In this week's blog entry, we'd like to share the top ten of the best medical 3D printing models downloaded this month, as well as a few detailed examples that garnered the attention of embodi3D® users over the past month. 3D printing is already being used to develop a broad range of medical devices with clinically effective results. The medical fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery and the musculoskeletal system are leading the way in validating the efficacy and effectiveness of 3D-printed devices and have found that 3D-printed anatomical models and surgical guides are reducing operating times and increasing surgical accuracy. 1
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1. 3D print of a cervical disk for segmented cervical spine
This excellent 3d model uploaded by fbonel shows a cervical disk of the spine. The intervertebral disc is composed of three parts: The cartilaginous endplate, the anulus fibrosis, and the nucleus pulposus. The height of the lumbar disc space generally increases as one progresses caudally. The anulus consists of concentrically oriented collagenous fibers which serve to contain the central nucleus pulposus. These fibers insert into the vertebral cortex via Sharpey fibers and also attach to the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. Type I collagen predominates at periphery of anulus, while type II collagen predominates in the inner anulus. The normal contour of the posterior aspect of the anulus is dependent upon the contour of its adjacent endplate. Typically, this is slightly concave in the axial plane; although, commonly at L4-L5 and L5-S1 these posterior margins will be flat or even convex. A convex shape on the axial images alone should not be interpreted as degenerative bulging.
The nucleus pulposus is a remnant of the embryonal notochord and consists of a well-hydrated, noncompressible proteoglycan matrix with scattered chondrocytes. Proteoglycans form a major macromolecular component, including chondroitin 6-sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. Proteoglycans consist of protein core with multiple attached glycosaminoglycan chains. The nucleus occupies an eccentric position within the confines of anulus and is more dorsal with respect to the center of the vertebral body. At birth, approximately 85-90% of the nucleus is water. This water content gradually decreases with advancing age. Within the nucleus pulposus on T2-weighted sagittal images, there is often a linear hypointensity coursing in an anteroposterior direction, the intranuclear cleft. This region of more prominent fibrous tissue should not be interpreted as intradiscal air or calcification. 2
2. STL file of a human heart
This 3D model from a STL file of a human heart shows with exquisite detail the vascular anatomy of this important organ. Cardiac 3D printed patient-specific models can be created for a number of different applications, including: creation of anatomic teaching tools, development of functional models to investigate intracardiac flow; creation of deformable blended material models for complex procedural planning, and increasingly, patient-specific models are being deployed to assist efforts to create or refine intra-cardiac devices. 3
3. Coronarygraphy showing the tipical configuration of the vascular anatomy
The typical configuration consists of two coronary arteries, a left coronary artery (LMCA) and a right coronary artery (RCA), arising from the left and right aortic or coronary sinuses respectively, in the proximal ascending aorta. These are the only two branches of the ascending aorta.
The right coronary artery courses in the right atrioventricular groove to the inferior surface of the heart, whereupon it turns anteriorly at the crux as the posterior descending artery (PDA) in right dominant circulation.
The left coronary artery has a short common stem (and is hence often referred to as the left main coronary artery), that bifurcates into the left circumflex artery (LCx), which courses over the left atrioventricular groove, and the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which passes towards the apex in the anterior interventricular groove. Occasionally there is a trifurcation (in ~15%), with the third branch, the ramus intermedius, arising in between the LAD and LCx. In left dominant hearts, the LCx supplies the posterior descending artery (PDA).
- left coronary arteryleft anterior descending artery (LAD)
- diagonal branches (D1, D2, etc)
- septal perforators (S1, D2, etc)
- circumflex artery (LCx) / ramus circumflex
- obtuse marginal branches (OM1, OM2, etc)
- ramus intermedius artery (RI)
- right coronary artery (RCA)
- conus artery
- SA nodal artery
- sinotubular artery
- acute marginal branches (A1 or AM1, A2 or AM2, etc)
- inferior interventricular artery (PDA)
4. A 3D model printing of legs from a CT
This 3d model with educational purposes shows the bones of the pelvis and lower limb.
5. A lumbar spine 3d model from a CT
6. A CT Scan Illustrating the head and neck normal anatomy
7. A 3D model of the skull and maxilla from a STL file
Micrive upload this 3d model of the skull and maxilla with exquisite detail.
8. A dog´s CT scan
Hanus uploaded this excellent dog´s ct scan .
9. A forearm and wrist´s CT scan
This awesome ct scan shows in good detail the bony anatomy of the upper extremity.
10. A jaw deformity´s 3D model from a STL file
This excellent 3d model shows a jaw deformity. The last iteration of ICD-CM, version 10, sorts jaw deformities according to geometry, into 3 groups: anomalies of jaw size, anomalies of jaw-cranial base relationship, or unspecified. Yet these deformities can affect 6 different geometric attributes: size, position, orientation, shape, symmetry, and completeness. 4
1. Diment, L. E., Thompson, M. S., & Bergmann, J. H. (2017). Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 3D printing: a systematic review. BMJ open, 7(12), e016891.
2. Ross, J. S., Moore, K. R., Bryson Borg, M. D., Julia Crim, M. D., & Shah, L. M. (2010). Diagnostic imaging: spine: published by Amirsys®. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
3. Vukicevic, M., Mosadegh, B., Min, J. K., & Little, S. H. (2017). Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 10(2), 171-184.
4. Gateno, J., Alfi, D., Xia, J. J., & Teichgraeber, J. F. (2015). A Geometric Classification of Jaw Deformities. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 73(12), S26-S31.