Chronic kidney disease is the progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. It is estimated that chronic kidney disease affects five to ten percent of world population. Chronic kidney disease is also known as chronic renal disease and affects about 26 million American adults and millions of others are at increased risk. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include diabetes and high blood pressure.
As kidney disease gets worse, wastes build to high levels in blood and make people feel sick. They may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases the risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse.Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best test to measure kidney function and GFR is used to determine the stage of kidney disease.
These kidney models are provided for distribution on embodi3D.com with the permission of the creators Dr. Beth Ripley and Dr. Tatiana. These models are part of the Top 10 Killers 3D printable disease library. James Weaver and Ahmed Hosny also contributed to the project. We thank everyone involved for their contributions to embodi3d.com and their advocacy for better health and education through 3D printing.
There are several kidney STL files to download. One set of files is for bioprinting a normal kidney. The other set of files is for 3D printing a model representing chronic kidney disease including files for abnormal ureters and cortex. The files have been zipped to save space and speed up downloads. These files are distributed under the Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs. Please respect the terms of the licensing agreement.