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Showing content with the highest reputation since 08/19/2019 in Posts

  1. 3 points

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    Every Slicer software have automatic support function. Just click it and it will generate the right amount of support you need. For bone models the important question is - are your fellow surgeons planning to cut the model or not. It will be a shame, if they break their instruments into your model... For metal implant premodelling prior the operation, you need smooth bones with high resolution details. In my experience, 0,150mm layer thickness, with 4 perimeters (1,7mm shell thickness with 0,4mm nozzle), 15% gyroid or cuboid infill, a bit colder extrusion temperature (200C for PLA) is perfect. Your fellow surgeons can bend the metalic osteosynthesis implants on the model into their optimal shape, can sterilise them and this whole operation will decrease the surgery time with 1 hour. This is a big difference for the outcome of the operation, the recovery time, the complications ect. ect. If you want to print fracture fragments, make them in different colors. Then you can make 3D visualization with the corresponding colors. The model will look marvelous and you'll become the surgeon's best buddy. They will love you, they will cheer you and they will give you a lot of money for that. If you need specific information, please tell us - printer model, slicer software, material on choice. I can give you more specific information, if you do that.
  2. 1 point

    Medical 3D printing 101

    This topic is for medical 3d printing tips and tricks for the newbies. I'm starting with the bones, you can add whatever you can share. Bones. The main advantage of the orthopedical presurgical 3d printed models is the possibility to create an accurate model, which can be used for metal osteosynthesis premodelling - the surgeons can prepare (bend, twist, accommodate) the implants prior the operation. After a sterilisation (autoclaving, UV-light, gamma-ray etc etc), those implants can be used in the planned surgery, which will decrease the overall surgery time (in some cases with more than an hour) with all it's advantages, including a dramatic decreasing of the complication rates, the X-ray exposure for the patient and for the surgeons, the cost and the recovery rates etc etc. For this purpose, you need a smooth bone model, with clearly recognizable and realistic landmarks, realistic measurements and physical properties, close to the real bone. Traditionally, the orthopedical surgeons in my institution used polystyrene models, made by hand, now they have access to 3d printed models and they are better in any way. Here are some tips how to print that thing. 1. Method - FDM. The bone models are the easiest and the most forgiving to print. You can make them with literally every printer you can find. FDM is a strong option here and, in my opinion, the best method on choice. 2. Matherial - PLA - it's cheap, it's easy to print, it's the bread and butter for the bone printing. Cool extruding temperature (195-200C) decrease the stringing and increases the details in the models. 3. Layer heigh - 0,150mm. This is the best compromise between the print time, the quality and the usability of the models. 3. Perimeters (shell thickness) - 4 perimeters. One perimeter means one string of 3d printed material. It's width depends on the nozzle diameter and the layer thickness. For Prusa MK3 with 0,4mm nozzle 1 perimeter is ~0,4mm. To achieve a realistic cortical bone, use 4 perimeters (1,7mm). The surgeons loves to cut stuff, including the models, in some cases I have to print several models for training purposes. 4 perimeters PLA feels like a real bone. 4. Infill - 15% 3d infill (gyroid, cuboid or 3d honey comb). The gyroid is the best - it looks and feels like a spongy bone. It's important to provide a realistic tactile sensation for the surgeons, especially the trainees. They have to be able to feel the moment, when they pass the cortical bone and rush into the spongiosa. 5. Color - different colors for every fracture fragment. If the model is combined with a 3D visualization, which colors corresponds with the colors of the 3d print, this will make the premodelling work much easier for the surgeons. Also, it looks professional and appealing. 6. Postprocessing - a little sanding and a touch of a acrylic varnish will make the model much better. 7. Support material - every slicer software can generate support, based on the angle between the building platform and the Z axis of the model. You can control this in details with support blockers and support enforcers, which for the bones is not necessary, but it's crucial for the vessels and the heart. Conclusions - the bone models are easy to make, they look marvelous and can really change the outcome of every orthopedical surgery.
  3. 1 point
    Dan Cardosa

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    Wow, that was an excellent response to my question. I appreciate all the help available here. It's a great site with a great community!
  4. 1 point
    Dr. Mike

    Size of the 3D print vs Actual size

    There shouldn't be. Just know that the unit of measurement is in millimeters. If you import the STL file into printer software and specify that the unit of measurement is cm, inches, or feet, your model will be HUGE. Hope this helps. Mike
  5. 1 point
    Angel Sosa

    Size of the 3D print vs Actual size

    You can check this tutorial https://www.embodi3d.com/democratiz3d-user-manual/#Quality
  6. 1 point
    If you want to scan people for fun, you can use your cell phone for photogrammetry with free software. Then you can put the heads on different bodies and to print them. Something like this: For this purpose you can use every 3d printer up to 2000$. I myself prefer my original Prusa MK3, because I'm not an engineer and I prefer something to do all the printing stuff for me. Here is the result: When we're talking about medical 3d printing, we're talking about a whole different topic. The medical models have to be very precise and there is an industrial standards about it. For example, my models have 0,5mm deviation from the original body part at 95% confidence interval. I had a presentation at an morphology symposium about my favorite Lusoria model lately and now I have a lot of orders from the local hospitals, because of the standard, which I can achieve. For medical modeling you have to be an expert in all the morphological specialties (Anatomy, Pathology, Radiology) with some serious clinical background. To reach this level, you need: 1. Medical education. 2. A lot of treated patients, most of which have to stay alive after your job. The death patients are literally skeletons in the closet. 3. Some background in the basic dissection techniques, both the pathological and the anatomical ones. 4. The surgery training is a plus. 5. Some gaming experience or experience with CAD software. The computer games are like bodybuilding for the visual cortex. 6. 1+ years of hard work, everyday modeling, studying, drawing, dissections, consultations with the experts in the field, a lot of tears and some joy. THEN you can do medical modeling, something like this. I started to model, when I was an anatomy assistant professor, with 12 years of experience as an emergency internal physician. I had the chance to find this website with all it resources, tutorials and the awesome support from the administrators and after 1 year of really hard work, I became a professional, (one of the best in my region, in a matter of fact). But still, my biggest nightmare is that, because of my mistakes during the preoperative modeling, a patient will die. So - are we really talking about medical modeling or you just want to do some fun with your client's CT scans?
  7. 1 point
    Terrie, Speaking of sharing anthropology files online, embodi3D has a dedicated section in the file library for anthropological files. But, it hasn't been active at all. Do you have any ideas for how we can get better sharing in this field? We'd like to help promote 3D printing in anthropology as well as medicine. https://www.embodi3d.com/files/category/11-anthropology/ Thanks in advance, Dr. Mike
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