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3D printing, Ultrastructure of the Glomerular Filtration Barrier and the Nephrotic Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality, this condition is caused by a failure of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) leading to massive proteinuria. In clinical practice, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic decisions are based primarily on NS own clinical and histological patterns of each case. The background above underscore the need for a proper understanding of normal and pathological structure GFB. In contrast there are major constraints for obtaining human samples intended for academic teaching today. In this sense, printing three-dimensional (3D) offers the opportunity to solve this deficiency, allowing manufacture teaching materials with the required characteristics and a high degree of detail, at a low cost.
In this work, we have developed two 3D printed models of the GFB ultrastructure, a normal and an altered one by nephrotic syndrome. We hope this tool will improve teaching-learning on one of the most common syndromes in clinical nephrology and allow to subsane the lack of teaching materials.
The work has been divided into three stages: First one consisted in the production of two figures, based on the representations of human GFB, both normal and pathological according to what is described in the literature*. During second stage the 3D modeling was performed in this structure, using "Tinkercad ©" software, obtaining an ".stl" file. Finally, we proceeded to print the two parts, using a 3D printer: "KREABOT".
Perico, L., Conti, S., Benigni, A., & Remuzzi, G. (2016). Podocyte-actin dynamics in health and disease. Nature Reviews Nephrology.
Satchell, S. (2013). The role of the glomerular endothelium in albumin handling. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 9(12), 717-725.
G. Bartolozzi. I MECCANISMI DELLA PROTEINURIA (PARTE PRIMA). Medico e Bambino pagine elettroniche 2006; 9(5) http://www.medicoebambino.com/_fenestrato_diaframma_nefrina_glomerulare_proteinuria_proteine_sindrome
These 3d files were presented at the XIX National Scientific Meeting of Students of Medical Sciences, USACh 2016 and X Fair of educational material, as a presentation of congress.
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By valchanovAfter one week of practicing with dr. Mike's tutorials, I was able to create 3D model of pyramidal neuron from 10gb CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) Tiff slide. I almost burned my video card, but in the end I done it
First I used Fiji to convert .tiff slide to binary (Process/Binary/Make Binary). Then I used Dilate function to reduce the size (Process/Binary/Dilate) and I cropped one of the most promising neurons (Image/Crop). I saved my stack as a .tiff and I used 3D Slicer to create volume (Volume Rendering), to convert it to label map and to export it as .stl. Finally I used Meshmixer to remove the artifacts, to decrease my triangle budget and to add a mild smooth effect. The result is here. I hope my experience will help you in your future projects. I'll create video tutorial as soon as I can.
By printhumanA simple representation of the body for animation and 3D projects.