage in, garbage out." No matter what your skill level or amount of available free time, if you start the 3D printing process with a problem-laden medical scan, you will encounter nothing but frustration and probably end up with a bad 3D model assuming you can make the model at all. Do yourself a favor and carefully evaluate your medical scan prior to sinking the time and energy into creating a 3D model from it. I hope you enjoyed this tutorial and found it helpful. If you liked this article please look see my next to tutorial on Creating a 3D Printable Medical Model in 30 Minutes Using Free Software: Osirix, Blender, and MeshMixer. Additionally, you may wish to check out the Tutorials section of the website. Also consider registering as a member. Registration is free and allows you to post questions and comments both for blog articles and in the discussion forums. Additionally, you can download free 3D printable models from the file library. Below are a few 3D models to download. If you wish to follow the latest medical 3D printing news, you can follow Embodi3D on various social media platforms. Thank you very much and happy 3D printing! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Embodi3D Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/embodi3d LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/embodi3d YouTube: http://goo.gl/O7oZ2q A Collection of Free Downloadable STL Skulls for you to 3D print yourself. 3D printable human heart in stackable slices, shows amazing internal anatomy. A Collection of Spine STL files to download and 3D print.
  32. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    1 download

    WZ anterior mandible - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. lower, teeth, tooth, dental, dentistry, mandible, angle, body, upper, 3d, model, .stl, bone


  33. 1 point
    We 3D printed this model for a customer and the print turned out beautifully. The parts stack nicely and by opening them up, you can clearly see the detailed structures inside the heart chambers. To learn more about our 3D printing service, click here. Here is another print we did in flexible material at 2/3 scale, as requested by the customer. The flexible material has a soft, rubbery feel that is very nice to handle.
  34. 1 point

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    This skull with left MCA aneurysm was printed by embodi3D for a customer who wants to use the model for simulating neurosurgical aneurysm clipping.
  35. 1 point
    Great tutorial, very complete and well thought out. Do you prefer 3Dslicer to Horos? Are there advantages or quality differences worth mentioning? Will the Democtatiz3D app offer vasculature as an operation in the future?
  36. 1 point
    Nice model of brain. It definitely needs supports. The printing on Prusa i3 MK3 consumed almost whole 1kg of filament and 90hrs of time (PLA filament 1.75mm, OPTIMAL print 0.15mm, with supports). Unfortunately I chose supports above the pad only, not everywhere, so there are some ugly places above the temporal lobes. It is a pity that the cerebellum is missing. Thanks!
  37. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Lung CT Test 2 - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. bone, 3d model, .stl, ribs, scapula, clavicle, heart, chest, thorax, mediastinum, great, vessels, aorta, descendent, ascendent, celiac, trunk, sternum, sternocostoclavicular joint, dorsal, lumbar, ventricle, auricle, spinous, process,


  38. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Mary Skull - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. skull, facial, maxilla, mandible, teeth, head, orbit, nasal, yugular, carotid, vessels, scala, clavicle, sternum, cervical, spine, parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital, mastoid, apophysis, printable


  39. 1 point
    Here are two volumes obtained by GE Voluson E10 and exported as .stl file. I think that a lot depends on fetal head position and gestation age if you want to have nice fetal face model. Personally, I wasn't present when study was made.
  40. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Holes in bone models with democratiz3D

    I received this inquiry from a member. I am going to post the response here so that it can help others with the same question: QUESTION: "I am printing out a spine model.... Why are there so many defects in the rendering? I can't print this out on a 3d printer, half of the vertebrae are hollow. I get these from a 3d CT and on a computer monitor, the vertebrae are whole. Just take a look at the thumbnails and you'll know what I'm talking about. I don't have the expertise or time to fill all of the defects. Is there a paid service somewhere that could do this for me? I'm just surprised the STL file wouldn't look like the 3d CT since they use the same dicom imagery?" ANSWER: If you are creating bony models and are finding that the bones have holes or other large defects in them (see above), this is probably an issue with the Threshold value used during the conversion. Threshold is the number of Hounsfield units to use to create the surface of the model. Anything above the threshold value is considered bone and is included. Anything below is not considered bone and is excluded. Normal cortical bone is very dense, greater than 300 Hounsfield units, so the default threshold of 150 is more than enough to catch it. The inside of the bone (medullary, or marrow cavity) is filled with fatty bone marrow and is a much lower Hounsfield value. If the patient has osteoporosis or very thin cortical bones they may not register as bone if the default threshold of 150 is used. You can decrease this to a lower threshold value (maybe 100 or so) and you will be more likely to capture this thin, deossified bone. If you go too low though (60 or so) you will start to capture non-bony structures like muscle. Another thing that may help get the highest quality models is using premium operations such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality level. These operations are time-consuming however. To save on time, you can run your scan through democratiz3D using free operations such as Detailed Bone and medium or high quality until you find the threshold you like. Once you find the threshold value you like, you can run you scan through a final time using the highest quality (and slowest) operation settings, such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality. Hope this helps! Dr. Mike
  41. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Holes in bone models with democratiz3D

    I'd like to elaborate on this topic a bit, as I recently had another member inquire about this issue. The member was creating a model from a CT scan of the clavicles. As you can see, there are holes in the medial (midline) ends of both clavicles. What is causing this? Is it a problem with democratiz3D? How can it be fixed? The issue lies with the patient's anatomy and the quality of the original CT scan. In the human body there are areas where bones are naturally very thin. Sometimes, the bone surface (cortex) can be paper thin. Also, some patients who have conditions like osteoporosis may have very little calcium in their bones. Issues like this make it very hard for the CT scanner to detect the bone wall, as you can see from the image below which shows the area on the left clavicle that has a hole in the final model (red arrow). The problem isn't with democratiz3D, but with the quality of the CT scan or with the patient having thin bones (how dare they!). democratiz3D is actually creating the model exactly as it appears on the CT, its just that the CT has holes we don't want! So, what can be done? If you encounter this problem you have two options. 1) Manually fix the holes in the model with a mesh editor like Meshmixer, or 2) decrease the threshold value in democratiz3D and re-process the scan. Decreasing the threshold tells the system to capture more voxels in your model, potentially capturing more thin or osteoporotic bone. But, be careful. If you reduce the threshold too much (less than 100), you run the risk of starting to capture muscle, organs, and vessels in your bone model. If you are not sure what threshold to use, you can experiment by running your scan through democratiz3D using different thresholds. To save time, I suggest you do this on low or medium quality setting. When you find a threshold that works, you can generate your final model using a higher (and more time consuming) quality setting, like High or Ultra. If you are familiar with mesh editing software, that is probably the fastest way to correct this problem. Just delete the edge of the hole, fill it in with a new face, and run a quick smooth operation on the area. It's a 1 minute fix if you know the keyboard shortcuts. I hope this tip helps. Dr. Mike
  42. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    The Venous Drainage of the Central Nervous System. Model from MRI data. Anatomy plate from Gray's Anatomy.


  43. 1 point

    Damian Delgadillo

    Version 1.0.0


    Hello, Thank you for an amazing community and for truly making a difference in the space. I will have someone design custom Jaw implants for this skull. I will ask the members of this community for help and will likely hire someone with the required skills to do design them. The skull and the implants will be 3d printed once the design is completed. The implants will be something similar to the picture attached. Best, Damian


  44. 1 point
    Thank you so much, im learning how to use 3d slicer and DICOM files, this is really helpful. Cheers from Argentina!
  45. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Pelvis scan - stl file processed


  46. 1 point

    Knee Condyles

    From the album: 3D Metal Printed Parts

    3D Printed Knee Condyles
  47. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This model is the right lower extremity bone rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing. The leg includes the area between the knee and the ankle and houses the tibia and fibula. The proximal tibia includes the medial plateau (which is concave) and the lateral plateau (which is convex). The Proximal tibia has a 7-10 degree posterior slope. The tibial tuberosity is located on the anterior proximal tibia, which is where the patellar tendon attaches. On the anteromedial surface of the tibia is Gerdy's tubercle, where the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus attach. The distal tibia creates the superior and medial (plafond and medial malleolus) of the ankle joint. The proximal fibula is the attachment for the posterolateral corner structures of the knee joint. The peroneal nerve wraps around the fibular neck. The distal fibula is the lateral malleolus and a common site for ankle fractures. The ankle is a hinge (or ginglymus) joint made of the distal tibia (tibial plafond, medial and posterior malleoli) superiorly and medially, the distal fibula (lateral malleolus) laterally and the talus inferiorly. Together, these structures form the ankle “mortise”, which refers to the bony arch. Normal range of motion is 20 degrees dorsiflexion and 50 degrees plantarflexion. Stability is provided by the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) laterally, and the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments medially. The ankle is one of my most common sites of musculoskeletal injury, including ankle fractures and ankle sprains, due to the ability of the joint to invert and evert. The most common ligament involved in the ATFL. The foot is commonly divided into three segments: hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. These sections are divided by the transverse tarsal joint (between the talus and calcaneus proximally and navicular and cuboid distally), and the tarsometatarsal joint (between the cuboids and cuneiforms proximally and the metatarsals distally). The first tarsometatarsal joint (medially) is termed the “Lisfranc” joint, and is the site of the Lisfranc injury seen primarily in athletic injuries. This model was created from the file STS_022.


  48. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Cardiac CTA showing the left heart. This was derived from a file originally shared by Liam.


  49. 1 point
    Hi Dr Mike , In principal, is it the same procedure using 3D ultrasound DICOM files? Many thanks upfront Tom
  50. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    lace skulls

    From the album: Blog images

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