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A Foot 3D Model and Other Anatomical Models of the Lower Extremities

Angel Sosa

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A Foot 3D Model and Other Anatomical Models of the Lower Extremities

Food 3D Model | embodi3D®

This week we want to share some of the best representations of how embodi3D® members are using democratiz3D® conversions to create a foot 3D model and other skin, tissue, and skeletal features of the lower extremities. Successful 3D (three-dimensional) printing from radiologic images is multidisciplinary; accurate models that represent patient anatomy and pathologic processes require close interaction between radiologists and referring physicians. Preoperative 3D printing of bone structures has expanded planning and navigation of orthopedic procedures.

 

Photo of a 3D foot model created using democratiz3D® software

 

Recently, the American Journal of Roentgenology published a research article on how a 3D printing was used to plan a femoracetabular impingement surgery. 3D printing is also contributing to novel surgical approaches for osteotomies, fracture fixation, and arthroplasties. Three-dimensional printing is an essential tool in the design and testing of complicated or innovative reconstructive surgeries.

 

If you are Interested in lower limb 3D Printing  here are some resources:

 

Dr. Mike has also put together a tutorial on how convert CT scans to 3D-printable bone STL files (in minutes), as well as creating multiple bone model STL files from a single CT scan. Be sure to check these out. We look forward to your uploads!

1. A CT DICOM Dataset Conversion Showing the Bones of the Feet

An excellent example of lower extremity 3D model of bony anatomy and skin surface of the L and R feet, as extracted from a CT DICOM dataset (0.5 mm slice thickness x 250 slices).

 

 

2. An Anatomically Precise 3D-Printed Talus Bone (Available for Free in STL Format)

A 3D model human talus bone was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the talus bone -- a critical component of the ankle. In the attached thumbnails, the talus is shown in white with the rest of the foot bones in clear glass.

 

3. An Incredible 3D-Printed Leg model Showing Femur and Shaft

Coxa vara describes a deformity of the hip where the angle formed between the head and neck of the femur and its shaft (Mikulicz angle) is decreased, usually defined as less than 120 degrees.

Pathology

It can be congenital or acquired. The common mechanism in congenital cases is a failure of medial growth of the physeal plate

Classification

One of the very early classifications proposed by Fairbank in 1928, is often considered most useful from a radiologic point of view. A slight modifcation of this system includes:

idiopathic:

congenital: mild or severe coxa vara, with associated congenital anomalies: see associations

developmental: progressive, usually appearing between the ages of two and six years, with characteristic roentgenologic features

rachitic: usually associated with active rickets

adolescent: secondary to slipped capital femoral epiphysis

traumatic: usually following fracture of the femoral neck (rare in children)

inflammatory: secondary to tuberculosis or other infection

secondary to other underlying bone diseases such as:

osteogenesis imperfecta

cretinism

dyschondroplasia(s)

Paget's disease

osteoporosis

capital coxa vara: occasionally seen in severe osteoarthritis and Legg-Perthes' disease

 

 

 

4. Use This STL File to 3D-Print an Ankle Bone

This whole ankle was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of the ankle bones.

 

 

 

5. View the Intricate Bones of the Calcaneus (Heel Bone) with this CT-Converted STL File

This left calcaneus was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the heel and articular surfaces of the calcaneus in great detail. 

 

 

 

6. 3D-Print a Left Knee Joint Model with this Excellent STL Upload (Converted from CT Scan)

A 3D model of left knee, we can see that  is formed by three bones: the femur, the tibia and the patella. the knee joint is the largest synovial joint and provides the flexion and extension movements of the leg as well as relative medial and lateral rotations while in relative flexion.

 

 

7. Colorized STL Files of the Uploader's Own Lower Leg 

This is an excellent 3D model of the segmented bones from a partial weight bearing CT scan of a healthy 25 year old male.  There is also a model of the outer foot surface (skin) to have the full foot volume.  All bones are  separate as well as combined as a single file.  Shoe size 10.5 for reference.

 

8. A 3D-Printable Distal Tibia Bone (Generated from CT Scan Data)

This 3D printable distal tibia bone from the left leg was generated from real CT scan data and is thus anatomically accurate as it comes from a real person. It shows the detailed anatomy of how the tibia articulates with the talus and distal fibula to form the ankle joint. In the thumbnails, the tibia is shown in white and the rest of the ankle bones in glass.

 

9. A CT-Converted Scan of the Feet,  Showing the Intricate Bone Structure

User mikefazz makes another appearance in our list with this CT scan of a 25-year-old healthy male (himself a few years back) partial weight bearing.  0.9766mm in plane and 0.5mm out of plane resolution.

 

 

 

10. Osteochondroma Detailed in a 3D-Printed Model of the Hip Bone

A 3D model of  a large osteochondroma on the posterior surface of the proximal femur. The popliteal artery is in close proximity to the osteochondroma. 

 

Osteochondroma, the most common benign bone lesion (representing about 45% of all benign bone tumors and 12% of all bone tumors) , is a cartilage- capped bony projection on the external surface of a bone. Usually diagnosed before the third decade, it most commonly involves the metaphyses of long bones, particularly around the knee and the proximal humerus. In general, the lower extremities are more often affected than the upper extremities.

 

Malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma  very rare, occurring in less than 1% of solitary lesions. Pain (in the absence of a fracture, bursitis, or pressure on nerves) and a growth spurt or continued growth of the lesion beyond skeletal maturity are highly suspicious for this complication. Variants of osteochondroma include subungual exostosis, turret exostosis, traction exostosis, bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), florid reactive periostitis, and dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (also known as intraarticular osteochondroma). 

 

 

 

References

 

1. Differential diagnosis of tumors and tumor-like lesions of bones and joints/Adam Greenspan and Wolfgang Remagen. 2007.

 

2. Marro, A., Bandukwala, T., & Mak, W. (2016). Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: a review of the methods and applications. Current problems in diagnostic radiology, 45(1), 2-9.

 

3. Mitsouras, D., Liacouras, P., Imanzadeh, A., Giannopoulos, A. A., Cai, T., Kumamaru, K. K., ... & Ho, V. B. (2015). Medical 3D printing for the radiologist. Radiographics, 35(7), 1965-1988.

 

 

 

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