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  1. 2 points
    I've only printed the skull, but it came out very well (see my comment), I haven't had to clean none of the surfaces of the file. Again, thanks for sharing this file 🙂
  2. 2 points
    Dr. Mike

    Formlabs Fuse 1 SLS printer

    Formlabs now has a low cost nylon SLS printer, the Fuse 1. It is about 10 times cheaper than other selective laser sintering printers. Check it out.
  3. 2 points
    Thank you very much for the files, I printed the 4 slices in a total of 64 hours in PETG red. It does take some time, but the result is fantastic. I printed it for my teacher of BIO A&P, she is a crazy about anything related to cardiovascular. I added small 5 x 1 mm earth magnets to hold the slices together. They seem to be te right thickness to compensate for the gap between each slices. Over all, I love that model. I will have to reprint the top slice as my part started to unglue from the bet and has some warp. What you do is awesome and giving it access for free is marvelous. Again thank you for your work Eric I will be starting on the heart attached to the spine very soon
  4. 2 points
    Hi All! Just found this site via Dr. Mike's Twitter profile. I wanted to share some software that people can play with that are free for segmentation, etc. Slicer: http://www.slicer.org/ Very straightforward and clear tutorials. Devide: http://code.google.com/p/devide/ Convoluted but still very useful. The folks at TUDeflt have some very cool stuff ITK-Snap http://www.itksnap.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php Semi-automated segmentation. MiaLite: http://www.mia-solution.com/downloads.html Free for academic use. Seems pretty cool. Haven't had a chance to play with it yet but will. Finally, here's a site that has some pretty impressive tools: I Do Imaging: http://www.idoimaging.com/home Just great overall resource. Looking forward to the future with all of you!
  5. 1 point
    MMMMATT

    Spine full

    Version 1.0.0

    97 downloads

    from cat scan, bone, stl, dicom, 3dmodel, lumbar, spine, vertebrae,

    Free

  6. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    368 downloads

    This 3D printable model of a human heart was generated from a contrast enhanced CT scan. This model is an improvement over a prior version (here). It shows the heart with slices cut in the anatomical transverse plane. If you are interested in a heart with short-axis slices, check out my short-axis stackable slice model here. Notches have been added to ensure the slices fit together and do not slide against each other. The model demonstrates the detailed anatomy of the human heart in exquisite detail. Each slice stacks on top of the prior slice to form a complete human heart. Individual slices show the detailed cardiac anatomy of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria, and outflow tracts. Perfect for educational purposes. It has been validated as printable on an Ultimaker 3 Extended printer. Technical parameters: manifold STL (watertight) vertices: 462576 triangles: 925800 dimensions: 15.1 x 15.2 x 10.5 cm

    $4.99

  7. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    6 downloads

    Segmented lumbar spine and sacrum, young adult. This includes L1 through L5 vertebral bodies and the sacrum .STL files for the intervertebral disks and pelvis are available as a separate download.

    $6.00

  8. 1 point
    This tutorial is based on course I taught at the 2018 RSNA meeting in Chicago, Illinois. It is shared here free to the public. In this tutorial, we walk though how to convert a CT scan of the face into a 3D printable file, ready to be sent to a 3D printer. The patient had a gunshot wound to the face. We use only free or open-source software and services for this tutorial. There are two parts to this tutorial: Part 1: How to use free desktop software to create your model Part 2: Use embodi3D's free democratiz3D service to automatically create your model Key Takeaway from this Tutorial: You can make high quality 3D printable models from medical imaging scans using FREE software and services, and it is surprisingly EASY. A note on the FDA (for USA people): There is a lot of confusion about whether expensive, FDA-approved software must be used for medically-related 3D printing in the United States. The FDA recently clarified its stance on the issue.* If you are not using these models for patient-care purposes, this does not concern you. If you have questions please see the FDA website. If you are a DOCTOR, you can use whatever software you think is appropriate for your circumstances under your practice of medicine. If you are a COMPANY, selling 3D printed models for diagnostic use, you need FDA-approved software. If you are designing implants or surgical cutting guides, those are medical devices. Seek FDA feedback. *Kiarashi, N. FDA Current Practices and Regulations, FDA/CDRH-RSNA SIG Meeting on 3D Printed Patient- Specific Anatomic Models. Available at https://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/UCM575723.pdf Accessed 11/1/2017. Part 1: Using Desktop software 3D Slicer and Meshmixer Step 1: Download the scan file and required software To start, download the starting CT scan file at the link below. Also, install 3D Slicer (slicer.org) and Meshmixer (meshmixer.com). Step 2: Open 3D Slicer Open Slicer. Drag and drop the scan file gunshot to face.nrrd onto the slicer window. The scan should open in a 4 panel view as shown below in Figure 1. Figure 1: The 4 up view. If your view does not look like this, you can set the 4 up view to display by clicking Four-Up from the View menu, as shown in Figure 2 Figure 2: Choosing the four-up view Step 3: Learning to control the interface Slicer has basic interface controls. Try them out and become accustomed to how the interface works. Note how the patient has injuries from gunshot wound to the face. Left mouse button – Window/Level Right mouse button – Zoom Scroll wheel – Scroll through stack Middle mouse button -- Pan Step 4: Blur the image The CT scan was created using a bone reconstruction kernel. Basically this is an image-enhancement algorithm that makes edges more prominent, which makes detection of fractures easier to see by the human eye. While making fracture detection easier, this algorithm does unnaturally alter the image and makes it appear more "speckled" Figure 3: Noisy, "speckled" appearance of the scan on close up view To fix this issue, we will slightly blur the image. Select Gaussian Blur Image Filter as shown below in Figure 4 Figure 4: Choosing the Gaussian Blur Image Filter Set up the Gaussian Blur parameters. Set Sigma = 1.0. Set the input volume to be Gunshot to face. Create a new output volume called "Gaussian volume" as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: Setting up the Gaussian parameters When ready, click Apply, as shown in Figure 6. You will notice that the scan becomes slightly blurred. Figure 6: Click Apply to start the Gaussian Blur Image filter. Step 5: Create a 3D model using Grayscale Model Maker Open the Grayscale Model Maker Module as shown below in Figure 7. Figure 7: Opening the Grayscale Model Maker Set up the Grayscale Model Maker parameters. Select the Gaussian volume as the input volume, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8: Choosing the input volume in Grayscale Model Maker Next, set the output geometry to be a new model called "gunshot model." Set the other parameters: Threshold = 200, smooth 15, Decimate 0.5, Split normals unchecked as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9: Grayscale Model maker parameters When done, click Apply. A new model should be created and will be shown in the upper right hand panel, as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10: The new model Step 6: Save the model as an STL file To start saving the model, click the save button in the upper left of the Slicer window as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11: The save button Be sure that only the 3D model, gunshot model.vtk is selected. Uncheck everything else, as shown in Figure 12. Figure 12: The Save dialog. Check the vtk file Make sure the format of the 3D model is STL as shown in Figure 13. Specify the folder to save into, as shown in Figure 14. Figure 13: Specify the file type Figure 14: Specify the folder to save into within the Save dialog. Step 7: Open the file in Meshmixer for cleanup Open Meshmixer. Drag and drop the newly created STL file on the meshmixer window. The file will open and the model will be displayed as in Figure 15. Figure 15: open the STL file in Meshmixer Get accustomed to the Meshmixer interface as shown in Figure 16. A 3 button mouse is very helpful. Figure 16: Controlling the Meshmixer user interface Choose the Select tool. In is the arrow button along the left of the window. Figure 17: The select tool Click on a portion of the model. The selected portion will turn orange, as shown in Figure 18. Figure 18: Selected areas turn orange. Expand the small selected area to all mesh connected to it. Use Select->Modify->Expand to Connected, or hit the E key. The entire model should turn orange. See Figure 19. Figure 19: Expanding the selection to all connected mesh. Next, Invert the selection so that only disconneced, unwanted mesh is selected. Do this with Select->Modify->Invert, or hit the I key as shown in Figure 20. Figure 20: Inverting the selection At this point, only the unwanted, disconnected mesh should be selected in orange. Delete the unwanted mesh using Select->Edit->Discard, or use the X or DELETE key as shown in Figure 21. At this point, only the desired mesh should remain. Figure 21: Deleting unwanted mesh. Step 8: Run the Inspector tool The Inspector tool will automatically fix most errors in the model mesh. To open it, choose Analysis->Inspector as shown in Figure 22. Figure 22: The Inspector tool The Inspector will identify all of the errors in the mesh. To automatically correct these mesh errors, click Auto Repair All as shown in Figure 23. Figure 23: Auto Repairing using Inspector The Inspector will usually fix all or most errors. In this case however, there is a large hole at the edge of the model where the border of the scan zone was. The Inspector doesn't know how to close it. This is shown in Figure 24. Figure 24: The inspect could not fix 1 mesh error Step 9: Close the remaining hole with manual bridges Using the select tool, select a zone of mesh near the open edge. The Select tool is opened with the arrow button along the left. Choose a brush size -- 40 is good -- as shown in Figure 25. Figure 25: Choosing the select tool The mesh should turn orange when selected, as shown in Figure 26. Figure 26: Selected mesh turns orange. Next, rotate the model and select a zone of mesh opposite the edge from the first selected zone, as shown in Figure 27. Figure 27: Selecting mesh opposite the defect. Once both edges are selected, create a bridge of mesh spanning the two selected areas using the Bridge operation: Select->Edit->Bridge, or CTRL-B, as shown in Figure 28. Figure 28: The bridge tool There should now be a bridge of orange mesh spanning the gap. Click Accept, as shown in Figure 29. Figure 29: The new bridge. Be sure to click Accept. Next, repeat the bridge on the opposite side of the skull. Be sure to deselect the previously selected mesh before working on the opposite side, as shown in Figure 30. Figure 30: Creating a second bridge on the opposite side. Step 10: Rerun the Inspector Rerun the Inspector tool, as shown in Figure 31. Now with the bridges to "help" Meshmixer to know how to fill in the hole, it should succeed. If it fails, create more bridges and try again. Figure 31: Rerun the Inspector tool Next, export your file to STL. ' Figure 32: Export to STL Step 11: 3D print your file! Your STL file is now ready to be sent to the 3D printer of your choice. Figure 33 shows the model after printing. Figure 33: The final print Part 2: Using the democratiz3D service on embodi3d.com democratiz3D automatically converts scans to 3D printable models. It automates the mesh cleanup process and saves time. The service is free for general bone model creation. Step 1: Register Register for a free embodi3D account. The process takes only a minute. You need an account for your processed files to be saved to. Step 2: Upload the NRRD source scan to democratiz3D. From anywhere in the site, click democratiz3D-> Launch App Figure 34: Launching the democratiz3D app. Fill out basic information about your file. That information will be copied to your generated STL file, as shown in Figure 35. Figure 35: Entering basic file information Make sure democratiz3D processing is on. Choose an operation to convert your model. Set threshold to 200, as shown in Figure 36. Figure 36: Operation, threshold, and quality parameters. Click Submit! In 10 to 15 minutes your model should be done. You will receive an email notification. The completed model file will be saved under your account. Download the file and send it to your printer of choice! Figure 37; The final democratiz3D file, ready for download. That's it! I hope this tutorial was helpful to you. If you liked it, please rate it positively. If you want to learn more about democratiz3D, Meshmixer, or Slicer, please see our tutorials page. It has a lot of wonderful resources. Happy 3D printing!
  9. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    Ankmr - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. bone, .stl, 3d, model, printable, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, craniotomy, skull, head, zygomatic, arch, fracture, maxilla, mandible, angle, ramus, body, mastoid, process, styloid, pterygoid, clinoid, apophysis, sphenoid, orbit, petrous, ridge, facial, nasal,

    Free

  10. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    15 downloads

    Salim ali al badi - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.

    Free

  11. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    8 downloads

    This noncontract Facial CT scan of a gunshot to the face is the scan file used in the 2018 RSNA meeting Intro to Open Source 3D printing sofware course (RCA 35). View the full tutorial here. It is a trimmed version of the facial CT originally uploaded and shared by Imagineitalaska.

    Free

  12. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    36 downloads

    knee and bones - stl file processed This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more. 3d, femur, model, .stl, lower, limb, Femur, Patella, Lateral femoral epicondyle, Medial femoral epicondyle, Lateral femoral condyle, Medial femoral condyle, Lateral tibial condyle, Medial tibial condyle, Medial and lateral tubercles of the intercondylar eminence, Fibular head, Tibia, Fibula,

    Free

  13. 1 point
    JAWSDOC

    Kurt Kersten

    Version 1.0.0

    3 downloads

    For STL Conversion, ct, scan, without, contrast, .stl, 3d, model, printable, dental, dentistry, implant, teeth

    Free

  14. 1 point
    If you are planning on using the democratiz3D service to automatically convert a medical scan to a 3D printable STL model, or you just happen to be working with medical scans for another reason, it is important to know if you are working with a CT (Computed Tomography or CAT) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan. In this tutorial I'll show you how to quickly and easily tell the difference between a CT and MRI. I am a board-certified radiologist, and spent years mastering the subtleties of radiology physics for my board examinations and clinical practice. My goal here is not to bore you with unnecessary detail, although I am capable of that, but rather to give you a quick, easy, and practical way to understand the difference between CT and MRI if you are a non-medical person. Interested in Medical 3D Printing? Here are some resources: Free downloads of hundreds of 3D printable medical models. Automatically generate your own 3D printable medical models from CT scans. Have a question? Post a question or comment in the medical imaging forum. A Brief Overview of How CT and MRI Works For both CT (left) and MRI (right) scans you will lie on a moving table and be put into a circular machine that looks like a big doughnut. The table will move your body into the doughnut hole. The scan will then be performed. You may or may not get IV contrast through an IV. The machines look very similar but the scan pictures are totally different! CT and CAT Scans are the Same A CT scan, from Computed Tomography, and a CAT scan from Computed Axial Tomography are the same thing. CT scans are based on x-rays. A CT scanner is basically a rotating x-ray machine that takes sequential x-ray pictures of your body as it spins around. A computer then takes the data from the individual images, combines that with the known angle and position of the image at the time of exposure, and re-creates a three-dimensional representation of the body. Because CT scans are based on x-rays, bones are white and air is black on a CT scan just as it is on an x-ray as shown in Figure 1 below. Modern CT scanners are very fast, and usually the scan is performed in less than five minutes. Figure 1: A standard chest x-ray. Note that bones are white and air is black. Miscle and fat are shades of gray. CT scans are based on x-ray so body structures have the same color as they don on an x-ray. How does MRI Work? MRI uses a totally different mechanism to generate an image. MRI images are made using hydrogen atoms in your body and magnets. Yes, super strong magnets. Hydrogen is present in water, fat, protein, and most of the "soft tissue" structures of the body. The doughnut of an MRI does not house a rotating x-ray machine as it does in a CT scanner. Rather, it houses a superconducting electromagnet, basically a super strong magnet. The hydrogen atoms in your body line up with the magnetic field. Don't worry, this is perfectly safe and you won't feel anything. A radio transmitter, yes just like an FM radio station transmitter, will send some radio waves into your body, which will knock some of the hydrogen atoms out of alignment. As the hydrogen nuclei return back to their baseline position they emit a signal that can be measured and used to generate an image. MRI Pulse Sequences Differ Among Manufacturers The frequency, intensity, and timing of the radio waves used to excite the hydrogen atoms, called a "pulse sequence," can be modified so that only certain hydrogen atoms are excited and emit a signal. For example, when using a Short Tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) pulse sequence hydrogen atoms attached to fat molecules are turned off. When using a Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) pulse sequence, hydrogen atoms attached to water molecules are turned off. Because there are so many variables that can be tweaked there are literally hundreds if not thousands of ways that pulse sequences can be constructed, each generating a slightly different type of image. To further complicate the matter, medical scanner manufacturers develop their own custom flavors of pulse sequences and give them specific brand names. So a balanced gradient echo pulse sequence is called True FISP on a Siemens scanner, FIESTA on a GE scanner, Balanced FFE on Philips, BASG on Hitachi, and True SSFP on Toshiba machines. Here is a list of pulse sequence names from various MRI manufacturers. This Radiographics article gives more detail about MRI physics if you want to get into the nitty-gritty. Figure 2: Examples of MRI images from the same patient. From left to right, T1, T2, FLAIR, and T1 post-contrast images of the brain in a patient with a right frontal lobe brain tumor. Note that tissue types (fat, water, blood vessels) can appear differently depending on the pulse sequence and presence of IV contrast. How to Tell the Difference Between a CT Scan and an MRI Scan? A Step by Step Guide Step 1: Read the Radiologist's Report The easiest way to tell what kind of a scan you had is to read the radiologist's report. All reports began with a formal title that will say what kind of scan you had, what body part was imaged, and whether IV contrast was used, for example "MRI brain with and without IV contrast," or "CT abdomen and pelvis without contrast." Step 2: Remember Your Experience in the MRI or CT (CAT) Scanner Were you on the scanner table for less than 10 minutes? If so you probably had a CT scan as MRIs take much longer. Did you have to wear earmuffs to protect your hearing from loud banging during the scan? If so, that was an MRI as the shifting magnetic fields cause the internal components of the machine to make noise. Did you have to drink lots of nasty flavored liquid a few hours before the scan? If so, this is oral contrast and is almost always for a CT. How to tell the difference between CT and MRI by looking at the pictures If you don't have access to the radiology report and don't remember the experience in the scanner because the scan was A) not done on you, or you were to drunk/high/sedated to remember, then you may have to figure out what kind of scan you had by looking at the pictures. This can be complicated, but don't fear I'll show you how to figure it out in this section. First, you need to get a copy of your scan. You can usually get this from the radiology or imaging department at the hospital or clinic where you had the scan performed. Typically these come on a CD or DVD. The disc may already have a program that will allow you to view the scan. If it doesn't, you'll have to download a program capable of reading DICOM files, such as 3D Slicer. Open your scan according to the instructions of your specific program. You may notice that your scan is composed of several sets of images, called series. Each series contains a stack of images. For CT scans these are usually images in different planes (axial, coronal, and sagittal) or before and after administration of IV contrast. For MRI each series is usually a different pulse sequence, which may also be before or after IV contrast. Step 3: Does the medical imaging software program tell you what kind of scan you have? Most imaging software programs will tell you what kind of scan you have under a field called "modality." The picture below shows a screen capture from 3D Slicer. Looking at the Modality column makes it pretty obvious that this is a CT scan. Figure 3: A screen capture from the 3D Slicer program shows the kind of scan under the modality column. Step 4: Can you see the CAT scan or MRI table the patient is laying on? If you can see the table that the patient is laying on or a brace that their head or other body part is secured in, you probably have a CT scan. MRI tables and braces are designed of materials that don't give off a signal in the MRI machine, so they are invisible. CT scan tables absorb some of the x-ray photons used to make the picture, so they are visible on the scan. Figure 4: A CT scan (left) and MRI (right) that show the patient table visible on the CT but not the MRI. Step 5: Is fat or water white? MRI usually shows fat and water as white. In MRI scans the fat underneath the skin or reservoirs of water in the body can be either white or dark in appearance, depending on the pulse sequence. For CT however, fat and water are almost never white. Look for fat just underneath the skin in almost any part of the body. Structures that contained mostly water include the cerebrospinal fluid around the spinal cord in the spinal canal and around the brain, the vitreous humor inside the eyeballs, bile within the gallbladder and biliary tree of the liver, urine within the bladder and collecting systems of the kidneys, and in some abnormal states such as pleural fluid in the thorax and ascites in the abdomen. It should be noted that water-containing structures can be made to look white on CT scans by intentional mixing of contrast in the structures in highly specialized scans, such as in a CT urogram or CT myelogram. But in general if either fat or fluid in the body looks white, you are dealing with an MRI. Step 6: Is the bone black? CT never shows bones as black. If you can see bony structures on your scan and they are black or dark gray in coloration, you are dealing with an MRI. On CT scans the bone is always white because the calcium blocks (attenuates) the x-ray photons. The calcium does not emit a signal in MRI scans, and thus appears dark. Bone marrow can be made to also appear dark on certain MRI pulse sequences, such as STIR sequences. If your scan shows dark bones and bone marrow, you are dealing with an MRI. A question I am often asked is "If bones are white on CT scans, if I see white bones can I assume it is a CT?" Unfortunately not. The calcium in bones does not emit signal on MRI and thus appears black. However, many bones also contain bone marrow which has a great deal of fat. Certain MRI sequences like T1 and T2 depict fat as bright white, and thus bone marrow-containing bone will look white on the scans. An expert can look carefully at the bone and discriminate between the calcium containing cortical bone and fat containing medullary bone, but this is beyond what a layperson will notice without specialized training. Self Test: Examples of CT and MRI Scans Here are some examples for you to test your newfound knowledge. Example 1 Figure 5A: A mystery scan of the brain Look at the scan above. Can you see the table that the patient is laying on? No, so this is probably an MRI. Let's not be hasty in our judgment and find further evidence to confirm our suspicion. Is the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and in the ventricles of the brain white? No, on this scan the CSF appears black. Both CT scans and MRIs can have dark appearing CSF, so this doesn't help us. Is the skin and thin layer of subcutaneous fat on the scalp white? Yes it is. That means this is an MRI. Well, if this is an MRI than the bones of the skull, the calvarium, should be dark, right? Yes, and indeed the calvarium is as shown in Figure 5B. You can see the black egg shaped oval around the brain, which is the calcium containing skull. The only portion of the skull that is white is in the frontal area where fat containing bone marrow is present between two thin layers of calcium containing bony cortex. This is an MRI. Figure 5B: The mystery scan is a T1 spoiled gradient echo MRI image of the brain. Incidentally this person has a brain tumor involving the left frontal lobe. Example 2 Figure 6A: Another mystery scan of the brain Look at the scan above. Let's go through our process to determine if this is a CT or MRI. First of all, can you see the table the patient is lying on or brace? Yes you can, there is a U-shaped brace keeping the head in position for the scan. We can conclude that this is a CT scan. Let's investigate further to confirm our conclusion. Is fat or water white? If either is white, then this is an MRI. In this scan we can see both fat underneath the skin of the cheeks which appears dark gray to black. Additionally, the material in the eyeball is a dark gray, immediately behind the relatively white appearing lenses of the eye. Finally, the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brainstem appears gray. This is not clearly an MRI, which further confirms our suspicion that it is a CT. If indeed this is a CT, then the bones of the skull should be white, and indeed they are. You can see the bright white shaped skull surrounding the brain. You can even see part of the cheekbones, the zygomatic arch, extending forward just outside the eyes. This is a CT scan. Figure 6B: The mystery scan is a CT brain without IV contrast. Example 3 Figure 7A: A mystery scan of the abdomen In this example we see an image through the upper abdomen depicting multiple intra-abdominal organs. Let's use our methodology to try and figure out what kind of scan this is. First of all, can you see the table that the patient is laying on? Yes you can. That means we are dealing with the CT. Let's go ahead and look for some additional evidence to confirm our suspicion. Do the bones appear white? Yes they do. You can see the white colored thoracic vertebrae in the center of the image, and multiple ribs are present, also white. If this is indeed a CT scan than any water-containing structures should not be white, and indeed they are not. In this image there are three water-containing structures. The spinal canal contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The pickle shaped gallbladder can be seen just underneath the liver. Also, this patient has a large (and benign) left kidney cyst. All of these structures appear a dark gray. Also, the fat underneath the skin is a dark gray color. This is not in MRI. It is a CT. Figure 7B: The mystery scan is a CT of the abdomen with IV contrast Example 4 Figure 8A: A mystery scan of the left thigh Identifying this scan is challenging. Let's first look for the presence of the table. We don't see one but the image may have been trimmed to exclude it, or the image area may just not be big enough to see the table. We can't be sure a table is in present but just outside the image. Is the fat under the skin or any fluid-filled structures white? If so, this would indicate it is an MRI. The large white colored structure in the middle of the picture is a tumor. The fat underneath the skin is not white, it is dark gray in color. Also, the picture is through the mid thigh and there are no normal water containing structures in this area, so we can't use this to help us. Well, if this is a CT scan than the bone should be white. Is it? The answer is no. We can see a dark donut-shaped structure just to the right of the large white tumor. This is the femur bone, the major bone of the thigh and it is black. This cannot be a CT. It must be an MRI. This example is tricky because a fat suppression pulse sequence was used to turn the normally white colored fat a dark gray. Additionally no normal water containing structures are present on this image. The large tumor in the mid thigh is lighting up like a lightbulb and can be confusing and distracting. But, the presence of black colored bone is a dead giveaway. Figure 8B: The mystery scan is a contrast-enhanced T2 fat-suppressed MRI Conclusion: Now You Can Determine is a Scan is CT or MRI This tutorial outlines a simple process that anybody can use to identify whether a scan is a CT or MRI. The democratiz3D service on this website can be used to convert any CT scan into a 3D printable bone model. Soon, a feature will be added that will allow you to convert a brain MRI into a 3D printable model. Additional features will be forthcoming. The service is free and easy to use, but you do need to tell it what kind of scan your uploading. Hopefully this tutorial will help you identify your scan. If you'd like to learn more about the democratiz3D service click here. Thank you very much and I hope you found this tutorial to be helpful. Nothing in this article should be considered medical advice. If you have a medical question, ask your doctor.
  15. 1 point
    I was recently asked this question and I am sharing the answer with the group in hopes that somebody will find it helpful. Question: "I am a teacher at a High School in Arizona, we recently built a FAB LAB (digital fabrication facility) and are interested in starting a medical imaging class/club. We have several medical professionals, Dentist, Orthopedic Surgeon, General Practice, Physical Therapist and Medical researchers, who are interested in volunteering in to help with this program. Our goal is twofold, one to increase student interest in pursuing medical professions and two to give students an avenue for employment in the emerging 3D medical imaging field. Ultimately our goal would be to have a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program where students could graduate with some sort of certificate indicating competency. My question is, are there recommended training/certification programs that we need to consider and implement? What are your recommendations for us moving forward with this program. Any information you could provide would be appreciated." Answer: " Hello ______ Just to clarify, are you talking about medical 3D Printing? If so, there is currently no such certification program in this technology. One basic requirement is an understanding of medical imaging technologies, so I would say a bare minimum to do medical 3D printing would be a certification as a CT or MRI technologist, which have established training pathways for post-secondary education. Here is a link. https://study.com/ct_technician.html You would then have to obtain experience with 3D printing, of which there is no formal pathway. Of course, you can obtain greater imaging expertise as a radiologist, which is 4 years of med school and 6 of residency and fellowship after college. Again, there is still no formal pathway for the actual 3D printing component of this. Hope this helps."
  16. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Holes in bone models with democratiz3D

    I received this inquiry from a member. I am going to post the response here so that it can help others with the same question: QUESTION: "I am printing out a spine model.... Why are there so many defects in the rendering? I can't print this out on a 3d printer, half of the vertebrae are hollow. I get these from a 3d CT and on a computer monitor, the vertebrae are whole. Just take a look at the thumbnails and you'll know what I'm talking about. I don't have the expertise or time to fill all of the defects. Is there a paid service somewhere that could do this for me? I'm just surprised the STL file wouldn't look like the 3d CT since they use the same dicom imagery?" ANSWER: If you are creating bony models and are finding that the bones have holes or other large defects in them (see above), this is probably an issue with the Threshold value used during the conversion. Threshold is the number of Hounsfield units to use to create the surface of the model. Anything above the threshold value is considered bone and is included. Anything below is not considered bone and is excluded. Normal cortical bone is very dense, greater than 300 Hounsfield units, so the default threshold of 150 is more than enough to catch it. The inside of the bone (medullary, or marrow cavity) is filled with fatty bone marrow and is a much lower Hounsfield value. If the patient has osteoporosis or very thin cortical bones they may not register as bone if the default threshold of 150 is used. You can decrease this to a lower threshold value (maybe 100 or so) and you will be more likely to capture this thin, deossified bone. If you go too low though (60 or so) you will start to capture non-bony structures like muscle. Another thing that may help get the highest quality models is using premium operations such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality level. These operations are time-consuming however. To save on time, you can run your scan through democratiz3D using free operations such as Detailed Bone and medium or high quality until you find the threshold you like. Once you find the threshold value you like, you can run you scan through a final time using the highest quality (and slowest) operation settings, such as Very Detailed Bone and Ultra quality. Hope this helps! Dr. Mike
  17. 1 point
    Mike We use a food dehydrator for ALL of our filament We simply toss the rolls inside and turn it up to max which is significantly lower than the alteration point of all commercial filaments and then dry them for 12 hours and IMMEDIATELY remove them to a plastic container that has a series of spool rollers inside and outlets for the filament to exit. The containers have gaskets so no leaking The filament is never allowed to see the humidity of Florida it goes from dehydrator (or the new box) then into the container which has 2 pounds of rechargeable desiccant as well as a digital hygrometer inside it than thru PTFE tubing to the extruders of the dedicated printer next in line to be used. The added length of PTFE does add a BIT to the retraction issues of the printers but they do fine once adjusted The containers hold about 6 rolls of filament Hope this helps Dr. Dave
  18. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0

    21 downloads

    The Venous Drainage of the Central Nervous System. Model from MRI data. Anatomy plate from Gray's Anatomy.

    Free

  19. 1 point

    Version STL

    40 downloads

    This is a .stl file of a left temporal bone ready for 3d printing. I have segmented a CT scan paying attention to all the important bony structures of the ear. In the .stl screenshots you can see the mastoid, malleus, incus, the bony canal of the facial nerve, the stylomastoid foramen Etc. I do this for my training and the idea is to perform a mastoidectomy just in my desktop i have printed my personal 3d plaster model (you can see in the screenshots) but i haven't the courage to destroy it whit the drill..... I hope that my work can be of help to anyone who wants to try to drill a faithful model of temporal bone at home or simply want to study the anatomy in a versatile 3d .stl Model Good Job Nicola Di Giuseppe M.D.

    $2.99

  20. 1 point
    Joe Church

    Lumbar spine STL medical model

    Excellent model. Minimal errors, unlike the full lumbar hip and spine model that has thousands. Even so, it does not preview or print with Simplify3D due to residual errors I could not repair. Prints well with Makerbot Print. Cura does not support Replicator+ so I don't know if it prints there. Would have been five stars if I could print with S3D. Did 75% scaling to fit my Replicator+. 15 hours. Needs supports which are numerous. Time consuming to remove because of all the cavities. Well worthwhile to do. Felt like whittling on the porch.
  21. 1 point
    I was also interested into making craniofacial implants, and also i have found MeVisLab free software, but i found it very complex to work with. Than also i tried with Geomagic Sculpt and Freeform, but as Saumyam mentioned they are pretty expencive (retailer in my country said that the price is aroud 2000€ for Sculpt, and 6000 € for Freeform, and 8000 € for Freeform Plus). It was very hard to work with Geomagic sculpt (laggs, unresponsice control etc.), but Freeform was discovery and I am very pleased with that software. Here is model of custom made cranial implant that I made using Geomagic Freeform trial version and Blender. Few details remain to be done on it.
  22. 1 point
    tsehrhardt

    Materials for fracture experiments

    I was wondering if anybody has found a 3D printing material that works well for fracture studies. I am aware of Sawbones, but would like to explore the possibility of using CT scans to generate 3D printed bones of different size/age/sex for fracture/trauma studies. Thanks! Terrie
  23. 1 point
    Hi Dr Mike , In principal, is it the same procedure using 3D ultrasound DICOM files? Many thanks upfront Tom
  24. 1 point

    Version

    394 downloads

    This object was converted from a CT DICOM dataset of a male skull. The CT slice width was 1 mm (which is quite crude compared to today's scanners) and there were 245 slices in total. Although most of the orphaned pieces have been removed (for printing) using Meshlab the internal structure is still very complex. The vertex count was reduced for simplification but no smoothing was applied to the surface. Some bony artefact holes were filled but on the whole the structure is as per the CT scan. Once again, thank you to Dr Mike for the excellent renders and . Find us at www.healthphysics.com.au

    Free

  25. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    MeshLab vs Blender

    Blender is very confusing to use at first, but once you get the hang of it, it is quite powerful. My workflow right now is focused on Blender and MeshMixer primarily.
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