There are four STL files for 3D printing demonstrating a moderate secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) and a mild coarctation. An atrial septal defect is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers of the heart (atria). A hole can vary in size and may close on its own or may require surgery. If one of these openings does not close, a hole is left, and it is called an atrial septal defect. The hole increases the amount of blood that flows through the lungs and over time, it may cause damage to the blood vessels in the lungs. Damage to the blood vessels in the lungs may cause problems in adulthood, such as high blood pressure in the lungs and heart failure. Other problems may include abnormal heartbeat, and increased risk of stroke.
MRI obtained for evaluation of distal arch and pulmonary veins due to findings of pulmonary overcirculation out of proportion to typical ASD pathophysiology.
The MRI provided a complete anatomic overview and quantified the right sided enlargement from the 2:1 shunt through the ASD. Due to saturation band nulling of blood returning through the right sided pulmonary veins, there was excellent definition of the ASD due to the "dark" blood mixing with the "bright" blood and outlining the borders of the ASD which transfers to the model very well. Please keep in mind, that the model represents a heart in end-systole rather than diastole.
The available model has been validated to demonstrate the case’s pathologic features on a Z450 3D printer, (3DSystems, Circle Rock Hill, South Carolina)(or other printer as appropriate). While the mask applied to the original DICOM images accurately represents the anatomic features, some anatomic detail may be lost due to thin walled structures or inadequate supporting architecture; while other anatomic detail may be added due to similar limitations resulting in bleeding of modeling materials into small negative spaces. However, intracardiac structures, relationships, and pathologic features represent anatomic findings to scale and in high detail.
The model is provided for distribution on Embodi3D with the permission of the author, pediatric cardiologist Dr. Matthew Bramlet, MD, and is part of the Congenital Heart Defects library. We thank Dr. Bramlet and all others who are working to help children with congenital heart problems lead normal and happy lives.
It is distributed by Dr. Bramlet under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.