Top 10 Free Downloadable CT Angiogram (CTA) 3D Printable Models on embodi3D.®
For several years now, surgeons, radiologists, and others in the medical profession have used 3D-printed vascular simulation models from CT angiograms (CTAs) to practice complex procedures, as well as for research and educational purposes. The growth has been fueled by the development of high resolution imaging studies merging with the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, and the development of new printing materials. These advances have resulted in reductions in the costs associated with creating high resolution medical models. As noted in the journal RadioGraphics (Radiological Society of North America), CT angiogram-derived 3D-printed models are quickly being embraced by those in the medical field. The evolution of this disruptive technology is expected to revolutionize medical practices over the years to come. And, tools such as democratiz3D® are making it easy for medical professionals to create ultra-resolution 3D models.
A human skull and collarbone, created by a CT Angiogram.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are focal dilatations of the abdominal aorta that are 50% greater than the proximal normal segment or >3 cm in maximum diameter. The prevalence of AAAs increases with age. Males are much more commonly affected than females, with a ratio of 4:1. They are the tenth most common cause of death in the Western world. Approximately 10% of individuals older than 65 have an AAA.
This week we would like to share the best 3d models of a CT angiogram (CTA). Don’t forget to register in order to download the images, you can do it clicking here: https://www.embodi3d.com/register/
1. CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA)
An excellent 3D model an abdominal CTA of Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (AAA) showing the location infrarrenal.
When issuing an MRI or CT report on a patient with an aortic aneurysm, whether it be thoracic or abdominal, a number of features should be mentioned to aid the referring clinician in managing the patient. Reporting tips for aortic aneurysms include :
- size and shape
- sac dimensions (outer surface to outer surface)
- luminal diameter if mural thrombus is present
- fusiform or saccular
- size of vessel proximal and distal to aneurysm
- characteristics of wall
- mural calcification
- presence of mural thrombus
- location and relationship to involved branches/structurerenal arteries
- involvement of the origins of the renal arteries
- presence of accessory renal arteries and where they arise splanchnic arteries great vessels from the arch characterisation of possible aetiology
- true or false
- possibility of mycotic aetiology
- complications: leak, rupture, proximity to bowel, aortocaval fistula, other relevant vesselsthoracic aortic aneurysms
- the size and dominance of vertebral arteries should be included if the aneurysm is close to the left subclavian artery
presence of carotid disease is important, as significant stenosis may predispose the patient to strokes during any period of reduced flow/hypotension
2. Model of Abdominal Vessels Ready for 3D Printing
A 3D model of the abdominal vessels with detail. In addition to great vessel pathology, 3D printing has also been used in the treatment of other visceral vessel diseases. 3D modeling was used to plan the optimal combination of guide catheter and microcatheter to successfully treat a patient with multiple splenic artery aneurysms. The team was able to preserve splenic function and minimize the need for repeat angiograms. 3D printing has also been described as an intraoperative reference for robotic resection of a celiac trunk aneurysm. Modeling other visceral vessel aneurysms has been described, including left gastric, right epigastric, gastroduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms.
If this model is of particular interest, you may also want to check out a heart and pulmonary artery tree CT angiogram 3D model uploaded by health_physics, who used the democratiz3D® tool.
3. CT Angiogram of the Brain and Neck
A brain and neck CTA example.
4. Vascular Simulation Model
The use of 3D modeling for vascular simulations can provide training and education in either normal or complex anatomy. . It can also provide the haptic feedback which may be lacking in virtual reality simulations and has been shown to improve anatomical knowledge in students. In addition to provider education, 3D models have been demonstrated as a useful tool for preoperative patient education.
5. External Carotid Artery (ECA) CT Angiogram
External Carotid artery ( ECA): arises from the CCA bifurcation and has 8 branches:
1) Superior thyroid artery- 1st branch of the ECA
2) Lingual artery- arises between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery; supplies tongue with blood supply
3) Facial artery- arises just above the lingual artery & courses along the lower mandible, across the cheek to the angle of the mouth. It continues to course superior along the side of the nose to the inner canthus of the eye; supplies tongue, lips, nose, and lachrymal sac with a blood supply; AKA- Angular artery
4) Occipital artery- arises from the posterior portion of the ECA opposite the facial artery and is an important communicating artery with the muscular branches of the vertebral artery
5) Posterior Auricle artery- arises from the ECA above the digastric & styo-hoid muscles opposite the apex of the styloid process. It has 3 branches which supply the membranous tympani, back of ear, and muscle
6) Ascending Pharyngeal artery- usually arises at the level of the carotid bifurcation and the smallest branch. It has 4 branches that supply the longus muscle, coli muscle, lymph glands, palate, typani, and dura matter
7) Superficial Temporal artery- arises between the neck, lower jaw, and external auditory meatus. It is the smaller of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It bifurcates into the anterior temporal and posterior temporal arteries providing a blood supply to the supraorbital rim and facial muscles. It is used to help identify the ICA from the ECA
8) Maxillary artery- arises at the level of the parotid gland opposite the neck of the condoyle of the lower jaw. It is the larger of the 2 terminating branches of the ECA. It is divided into 3 segments:
1st is the maxillary segment
2nd is the pterygoid segment
3rd is the spheno-maxillary segment
One of its terminating branches is the infraorbital artery
It anastomoses with the ophthalmic artery
It is collateral for brain circulation (Pre-Willisian anastomosis)
6. CTA of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Abdominal aortic aneurysms probably represent the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention. Recent advances in imaging techniques have raised new possibilities in medical imaging regarding aneurysmal disease making size recordings more accurate and reproducible than ever. Here we show an excellent example of a AAA CTA.
7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a CT Angiogram-Created 3D Model
A 3D reconstruction of an AAA. 3D printing has become a useful tool to many clinicians and researchers. A variety of applications currently employ 3D printing for the treatment of aortic vascular disease, including pre-procedural planning, training, and creation of personalized aortic grafts. Advances in the accessibility of 3D printing, as well as continued research in 3D-printed vascular networks, has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of aortic diseases.
8. Stunning 3D Model of Human "Bovine Arch" Aorta
The term “bovine arch” is widely used to describe a common anatomic variant of the human aortic arch branching. This so-called bovine aortic arch has no resemblance to the bovine aortic arch. A bovine arch is apparent in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of African descent. A related variant, also known as truncus bicaroticus, is the origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic artery but not sharing a true common origin, which occurs in ~9% of the population. Sometimes this can be difficult to distinguish from a common origin because the left common carotid artery arises within 1cm of the origin of the brachiocephalic artery.
Clinical presentation: This common variant is asymptomatic most of the time. In rare cases of head and neck surgery, e.g. tracheostomy, it can be a risk factor for injury and cause complications 4. In combination with an aberrant right subclavian artery it can cause a dysphagia lusoria.
9. CT Scan of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Intraluminal Trombus
A CT scan of an AAA with an intraluminal trombus. The pathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) shows several hallmarks of atherosclerotic and atherothrombotic disease, but comprises an additional, predominant feature of proteolysis resulting in the degradation and destabilization of the aortic wall.
10. CTA of a Human Head and Neck
An excellent example of a neck and head CTA showing the neck vessels. 3D model printing has the potential to become an essential preoperative investigation for surgery on arteriovenous malformations.
1. Collins J, Stern EJ. Chest radiology, the essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781763142. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
2. Atar E, Belenky A, Hadad M et-al. MR angiography for abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms: assessment before endovascular repair in patients with impaired renal function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186 (2): 386-93. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.0449 - Pubmed citation
3. Hangge, P., Pershad, Y., Witting, A. A., Albadawi, H., & Oklu, R. (2018). Three-dimensional (3D) printing and its applications for aortic diseases. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy, 8(Suppl 1), S19.