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  • Welcome to embodi3D Downloads! This is the largest and fastest growing library of 3D printable medical models generated from real medical scans on the Internet. A unique scientific resource, most of the material is free. Registered members can download, upload, and sell models. To convert your own medical scans to a 3D model, take a look at democratiz3D, our free and automated conversion service.

Skin

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3D printable files of skin of the human body

338 files

  1. Free

    Human hand - stl file processed

    Human hand - stl file processed
    3dmodel, stl, finger, wrist, skin

    77 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  2. Free

    Tutorial head and neck - processed

    3D printable head STL created from a CT scan. This model was created as part of this tutorial on created skin 3D printable models from medical CT scans.

    44 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  3. Free

    Hand - stl file processed

    Hand - stl file processed

    Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans.
     
    middle, finger, thumb, ring, pinky, index, wirst, palmar, dorsal, .stl, 3d, model, printable, skin, upper, limb

    23 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  4. Free

    Hand BST 3 skin - stl file processed

    Hand BST 3 skin - stl file processed

    Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans.
     
     index, middle, ring little finger, thumb, skin, wrist, upper, limb, .stl, printable, 3d, 

    22 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  5. Free

    Right knee - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.

    The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation.   The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_051   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    21 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  6. Free

    right-pelvis-2 - stl file processed

    right-pelvis-2 - stl file processed
     
    3d model, stl, gluteus, pelvis, hip, vagina, genitalia, skin, tigh, femur, lumbar, spine, sacrum

    This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.

    16 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  7. Free

    plastic hand - stl file processed

    plastic hand - stl file processed

    This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.
     
    skin, 3d, model, printable, plastic, hand, reconstruction, volume, .stl, fingers, nails, carpal, metacarpal, phalanx, proximal, media, distal, thenar, hypothernar, thumb, index, middle, pointer, ring, pinky, right, upper, limb

    16 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  8. Free

    Left knee - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    The knee joint is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.

    The knee joint articulations are two condylar joints between the femur and the tibia as well as a joint between the patella and the femur. Although the fibula is closely related to the knee joint but it doesn't share in articulation.   The knee joint is also formed by some ligaments and cartilage called (menisci) which are best imaged by MRI.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_051   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    16 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  9. Free

    Left foot - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    The foot is a highly developed, biomechanically complex structure that serves to bear the weight of the body.
      The foot can be divided into 3 parts: the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot. The hindfoot is composed of 2 of the 7 tarsal bones, the talus, and the calcaneus; the midfoot contains the rest of the tarsal bones; and the forefoot contains the metatarsals and the phalanges.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_039   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    14 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  10. Free

    female phantom meditism - stl file processed

    female phantom meditism - stl file processed, chest, female, breast, skin, thorax, abdomen

    12 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  11. Free

    Normal Left Foot and Ankle Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This is the normal right foot and ankle skin model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon, as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy, may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible on the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_014.
     

    12 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  12. Free

    Right Leg Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This model is the right leg skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Landmarks of the lower extremity consist of bony and muscular landmarks.  Proximally, the extensor mechanism consists of the quadriceps tendon, patella, and the tibial tuberosity, which is located on the anterior proximal tibia, where the patellar tendon attaches.  On the anteromedial surface of the tibia is Gerdy's tubercle, where the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus attach. Laterally, the head of the fibula may be palpated, which is the attachment for the posterolateral corner structures of the knee joint. The peroneal nerve wraps around the fibular neck, and a tinel’s sign may be elicited due to its superficial position at this location.
     
    Distally, the anterior ankle joint may be palpated. Pain with palpation may be indicative of osteoarthritis if general or an osteochondral defect if localized. The medial and lateral malleoli are located on either side of the tibiotalar joint, respectively and are the site of common ankle fractures. Posteriorly, the Achilles tendon inserts on the calcaneus.  A defect along this tendon may be a sign of a tendon rupture. The superficial peroneal nerve can possibly be isolated on the lateral aspect of the dorsal foot with full plantarflexion of the fourth ray.
     
    Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible at the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_022.

    12 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  13. Free

    Whole Body - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    Whole body: chest, abdomen and pelvis
     
    The chest wall (thoracic cage) is composed by twelve pairs of ribs laterally and the sternum anteriorly. The ribs are attached to the dorsal vertebrae (thoracic spine) posteriorly and along their costal cartilage to the sternum.
    The thoracic cage main function is to protect the vital chest organs such as the heart and lungs.

    The cervical spine is the upper most spines forming the spinal column, extending from the skull base to the level of the thoracic vertebra (the spines with attached ribs). The cervical spines are usually seven and the main function is to support the skull and to protect the spinal cord.
     
    The dorsal (thoracic) spine forms the middle portion of the vertebral column extending below the seventh cervical vertebra to above the first lumbar vertebra. The dorsal spine is formed by twelve vertebral bodies.
    The vertebrae forming the dorsal spine are unique in shape as they are the only vertebral bodies articulating with ribs.
     
    The lumbar spine represents the mid-lower segment of the vertebral column and is composed of five adjacent vertebrae. They are convex anteriorly to form a lumbar lordosis. The lumbar spine facet joints allows limited movements and rotation.
     
    The bony pelvis is formed by 4 bones; a pair of hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bony pelvis supports the pelvic viscera and works to transmit force from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs.
    The two hip bones are related anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacroiliac joints bilaterally.
     
    This 3D model was created from the file STS_040
     
    The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    12 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  14. Free

    Normal Right Foot and Ankle Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This model is the right foot and ankle skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient unfortunately died 9.5 months after diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible at the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_023.

    12 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  15. Free

    Right Knee Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This model is the right knee skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient is still living with the metastatic disease at 2.5 years since diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Landmarks of the lower extremity consist of bony and muscular landmarks. Prior to incision, the bone landmarks should be palpated and drawn. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone (bone located within a tendon) and is located on the anterior aspect of the knee.  Along with the femur, it forms the patellofemoral joint, providing a mechanical advantage to leg extension. The quadriceps tendon inserts proximally and the patellar tendon inserts distally.  The patellar tendon attaches to the tibial tubercle on the anterior aspect of the tibia. On the anteromedial surface of the tibia is Gerdy's tubercle, where the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus attach. Laterally, the head of the fibula may be palpated, which is the attachment for the posterolateral corner structures of the knee joint. The peroneal nerve wraps around the fibular neck, and a tinel’s sign may be elicited due to its superficial position at this location.
     
    The knee joint can be palpated and must be accurately located in order to provide landmarks for surgeries such as arthroscopy and arthroplasty. Typically, pain with palpation of the joint line is indicative of knee pathologies such as osteoarthritis or a meniscal tear, with point tenderness at the area of the tear. Proper landmarks are essential for the success of procedures about the knee, and therefore the skin should be adequately evaluated prior to any procedure.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_022.

    11 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  16. Free

    Normal Left Foot and Ankle Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This model is the left foot and ankle skin rendering of a 65-year-old male with left thigh myxoid fibrosarcoma. At the time of diagnosis, the patient had metastases to his lungs. The patient therefore underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and was found to have an intermediate grade lesion at the time of diagnosis. The patient unfortunately died 9.5 months after diagnosis. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible at the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_023.

    11 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  17. Free

    DentalModel - stl file processed

    DentalModel - stl file processed

    Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans.
     
    head, face, maxillofacial, .stl, 3d, model, orbit, eyelid, nasal, lip, upper, ear, lobes, printable, nose, lips, angle, ramus, mandible, maxilla,

    10 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  18. Free

    Nasopharynx Model (Skin) - stl file processed

    Nasopharynx Model (Skin) - stl file processed

    This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.
     
    3D, model, .stl, skin, .stl, orbit, eye, nose, lips, head, skull, neck, temporal, frontal, parietal, maxilla, mandible, 3d, model, skin, ear, external auditory conduct,

    10 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  19. Free

    Normal Right Foot and Ankle Skin Model 3D Printable STL File Converted from CT Scan

    This is the normal right foot and ankle skin model of a 56-year-old male with right anterior thigh pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. This is an STL file created from DICOM images of his CT scan which may be used for 3D printing.
     
    Topographical landmarks of the foot and ankle consist of muscular, tendinous, and bony structures. Proximally, the superficial muscles of the anterior (tibialis anterior), lateral (peroneals) and posterior (gastrocnemius) compartments may be palpated. Anteriorly, the tibialis anterior tendon crosses the ankle joint and is used as a landmark for ankle joint injections and aspirations, where the practitioner will place the needle just lateral to the tendon. Posteriorly, the gastrocnemius and soleus converge to form the Achilles tendon. Ruptures of the tendon, as well as tendinous changes due to Achilles tendinopathy, may be palpated. At the level of the ankle joint, the joint line, medial malleolus (distal tibia) and lateral malleolus (distal fibula) may be palpated. The extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus tendons are visible on the surface of the dorsal foot. The extensor digitorum brevis muscle belly is seen on the dorsum of the lateral foot. On the plantar foot, the plantar fascia may be palpated. Nodules associated with plantar fascial fibromatosis may be palpated here. Plantar fasciitis is also diagnosed when pain is associated with palpation of the insertion of the plantar fascia on the medial heel. Other common pathologies on the plantar foot are ulcerations associated with diabetic neuropathy and other neuropathic conditions.
     
    This model was created from the file STS_014.

    9 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  20. Free

    Pelvis and Hip - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    The bony pelvis is formed by 4 bones; a pair of hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bony pelvis supports the pelvic viscera and works to transmit force from the axial skeleton to the lower limbs.

    The two hip bones are related anteriorly by the symphysis pubis and posteriorly to the sacroiliac joints bilaterally.   The hip joint is a large synovial socket and ball joint which is formed by the femoral head (the ball) and the acetabulum (the socket). The acetabulum is formed by pelvic bones; the ilium, the ischium and the pubis.   The hip joint represents the articulation between the lower extremity and the axial skeleton and allows a high degree of mobility while being stable.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_040   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    9 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  21. Free

    Test_Head - stl file processed

    Test_Head - stl file processed

    Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. Learn More. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans. Learn more.
     
    brachycephaly, skin, head, face, orbit, eye, nose, lips, 3d, model, .stl, printable, ear, children, cervical, spine, temporal, parietal, occipital, 

    8 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  22. Free

    Right foot - Skin model STL file from converted CT scan

    The foot is a highly developed, biomechanically complex structure that serves to bear the weight of the body.   The foot can be divided into 3 parts: the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot. The hindfoot is composed of 2 of the 7 tarsal bones, the talus, and the calcaneus; the midfoot contains the rest of the tarsal bones; and the forefoot contains the metatarsals and the phalanges.   This 3D model was created from the file STS_039   The original CT examination can be reviewed at: The 3D bone model created from this scan can be reviewed at: The 3D muscle model created from this scan can be reviewed at: 

    8 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  23. Free

    OSEO ROSTRO MIA - stl file processed

    OSEO ROSTRO MIA - stl file processed
    baby face, skin, stl, lips, eye, ear, 3dmodel

    8 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  24. Free

    Mr brain tumor - stl file processed

    Mr brain tumor - stl file processed, head, skull,  skin, 3d model, stl, printable, tumor, brain, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, orbit, eye, ear, nose, face, skin

    8 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

  25. Free

    ultra pet ct - bone model - stl file processed

    ultra pet ct - bone model - stl file processed

    Have embodi3D 3D print this model for you. This file was created with democratiz3D. Automatically create 3D printable models from CT scans.
     
    whole, body, .stl, printable, head, face, mandible, maxilla, frontal, temporal, neck, dorsal, spine, abdomen, thorax, chest, gluteus, lower, limb, knee, ankle, 

    8 downloads

       (0 reviews)

    0 comments

    Updated

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  • File Reviews

  • File Comments

    • For this particular model, I used support on the build plate only and few small support enforcers for the overhanged parts of the big vessels. I also added a "box" support enforcer from the base to the level of the valves, because with support on the build plate only there is a small part of the aortic valve, which doesn't print well. With those settings, the entire athriums will be clean and the vessels will be steady. It requires to play a bit with the settings, but at the end the control over
    • Hi @valchanov and thank you! I was actually wondering where exactly you put the blockers... well I'm almost done my first print of this, and I just enabled support everywhere (but from bed only) so we'll see how it looks... I'm using MK3S and PrusaSlicer too.
    • On every slicer there is a "support blocker" function - you can add a simple object and in the volume of it the support won't be generated. On Cura it was bugged the last time I checked, but on Slicer it works great. Or you can select "support on build plate only" and then to add few "support enforcers" on the big vessels, which is the more elegant solution. Anyway, at the end the big vessels and the ventricles will be a hollow shell. 
    • Any tips on how you did the support blocking areas?
  • Recent Forum Posts

    • Hello everyone. Newbie here. I am curious if anyone has created 3D models that are used as ultrasound phantoms for teaching purposes. I would like to create models of limbs, torsos, etc... that can simulate muscle, subcutaneous tissue, nerves, vessels, where I can teach MSK and regional nerve block ultrasound. It seems clear that I can use PLA or PETG to simulate bone very easily, but I was wondering if anyone has used TPU (or other filament) and whether sound waves penetrate TPU. Thanks
    • Yes definitely! I would definitely like to see it applied more to unidentified remains.
    • Do any of you print 3d models to sell?  This is a good article to keep in mind.     ====   If you’re running a 3D printing service, or a product development company where you’re quoting customers on digital fabrication services, there’s a good chance that you’re pricing wrong. Here’s how I know.   In the last five years, I’ve spoken to hundreds of 3D printing/Additive Manufacturing business owners about how they price their services and a vast majority of them undersell their services. The three primary reasons are either a combination or one of the following: They don’t take into account all of the ancillary components that go into running a business. They charge purely based on the volume of the CAD model not taking into account exponential price increases or decreases. Taking their slicer output of time to print and material usage too literal without physically measuring those parameters and taking into account #1 above.   Based on those hundreds of hours of conversation combined with years of industry experience, I’ve developed a holistic methodology on how to price for 3D printed parts and projects that accounts for all aspects of the business (human/machine time, machine depreciation, software, facility cost) the size of the job, and the unique attributes of the parts. I’ll share that methodology with you today, but first, a little more context on how I got here.   Mike Moceri, the founder and CEO of MakerOS.   Back in 2013, while I was running a 3D printing service bureau, my team and I received an order from a Fortune 500 company to print them approximately 15,000 individual parts for a toy line. At the time, we were charging a little less than $1 per cubic centimeter printing in PLA and Nylon PA12, and that’s how we ended up pricing them for the job.    The project ended up being a very challenging one (that’s a whole different story that you should ask me about at some point) and after some time gaining more experience over the years, I realized that, considering how immensely large the job was, we should have priced about 70% more than what we originally quoted.    There’s a lot we didn’t factor for: the manual time it takes to prep, slice, validate, think through how to plate up and pull off parts; the software costs to execute all of those tasks; how long it actually took to print parts accounting for machine depreciation. It was quite a learning experience – in fact, it ultimately changed my life because I decided to do something about it, and I’m still doing it today.   View the full article
    • I remember seeing 3D printed skulls from CT scans many years ago at JPAC, the Joint POW MIA Accounting command based at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. It was a pretty cool idea to study the 3D printed models so that the original remains could be buried, thus giving families closure, etc. I think there is great potential in anthropology for this type of technology.
    • Not all the algorithms are based on different threshold values. I don't mean to get super-technical, but I am a somewhat skilled programmer for a very limited number of things. It's a super-simple algorithm to simply put a threshold on HU. There are a bunch of other approaches algorithmically. You can also threshold based on texture analyses even in 3D slicer. I could go on here for ten paragraphs, but trust me there are a lot. AI based segmentation that is pretty accurate is available for some things...but the ones I have seen were custom built by companies for a particular entity looking to segment something specific e.g. just segment out the lungs into bronchopulmonary segments.
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