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Showing content with the highest reputation since 12/20/2019 in all areas

  1. 2 points

    AI assisted segmentation in 3D Slicer

    About a year ago nVidia announced the Clara project which is basically segmentation with AI help. The first release with this functionality is now available for 3D Slicer. Look here -> https://discourse.slicer.org/t/ai-assisted-segmentation-extension/9536 IMHO this is a very big step and even in this early state it looks very promising.
  2. 2 points

    Version 1.0.0


    This is an ready-to-print .stl file of neonatal skull with a rare congenital anomaly of one sided maxillary and mandibular fusion and mandibular cleft (which is little bit reduced for more easier print). Also, connections between cranial bones were added. Could be printed on FDM (slightly harder to remove supports) and SLA/DLP 3D printer. head, skull, .stl, 3d, model, printable, frontal, parietal, congenital, syngnathia, orbit, nasal, spine, hard, palate, mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, arch, angle, ramus, coronoid, process, bone, metopic, suture, coronal, fontanelle, anterior, posterior,


  3. 2 points

    Version 1.0.0


    STL derived from a CT Lumbar spine and segmented with Slicer3D. lumbar, spine, axial, skeleton, lumbar, spine, .stl, 3d, model, printable, plates, body, intervertebral, disc, spinous, process, transverse, iliac, bone, sacrum, foramina, coccyx, ribs, sacroiliac, joint,


  4. 2 points
    I ordered this mechanism few days ago, the reviews for it are awesome. It's a retractable purging mechanism for printers with Prusa multimaterial and Pallete. Instead of generating a wipe tower, the filament change is performed on the mechanism. This increases the speed of the filament change and the entire build plate is free for 3d printing.
  5. 2 points
    In the last few decades, the 4th industrial revolution began - a significant advance in the 3D technology and an emerging of a brand new production method - the computer-controlled additive/subtractive manufacturing. It is considered "the new wheel" and it gives the ability to generate a detailed three dimensional object with complicated geometry from various materials (metals, polymers, clay, biological macro molecules) with a robot, controlled by a computer. The size of the object don't really matters - it's possible to construct structures on micron level or entire buildings. The thing, which really matters, is the geometry of the model. The specialists in the 3D technology are able to bend the very fabric of the world in every shape, which is needed. In the medical field, this advancement of the 3D technology was combined with the rise of the computer-assisted imaging and the histological imaging techniques , visualizing the living (or already death) organisms in details, never seen before. This is how the profession of the medical 3D artist emerged, giving new hope and amazing possibilities for the presentation, diagnostics and treatment of the human body. It's a hybrid profession, which requires vast knowledge and experience in the medical, engineering and computer science. If you want to become one and you're wondering can you actually sell your work, this guide will be quite helpful for you. As any other type of scientists, medical 3D artists have to choose his career path. It can lead to a career as academical professor, teaching students and performing theoretical experiments at a university or a science institute or as a industrial R&D specialist, creating practical products for the biomedical corporations. Both career options have their pros and cons, bot of them are saving lives. The difference is in the way of thinking. And the salary. For both of them the entrance requirement is a PhD in the field life or engineering science. So, in order to become a medical 3D artist, you need to go in the academy for a while, to endure the hell of the dissertation/thesis and to keep your sanity at the end. Once achieved, it's really hard to stay unemployed for long, those pesky talent seekers will jump on you like flies on manure. 1. Academical: The academical lives and thrives in his/hers institution. An office, a laboratory, some teaching obligations and the ability to work in the most cutting-edge fields of science and technology. More flexibility/freedom: the academical have a lot of free time, as long as the basic obligations towards the institution are satisfied. Intellectual autonomy: the academical can follow whatever idea he/she wants, as long as it's supported by the institution. Long term results: the academical things and acts in long period of time - one project can take an year, several year or the entire lifespan, depending on the project. Funding/salary issues: the academical is always underfunded and the salary sucks (unless he/she is well quoted, successful professor). This is why the problem-solving abilities and the high IQ are required for this career path. Strong ego and self-confidence: the academical things for themselves as geniuses, much smarter than the rest of the population (and in most cases they are right). Always “speaks theoretically”: the question "what if" is the breath and butter of the academia and it's really hard for the academical to be practical. 2. Industrial R&D specialist: the industrial scientist works in a office or a warehouse, with a team of other specialists, under the supervision of a project manager. He/she develops practical products, which have to be sellable and they have to be developed fast. More constrained (deadlines): the usual industrial project takes several months, under strict supervision and have to satisfy the needs of the marketing department. The deadlines are an issue here. Produces a practical product: the product have a practical, well defined application, shape, quality requirements and price. Pays a lot more: the salaries of the industrial R&D have an additional zero at the end. No funding issues: the industrial projects have more than adequate budget and they can receive an additional funding, if needed. No ego issues – “it’s just a job” - for the industrial specialist, the work is just a meaning for living. A job, as good as any other job. No "special missions" here. Literally “saves the world”: the products of the industry are used as practical applications and are used for diagnostics and treatment on everyday basis. Professional levels: As any other profession, the medical 3D artist goes through several stages, each one with higher requirements and possibilities. Jobber: the lowest level of them all. A sporadic odd jobs, for a low salary, for whoever is willing to pay. This is the first level, which a wannabe medical 3d artist reach and the level, on which most of them stay. Only those, who can achieve the necessary discipline, business ethics and quality can reach the next level. The jobbers are unpredictable, chaotic, they can hardly satisfy the deadlines and they offer the lowest quality possible. Every medical 3D artist in training is also a jobber. Freelancer: the selective few, who are talented and discipline enough to be able to offer NDA, contract, quote statement, production method description and industrial quality control. Those are the medical 3D artists, who doesn't suck, but wants to be free and flexible enough to follow their other interests. The freelancer is hired from companies and institution, which can't support a full-job 3d artist or their specialist are not competent enough to make the job done. A proud, well-respected person, working under strict business ethics, for fixed pay rate, usually calculated per hour or per item. The freelancer works on small projects, for a limited period of time and under well-defined condition, written on an official contract. Every professional medical 3D artist is also a freelancers. The reputation have a big importance in this group, which is why the freelancers are considered predictable, disciplined and competent to do any task, thrown at them. The salary here depends on the negotiating skills of the freelancer. Contractor: Those freelancers, who have the necessary business talent and are willing to take some risks, can make a company with several employees, several 3d printers, a convenient website with good portfolio and a variety of services. Such a company can take bigger orders from large institutions (hospitals or industrial companies), which requires a higher level of expertise, speed of service and quality control. Those contracts are for a longer period of time, under fixed condition, pricing and quality of the service. CEO: Those are the contractors, who are able to survive and to thrive, eventually can become big corporations, with hundreds of employees and millions dollars budgets. All of the current corporations started as small companies. Believe it or not, the biggest 3d printing companies (3D Systems, Stratasys. Ultimaker and many more) started as small, family-oriented companies, which became the gigantic corporations they are today. How they made it? I really want to know the answer of this question. So, most likely, you're a talented young (or not-so-young) individual with medical background, who watched some tutorials, made several models (most likely bones) and 3d printed them with a cheap 3d printer. Confident with your results, you think you can make a living with this amazing job and you're wondering how to start. My start was a bit rough, because I was trying to make a model of Pyramidal neuron in the Telencephalon for my department from a 10Gb Z-stack in Tif format with zero knowledge how to do it. This is how I found this website in first place. Few days later the model was done and when I tried to make my first bone models, it was way too easy, compared to the neuron. The rest is a lot of trails and errors, a lot of youtube tutorials, several kilograms of textbooks and the support of my colleagues. Here are some tips what you need to do in order to become a freelancer: Portfolio: If you want to sell your work, you have to present it first. Sketchfab.com is a very good way to do it, because it have an amazing 3d viewer with various awesome animation options. If you want to present your work, you just have to paste the link, because it's a zero-footrpint system - all you need to use it is a web browser. It's an excellent choice for 3d visualization and it's also free. The more models you're adding, the bigger audience you'll have and you don't have to worry what kind of 3d viewer your potential clients are using. Downloadable models: My personal choice is 30% paid models and 70% free ones. I'm a PhD student, I don't have some immediate need of money, so I can afford that. I'm dividing my models into regular and premium ones. In this way my models can be useful for everyone, both business parties or poor students around the world. It's really hard to find a good medical model for a presentation or a small university project and if you manage to find one, it's most likely from this website. Quote: When you're starting a job for someone, make sure that you have an accurate quote for your task in written format. Something like that: "I will generate ??? 3D models of a ??? (system, organ, structure) from CT/MRI datasets, which will include the following structures (soft tissues, bones, arterial/venous vessels etc. etc.) in ??? days for a ??? USD per hour, ??? hours per model, ??? USD per model". The more accurate you are, the better. This gives you the framework, in which you're working. Everything outside this frameworks is an extra and it should be payed as well. Your clients will try to change the conditions of your quote, this is why you need something written to control this process. Make sure you specify the currency, $ can mean a US dollar or a Mexican peso! NDA: Some clients will requite a mutual non-disclosure agreement, which you have to print, sign, scan and send back to the client. If you don't have such a document signed, you can do whatever you want with the model and you don't have to explain yourself to your client. You can afford a lower price for a model without NDA, because you can sell it or upload it as free download anyway. If you have such a document, just forget about the model, don't share it, don't show it and don't print it - you don't want to be sued by a medical company, they are more powerful than you. Contract: You should have a standard freelancers contract, in which you should apply the quote statement. Most of the cases, the quote statement is enough. Production method: You have to specify your production parameters like software, methods and operations. Something like that: "Segmentation of the abdominal aorta with Slicer 3D, exporting of the model as stl file, modelling and sculpting (smoothing, remeshing, boolean operation etc etc) in Meshmixer, postprocessing (slicing, magnet sockets, hinges etc etc) in Fusion 360, importation of the model into Slicer 3D for subsequent quality control, including ??? measurements of the dataset, the model and generation of average deviation". Don't be too precise, just the basic operations you're using with the corresponding software. Make sure you're not using a cracked software in your production method, everything you're using should be owned by you! 3D printed models: It's a good idea to have a set of 3d printed models, which can be presented on conferences, exhibitions and your social media page. This is a good commercial for your work, which is also a way for popularisation of the medical 3D modelling. Deadlines: Be precise in your work and follow the deadlines! As an old proctologist from my med school used to say - it's better to mess your finger than your reputation. If you're good in your work, you'll be hired again. Invoice: As with the contract, you should have a standard freelancers invoice, which you should send to your client. All those documents increases your credibility and are considered as signs of professionalism. If you're keeping your professional level high, you'll have better clients and higher pay rate. Freelancers websites: It's a good idea to have profiles in several freelancers websites. Most of your clients will contact you in person, but most likely they'll find you on those websites. Linkedin is a must. Patreon and facebook are also a good bet. Pricing: The usual salary for 3d modelling is between 30 and 60$ per hour, depending on the complexity of the task and the presence of an NDA. The most useful pricing for 3d printing is 1,5-2$ per hour of 3d printing. The smaller slide thickness and the bigger models requires significantly more time and a bigger price. You should also include all the postprocessing you're using (sanding, airbrushing, magnets, varnishes etc etc). 3D printing: For small operations, two or three 3d printers are enough. Good budget options are Ender 3 (FDM) and Elegoo Mars (DLP). Prusa MK3 and Form 2 are better, more expensive options, which will make your life much easier. Keep your printers in good condition and provide a regular maintenance. Choose several brands of polymers and stick to them, you don't want surprises, why you're chasing a deadline. Have fun: It doesn't matter what you're doing and how much you're making by doing it. Just have some fun! 3D printing is amazing, highly contagious activity, but it can become a burden, if you're not enjoying it. And always remember - with your work you're developing the medical science and you're literally saving lives.
  6. 1 point
    It works with any Carthesian purging tower generating printer, which includes MMU2, Pallete2 and the 2-in-one hotends. There are config files for most slicers, Prusa Slicer and Cura included. I didn't tested it myself yet, but it looks quite promising.
  7. 1 point
    A fun and offtopic-but-still-related news about the newest Great Wall of China: The Chinese town of Suzhou is now home to a wall unlike any other. According to a newly published story by 3D Printing Media Network, Chinese construction company Winsun has finished building a 3D-printed wall in Suzhou which, at more than 500 meters (1,640 feet) long, is now the world’s largest 3D-printed structure of any kind. Pretty impressive! Source: https://futurism.com/the-byte/china-worlds-largest-3d-printed-structure
  8. 1 point

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    A little update about the Clear PLA filaments for FDM printers. It's also considered Natural PLA, because it doesn't contains additives and colorants, which makes it a bit complicated for printing. It looks a bit transparent, but it doesn't have the optical properties of the glass - for fully transparent prints the STL and DLP are the right choice. The clear PLA is very susceptible to moisture and should be sealed in vacuum back, with silica gel. For the Clear PLA, higher temperatures are better for best results. The hotend temperature should be 220-230 degrees. Otherwise the adhesion between the layers won't be strong enough and the model will become brittle. I learned all of this the hard way... The clear PLA is an excellent material for vascular models. A hollow vascular model should be printed with 4 perimeters, 100% concentric infill and support from the build plate only. On the pictures below you can check why I prefer those parameters. Happy printing!
  9. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Lung1 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. trachea, bronchi, apical, medial, lateral, right, left, basal, lung, segmentation, anterior, posterior, .stl, 3d, model, printable,


  10. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    hand bone - stl file processed, Distal phalanx, Distal interphalangeal joint, Proximal interphalangeal joint, Middle phalanx, Head of the proximal phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Metacarpophalangeal joint, Base of the proximal phalanx, Metacarpal head, Sesamoid, Metacarpal, Metacarpal base, Capitate, Trapezoid, Hamate, Trapezium, Triquetrum, Scaphoid, Pisiform, Radial styloid, Ulnar styloid, Lunate, Distal radius, Distal radioulnar joint Distal ulna, 3d, model, .stl, upper, limb, hand, wrist, upper, limb, bone


  11. 1 point
    Thanks for share @kopachini congenital syngnathia is a very rare condition. Great work!
  12. 1 point

    COPD lungs

    From the album: embodi3D 3D Printed Models

    3D print of COPD lungs in white PLA.
  13. 1 point
    This has been an amazing year for us at Embodi3d and we'd like to share with you the best 3d medical printing models of 2019 1. A great brain 3d model, the first place! uploaded by Osamanyuad. This example shows the cortex which is a thin layer of the brain that covers the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm) of the cerebrum. 2. A heart 3D printed model uploaded by Tropmal. It shows the coronary arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle, excellent for educational purposes. 3. Portal vessels anatomy uploaded by Platypus1221. The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver. 4. A Dental Cone-beam Computed Tomography in an adult orthodontic patient uploaded by R Thomas. The cbct is an advanced imaging modality that has high clinical applications in the field of dentistry. 5. A kidney 3D .STL file uploaded by Shahriar The kidneys are a pair of organs found along the posterior muscular wall of the abdominal cavity. The left kidney is located slightly more superior than the right kidney due to the larger size of the liver on the right side of the body. This is an excellent example in .stl format. 6. 3D Printable Human Heart Model with stackable slices, short axis view uploaded by Dr. Mike. This 3D printable model of a normal human heart was generated from an ECG-gated contrast enhanced coronary CT scan. The slices are cut to illustrate the echocardiographic short-axis view. If you are interested in a 3D printable heart that shows slices in the anatomical transverse plane, 7. A bony hand in a .STL file processed uploaded by MABC The wrist has eight small bones called the carpal bones, or the carpus. These join the hand to the two long bones in the forearm (radius and ulna). The carpal bones are small square, oval, and triangular bones. The cluster of carpal bones in the wrist make it both strong and flexible. This incredible 3D medical printing model shows all the bones and joints for learning purposes! 8. 3D Prenatal Ultrasound uploaded by kevinvandeusen The 3D ultrasound images provide greater detail for prenatal diagnosis than the older 2D ultrasound technology. 9. A bony knee in a .STL file processed uploaded by Yousef97 In this example we can evaluate the knee joint in three parts: The thigh bone (the femur) meets the large shin bone (the tibia) to form the main knee joint. This joint has an inner (medial) and an outer (lateral) compartment. The kneecap (the patella) joins the femur to form a third joint, called the patellofemoral joint. 10. A lower extremity CT scan of a femoral fracture uploaded by Yondonjunai The femur is the largest bone in the body, and consequently it is often thought that high energy mechanisms are required to produce a femur fracture. You can see an example here: 11. An skull fracture example uploaded by Raspirate This example shows a fracture skull. The skull is a bony structure that supports the face and forms a protective cavity for the brain. 12. A CT chest scan with contrast upload by Nikluz This example shows the vascular structures and thorax muscles. 13. 3D-Print a Left Knee Joint Model with this Excellent STL Upload (Converted from CT Scan) by Niels96 A 3D model of left knee, we can see that is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion. 14. A Huge thoraco-abdominal aneurysm (preoperative model) by Valchanov This is a difusse dilatation of aorta with a high risk for rupture. Most of the patients are asymptomatics and accidentally discovered on routine chest radiography. 15. A stl file showing the elbow´s bones by Pekka The elbow is a hinged joint made up of three bones, the humerus, ulna, and radius. The ends of the bones are covered with cartilage. 16. A CT scan of Left Knee Joint Model by Niels96 Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of special X-ray equipment and sophisticated computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. In this example we can evaluate the knee with detail. 17. A 3d model of a polytrauma pelvis in a .STL file by Narkos. This patient suffer a polytrauma right hemipelvis with fracture S1-S2 and fracture of the ischiopubial branch. 18. A full body CT scan by davidmorris80@oulook.com A whole body scanner images without injection with window function that allows the study of the soft tissues, including lymph node structures, mediastinum and abdomen. 19. A .STL file of a left temporal bone ready for 3d printing by Nicola Di Giuseppe. This shows the mastoid, malleus, incus, the bony canal of the facial nerve and the stylomastoid foramen excellent for learning purposes. 20. An Anatomical heart box 3d model by valchanov This was valchanov´s best selling model for 2019!
  14. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Hollow aorta and branch vessels with infrarenal aneurysm. aorta, aneurysm, descendent, renal, mesenteric, superior, iliac, common, external, internal, abdominal, branches, .stl, 3d, model, printable, infrarrenal,


  15. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Paul HWS 18 - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. cervical, dorsal, spine, body, intervertebral, disc, bone, 3d, model, .stl, printable, ribs, thorax, chest, scapula, clavicle, dog, k9


  16. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    This is my best selling model for 2019. Download, print, assemble, enjoy. Merry Christmas Originally modded as an engagement ring box, it became really popular birthday gift for the colleague from heart-related departments. I'm selling one of those models for 35$ I'm always bringing few, when I'm going on conference. Really nice gift. I'm printing those with Silk PLA. The metalic colors looks fantastic. I'm using several support blockers for the atrii, because this negates the artefacts and makes the whole upper part hollow. It requires some experience... Slice thickness: 0,15mm Infill: 30% gyroid Circular bottom fill pattern. Six neodymium magnets, 8x2mm. If you use too powerful magnets, the parts are closing so strong, that they can hurt someone. N50 are fine. cyanacrilic glue. Make sure you're gluing the magnets with the right poles!


  17. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    CT Scan - stl file processed Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. head, neck, skull, frontal, temporal, parietal, eyeball, eyelid, nasal, zygomatic, arch, maxilla, mandible, lips, lordosis, chest, dorsal, spine, shoulder, upper, limb, skin, 3d, model, printable, ear,


  18. 1 point
    Hello This is my first 3D print. I used a 3D model of a kidney, which I made myself from a renal angiography. I printed it with one of my engineer geek friends using a Prusa i3 self-made 3d printer, 0,2 mm nozzle, 0,2mm layer thickness and PLA as material. This was my entering demonstration, which gave me an assignment as a freelancer anatomy assistant professor. My ambitions are to use 2D and 3D models, along with the traditional cadaver techniques in my work as an anatomy teacher and to teach my students how to do it with their own hands. I have 12 years of experience as an internal physician in ER, 4 years as a psychiatrist, 3 years as an acupuncturist and a lifetime as an IT GEEK, I don't have any teaching experience, my english language skills are a bit rusty and I don't know what will come from this, but I'm eager to find out. Wish me luck:)
  19. 1 point

    Size of the 3D print vs Actual size

    The shrinking is a major and complicated issue for all the 3D printing methods in general. I didn't cared about it, until I had to made really accurate, industrial-grade model, in which every micron matters. I'm not a material science engineer, but I have to address this issue even further, because my research group is planning to go in the direction of the temporary and permanent implants, in which even the slightest deviation can cause slow recovery, pain, inflammatory reaction or rejection. This is especially true for the 3d printed dentures and maxillofacial implants, in which even 50 micron deviation can cause significant problems for the patient. It's so good for me, that I'm not working for the dental medicine faculty, because for the bone implants deviation of 200 microns is perfectly acceptable. For the diagnostic models (presurgical, demonstration, teaching etc.) the acceptable deviation is even bigger - up to 500 microns. Every 3d printing method have some base shrinkage and warping, which is combined with the base deviation of the STL model itself and with the base shrinkage of the material. To make the issue even harder, the manufacturers didn't post the basic deviation of their materials, because this can ruin their trade secret. Every material in the market is not just a single polymer, but a composite of several polymers, with a lot of additives, which makes the issue even more complicated. There are several general rules: 1. Material Jetting > SLS > STL/DLP/FDM. From the termoplastic modalities, the material jetting is most accurate method, while STL/DLP/FDM are relatively equal in their accuracy. STL and DLP have better porstprocessing option than FDM, though. Overall, for the lower industrial segment, FDM is better in the printing of large objects (more than 10 cm), while STL and DLP are better in the smaller part printing. 2. Stiffer materials (high Young's modulus) are more accurate than the elastic materials. PLA (high stiffness) is more accurate than PETG or Nylon. This also depends on the 3d printing method. 3. Material with lower extrusion temperature are more accurate than materials with high extrusion temperature. PLA shrinks with 2-5% (depending on the manufacturer), while ABS ~8%. You can control this process even further by tuning the cooling fan. 4. Larger objects shrinks more than the smaller ones. It's better to cut your model into several attachable parts, printed individually, than to print it as a whole. 5. Enclosed system is more accurate than unenclosed one. The constant temperature in the enclosure will make the shrinkage more uniform in all the segments of the object, resulting on overall more accurate final product. The best practice is to start measuring your models. 1. When you're done with the model, reimport the stl again in the medical data program, used for segmentation, convert it into a label map and compare the geometry with the voxels of the source dataset. If you're using control points on the antropometric points (separate segmentation on the classical points of orientation in the human body, several voxels in size), every deviation will be visible and editable. If you're not, you'll have to compare it visually. 2. Use a professional CAD program (Fusion360, Solidworks) to measure the parts of the STL model. The digital simulations of those programs makes the quality control even better. 3. Use dicom viewer to measure the same distances in the DICOM dataset. 4. Use a caliper to measure the same distances on the 3d printed object. 5. 6-8 measurements per distance will be more than enough. 4-6 distances will be enough for a model. 6. Calculate average deviation at 90% confidence interval. 7. The resulting score will give you the accuracy of your model. 8. If you're not specifically targeting high accuracy or you're not a detail freak as myself, point 1 will be enough. You can check this guide, in which the issue is well explained. You can also check Form Lab's guide for dimensional accuracy, since you're regularly using Form2. For now, I can achieve without a problem 0,5 mm accuracy from CT scan to the 3D printed object (in some cases 0,2 mm), but I'm constantly fighting for every micron and I won't quit, until I achieve 0,2 mm on all of my models. I guess on some point I'll have to add a material science engineer to my research group. I'm also considering machine learning algorithm for quality control, but this is way over my head right now. To check how accurate are your models, you can use 3d printed tests. You can try the tolerance test and the all-in-one test. They work only for FDM, though.
  20. 1 point

    Temporal Bone Left

    Version STL


    This is a .stl file of a left temporal bone ready for 3d printing. I have segmented a CT scan paying attention to all the important bony structures of the ear. In the .stl screenshots you can see the mastoid, malleus, incus, the bony canal of the facial nerve, the stylomastoid foramen Etc. I do this for my training and the idea is to perform a mastoidectomy just in my desktop i have printed my personal 3d plaster model (you can see in the screenshots) but i haven't the courage to destroy it with the drill..... I hope that my work can be of help to anyone who wants to try to drill a faithful model of temporal bone at home or simply want to study the anatomy in a versatile 3d .stl Model Good Job Nicola Di Giuseppe M.D.


  21. 1 point


    This full-size skull with web-like texture was created from a real CT scan. The beautiful lace-like structure not only makes the piece aesthetically interesting and strong, but also reduces material cost when 3D printing. The file is in STL format. This is the full-size version. A half-size version is also available here. Please share your 3D printable creations in the File Vault as I have shared mine with you. Feel free to print this model for your own personal use but please do not use this file for commercial purposes.


  22. 1 point


    Half skull, full size, STL format This full size, half skull model shows detailed skull anatomy, including the cervical spine, skull base foramina, paranasal sinuses, and orbit. Perfect for teaching and as a discussion piece. Available for download in full and half size, STL and COLLADA formats. Please download and modify! Share your new creation by uploading to Embodi3D!


  23. 1 point

    Postprocessing 3D prints

    I was thinking the same, until I found the Silk PLA. It's a composite - 85% PLA, 15% Polyester and it's dirt cheap. The advantages are: 1. In contrast to the natural PLA, the Silk one doesn't warp or deform during the cooling (or at least the deformation is minimal). 2. It prints really well. You can make the impossible possible with this material. 3. It looks amazing. The layer lines are almost invisible, the silk finishing is appealing, the colors are vivid. 4. The supports falls easily. You just have to pull them and they are done. Tried this on a heart, brain and aorta models. You don't even need increased retraction for this. 5. The stringing is minimal. No more "hairs". 6. It's cheap. 7. Because of those characteristics, this is material of choice for models with accurate morphological measurements. I'm using mostly this material, when I want to have an accurate model. So, check the local store for this material and try it yourself. You can thank me latter. P.S. For best results, print it at 200C.
  24. 1 point


    This half-size skull with web-like texture was created from a real CT scan. The beautiful lace-like structure not only makes the piece aesthetically interesting and strong, but also reduces material cost when 3D printing. The file is in STL format. This is the half-size version. A full-size version is also available here. Please share your 3D printable creations in the File Vault as I have shared mine with you. Feel free to print this model for your own personal use but please do not use this file for commercial purposes.


  25. 1 point
    Hello, it's Dr. Mike here again with another tutorial on medical 3D printing. In this tutorial we are going to learn what types of medical imaging scans can be used for 3D printing. We will also explore the characteristics those scans must have to ensure a high quality 3D print. This is one of a series of 3D printing tutorials that will teach you how to create 3D printed anatomical and medical models yourself. Open source and commercial software are covered in the tutorials along with 3D printer selection and setup. This tutorial is followed by a tutorial on Creating 3D Printable Medical Models in 30 minutes using free software: Osirix, Blender, and MeshMixer. Introduction to Selecting a Medical Scan for 3D Printing If you listen to the hype in the press, it sounds like any medical imaging scan can be easily converted into a high quality 3D printed anatomic model, and any structure of interest can be shown clearly and beautifully. This is simply not true. In fact, most conventional medical imaging scans are not suitable for 3D printing. Those few that are suitable will probably only produce high-quality 3D prints of a few anatomic structures. In this tutorial I will go over the basic elements that make a medical scan suitable for 3D printing. I will briefly discuss different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, and ultrasound. By the end of this tutorial you should be able to recognize whether a medical scan is suitable for 3D printing. If you are planning on having a medical scan done with the intention of 3D printing from the scan, you will be able to protocol the scan appropriately to enable a high quality 3D print. Imaging planes I'd first like to take a moment to discuss the standard imaging planes used in medical scans. When a medical scan is performed, images of the body are usually captured and displayed in one of three standard imaging planes. These are the transverse plane (also called axial plane), the coronal plane, and the sagittal plane. Figure 1 demonstrates these planes. In layman's terms, the axial plane divides the body into top and bottom, the coronal plane front and back, and the sagittal plane right and left. CT and MRI scans are typically comprised of several series of images. Each series is comprised of a stack of images in the same plane spaced out evenly. When a medical scan is converted into a format suitable for 3D printing, such as an STL file, the computer takes this stack of images and extrapolates the volume of an object. A surface is then calculated around that volume. That surface is what becomes the 3D printed model. Figure 1: Standard imaging planes used in medical scans. Source: National Cancer Institute Imaging Modality: CT versus MRI versus ultrasound In order to understand what scans are best used for 3D printing, a very basic understanding of the types, or modalities, of medical scans is needed. The medical physics behind how these scans work can literally fill volumes. Radiology residents are required to take board examinations on the physics and engineering of medical scanners as part of their training. I will attempt to summarize only the most critical information about medical scans into a few short paragraphs to get you up and 3D printing as quickly as possible. Computed Tomography, or CT scans, are created when an x-ray beam is rotated around the patient. An x-ray detector on the opposite side of the emitter records the strength of the beam that emerges from the other side of the patient. Knowing the angle and position of the x-ray emitter and the strength of the beam emerging from the other side of the patient, a computer can calculate the x-ray appearance of the body in three dimensions. An x-ray beam is generally absorbed or deflected by electrons in matter. Since the density of electrons in matter is more or less the same as the actual physical density of matter, a CT scan can be considered to be a density map of the patient. Things that are dense, such as bone or metal, will appear white. Things that are not dense, such as air, appear black. Figure 2 shows how the different densities of tissue appear on a standard CT scan. When intravenous contrast is given, which contains an iodine-containing chemical that is very dense, it appears white. Fat is not very dense and floats on water, thus it has a blackish appearance. What else floats on water? Choices: bread, apples, very small rocks, cider, gravy, cherries, mud, churches, lead, a duck. (This is a joke. If you get the reference, please leave a comment and give yourself a star). Figure 2: Effect of tissue density on CT scan appearance. This CT scan image of the head at the eyes shows fat in the temporal fossa as black (red arrow), intermediate density brain tissue as gray (green arrow) and dense calcium-laden bone in the skull as white (blue arrow). Magnetic Residence Imaging, or MRI, is a type of imaging that uses very strong magnetic fields to generate an image. The hydrogen atoms that are part of almost all biological structures (water, fat, muscle, protein, etc.) align with the magnetic field. Radio waves can be sent into the scanner causing the hydrogen atoms to flip orientation. When the radio waves are turned off, the hydrogen atoms flip back and emit their own faint radio signal. Based on analysis of these faint radio emissions and by varying the magnetic field strength and timing of the radio wave pulses, a variety of images can be generated. These different pulse sequences can be used to highlight different types of tissue. Take Figure 3 for example. Four different pulse sequences are shown of the same slice of brain: T1, T2, FLAIR, and T1 with gadolinium contrast. On the T1 image tissues with fat are a bright white, as shown by the fat in the skin (white arrow). The hard, calcium-filled tissue of the skull is black, with the exception of a small amount of bone marrow which is gray in color and sandwiched between the inner and outer skull plate (yellow arrow). The watery cerebral spinal fluid in the lateral ventricles are black (red arrow). However, on the T2 image the watery cerebral spinal fluid is bright white (red arrow). T2 images show water very well. In addition to the water in the ventricles, swelling of the brain tissue due to an adjacent brain tumor can be seen as a white appearance (blue arrow). FLAIR images are similar to T2 images except pure water has been subtracted from the image. Thus tissue swelling (blue arrow) is still clearly visible but the cerebral spinal fluid in the ventricle (red arrow) now appears black. Finally, in the T1 images with gadolinium IV contrast small blood vessels are visible. Additionally, you can actually see the brain tumor and meninges turning white from contrast enhancement (purple arrows). Figure 3: MRI of the brain at the same level using four different pulse sequences. The patient has a left frontal lobe brain tumor. When 3D printing from an MRI scan, it is important to select images from a pulse sequence that will highlight the structure you wish to visualize. Arteries, tumors, body fluid, bones, and general tissue are all best seen on different sequences. If you choose the wrong imaging sequence to generate your 3D model from, you will encounter only frustration. Ultrasound images are generated when soundwaves are sent into the body by an ultrasound emitter. The waves then bounce off various structures and are detected by a receiver, typically built into the emitter. The concept is similar to sonar that is used on ships and submarines. Based on the strength and depth of the soundwave return, an image can be created. Ultrasound images can be used for 3D printing, however it is very difficult to do so because individual images are not registered in a fixed place in space. The images are acquired by sliding the ultrasound transducer on the skin. The exact location in space and angle of the transducer at the time of image acquisition is not known, which makes generation of a 3D volume difficult or impossible. In general, ultrasound is not recommended as a source of imaging data for 3D printing for the beginner. Key features of medical imaging scans used in 3D printing There are certain features common to all scan modalities that can help you to create a good 3D print. When considering making a 3D medical or anatomic model you must first decide what you want the model to show. Should it show bones, arteries, or organs? Having a model with unnecessary structures included not only makes it more difficult to manufacture, but it also diverts attention away from the important parts of the model. Give this careful thought. Once you have decided what you want to show, evaluate the medical scan you want to create your model from carefully. If the scan doesn't have the proper characteristics, you can exponentially increase the difficulty of getting a 3D printable model from it. 1. Presence of Intravenous contrast Take a look at these two axial (transverse) images from CT scans of the upper abdomen (Figure 4). Both images show slices of the upper abdomen at the level of the tops of the kidneys and liver. What is the difference between the two? You'll notice that on the rightmost scan the aorta is white, whereas on the left scan the aorta is gray. Figure 5 is a zoomed image of this region and shows this in more detail. This is because the rightmost scan was performed with intravenous contrast and that contrast is causing the aorta and other vessels to turn a bright white color. Figure 4: The effect of intravenous contrast. Figure 5: Close-up view of the abdominal aorta with (right) and without (left) intravenous contrast. Take a closer look at the kidneys. Figure 6 shows a zoomed-in image. The outer part of both kidneys on the contrast-enhanced scan on the right are a light shade of color. This is due to blood mixed with contrast going into the outer cortex of the kidney. With the contrast-enhanced scan you can clearly see the edge of the kidney, even where it touches the liver. On the noncontrast scan the border of the kidney is only discernible where it is adjacent to the darker colored fat. Where it touches the liver it is difficult to see where the kidney ends and the liver begins. If you want to make a print of the kidney, it will be very difficult to discern the edge of the kidney without IV contrast. Figure 6: Close-up view of the right kidney with (right) and without (left) intravenous contrast. If you are trying to create a 3D printed model of a bone, it is best to create it from a scan without IV contrast. This is because the bone is the only thing that will be a white color in the scan. This allows your software to easily separate the bones from other tissues. The presence of intravenous contrast may trick the software into thinking that blood vessels or organ tissue is actually bone, and it may improperly include these structures in the 3D printable surface model. These unwanted structures can be manually removed, but this can be an incredibly time-consuming and laborious exercise. It is best to avoid this problem in the first place. On the other hand, if you are trying to 3D print a blood vessel, tumor, or organ, then intravenous contrast is absolutely necessary. Vessels and tumors will light up, or enhance, with IV contrast, turning white on a CT scan. Which will make separation of these structures from background tissue more easy to perform. 2. Timing of intravenous contrast If you are creating a 3D printed model of a blood vessel, tumor, or organ, merely having intravenous contrast in your scan is not sufficient. You also must have the proper contrast timing. Contrast injected into a vein before a medical scan is not static. It is a very dynamic entity, and flows through the blood vessels and tissues of the body at different times before being excreted by the kidneys. Intravenous contrast is injected through an IV catheter, typically in the arm immediately before initiation of scanning. The contrast flows with the blood into the superior vena cava, the large vein in the chest, and then into the heart where it is then pumped into the pulmonary arteries. It is at this point, typically about 15 to 20 seconds, that is the best time to perform a scan to clearly visualize the pulmonary arteries. The contrast-filled blood then flows out of the lungs back to the heart where it is pumped into the aorta and its branches. This may be about 30 seconds after contrast injection, and is the best time to see the arteries. The contrast-filled blood then percolates into the capillaries of the tissues throughout the body. This is the point of maximal tissue enhancement, and is usually the best time to see tumors and organs. The blood then leaves the tissues and drains back into the veins, which is the best time to look at the veins. Finally, after about five minutes or so, the contrast begins to be excreted by the kidneys into the urine, and can be seen within the collecting system of the kidneys, the ureters, and the bladder. Take a look at Figure 7. When the scan was performed in the arterial phase (left) you can clearly see the aorta, arteries of the intestine, and outer rim (cortex) of the kidneys have turned white with contrast-enhanced blood (green arrows). After about five minutes the scan was repeated (right), and on these delayed phase images only a small amount of contrast is left within the aorta and blood vessels. However, contrast can be seen concentrated within the central portions of the kidney (red arrow). This is urine mixed with contrast collecting in the renal pelvis and ureter. Figure 7: Transverse (axial) images from a contrast-enhanced CT scan from a patient with intravenous contrast in the arterial (left) phase and delayed urographic (right) phase. The point I'm trying to make here is that merely having intravenous contrast is not good enough. When the scan was taken relative to the contrast injection, in other words the timing of the contrast, is critically important to visualizing the target structure. 3. Oral contrast In addition to intravenous contrast it is very common for oral contrast to be given prior to CT scans of the abdomen or pelvis. This is that nasty stuff that you are asked to drink about two hours before your scan. Oral contrast is designed to stay within the intestines so they can be clearly seen and evaluated. Take a look at Figure 8. In this CT scan of the abdomen intravenous contrast has clearly been given as the right kidney is white and enhancing (red arrows). Oral contrast has also been given, as several loops of small intestine can be seen filled with a substance that appears white on the CT scan (green arrows). Unless you are trying to 3D print the intestines, for the most part oral contrast is something you do not want in your source imaging scans. If you are trying to separate out bones, organs, or blood vessels for printing, the presence of oral contrast will increase the likelihood that intestines will be accidentally included in your 3D printable model. Figure 8: The effects of oral contrast on a CT scan of the abdomen. 4. Slice thickness Take a look at these two CT scans of the chest (Figure 9). What is the difference between them? Both of them have IV contrast and both of them are showing the heart. Obviously, the scan on the right is of higher quality than that on the left, but why? The reason has to do with the thickness of the image slices. When CT scans are performed they are reconstructed into slices in the axial (transverse) plane. The axial plane is the plane that is parallel to the ground if you are standing upright. When the axial slices are stacked on top of each other the data can be used to create images in a different plane, such as when viewed from the front (the coronal plane), as in these example images. The axial slices that were used to create the coronal image on the left were 5 mm thick, whereas the axial slices used to create the image on the right were only 1 mm thick. You can see that the thick slices in the leftmost image generate structures with a very coarse appearance. If you try to 3D print an anatomic model from a scan with thick slices, your model will have a similar rough appearance. It is very important to use scans with thin slices, preferably less than 1.25 mm in thickness, when creating a model for 3D printing. Figure 9: The effect of slice thickness on three-dimensional reconstructions. 5. Imaging artifact Finally, take a look at these two CT scans of the face (Figure 10). What is the difference between them? The scan on the left clearly shows the teeth of the upper jaw as well as the bones of the upper cervical spine. The scan on the right however has white and black lines crisscrossing the mouth and obscuring the teeth. This type of artifact, called a beam hardening artifact, was created by metallic fillings in the teeth. When the CT scan was performed, the x-ray beam could not penetrate the metal fillings in the teeth to reach the detector. Subsequently, the scanner has no information about the x-ray appearance of the tissues along that x-ray path. When it generates an image from the x-ray data, the x-ray path with the missing information is shown as a white or a black line. The same phenomenon can be seen with any metallic object within the body, such as an artificial hip or spine fixation rods. If the scan on the right were converted to an STL file for 3D printing, the white lines would be 3D printed as well and the print would look as if sharp spikes were coming out of the mouth. Metallic objects also cause imaging artifact in MRIs. Metal on MRIs typically looks like a big black blob that obscures everything around it. Figure 10: Two CT scans through the face and jaw. What is the difference between the two? 6. Reconstruction kernel Take a closer look at the two CT scans of the face (Figure 10). In particular, look closely at the muscle and fat tissue of the neck. The scan on the left shows the muscle and fat tissue as being somewhat noisy. It has a granular type of appearance. On the rightmost scan however, the muscle and fat tissues appear rather smooth. This is because the two scans use a different type of reconstruction kernel. Think of the reconstruction kernel as equivalent to a sharpening or blurring function in Photoshop. The sharper kernel on the left shows the edges of the bones very clearly at the expense of causing a speckled appearance of the muscles and fat. The softer kernel on the right shows the muscle and fat more accurately, at the expense of causing the bones to have a more indistinct edge. Sharp kernels are used to make it easier to find hairline fractures and other difficult to detect abnormalities in the bones. However, for 3D printing smoother reconstruction kernels are generally best. Reconstruction kernel is primarily a factor only in CT scans. Figure 11: Zoomed image from Figure 10 of the angle of the jaw. Note how the sharp kernel has much more clearly defined bone edges, but also has a speckled, noisy appearance to the soft tissues. Final thoughts So there you have it. In this tutorial we have gone over the main types of imaging modalities used for 3D printing (CT, and MRI), as well as six very important factors to consider with any type of imaging scan you are thinking about using for 3D printing. There is a saying when it comes to medical 3D printing: "garbage in, garbage out." No matter what your skill level or amount of available free time, if you start the 3D printing process with a problem-laden medical scan, you will encounter nothing but frustration and probably end up with a bad 3D model assuming you can make the model at all. Do yourself a favor and carefully evaluate your medical scan prior to sinking the time and energy into creating a 3D model from it. I hope you enjoyed this tutorial and found it helpful. If you liked this article please look see my next to tutorial on Creating a 3D Printable Medical Model in 30 Minutes Using Free Software: Osirix, Blender, and MeshMixer. Additionally, you may wish to check out the Tutorials section of the website. Also consider registering as a member. Registration is free and allows you to post questions and comments both for blog articles and in the discussion forums. Additionally, you can download free 3D printable models from the file library. Below are a few 3D models to download. If you wish to follow the latest medical 3D printing news, you can follow Embodi3D on various social media platforms. Thank you very much and happy 3D printing! Twitter: https://twitter.com/Embodi3D Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/embodi3d LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/embodi3d YouTube: http://goo.gl/O7oZ2q A Collection of Free Downloadable STL Skulls for you to 3D print yourself. 3D printable human heart in stackable slices, shows amazing internal anatomy. A Collection of Spine STL files to download and 3D print.
  26. 1 point

    knee 1

    Version 1.0.0


    nrrd to stl group 36 expo tibial plateau, 3d, femur, model, .stl, lower, limb, Femur, Patella, Lateral femoral epicondyle, Medial femoral epicondyle, Lateral femoral condyle, Medial femoral condyle, Lateral tibial condyle, Medial tibial condyle, Medial and lateral tubercles of the intercondylar eminence, Fibular head, Tibia, Fibula, bone, ct, scan, without, contrast, muscle, quadriceps, semimembranosus,


  27. 1 point


    This half-size half-skull model shows detailed skull anatomy, including the cervical spine, skull base foramina, paranasal sinuses, and orbit. Perfect for teaching and as a discussion piece. Available for download in full and half size, STL and COLLADA formats. Please download and modify! Share your new creation by uploading to Embodi3D!


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